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Integrating Building Information Models with Geographic Information Systems The Technology Review Umit Isikdag, Prof.Ghassan Aouad Dr. Jason Underwood, Dr. Nigel Trodd
The Problem Exchange of information in an effective way between different types of software that’s used throughout the construction life cycle and in the domain of urban management
Software used through the construction life cycle
The construction industry is composed of many disciplines.
The fragmented nature of the industry has caused many problems relating to information exchange.
Software in used in various phases of construction life cycle needs to interact with other software in use.
Interoperability in Construction Industry: STEP & IFC
To overcome these difficulties;
Generally: In the mid 1980’s a new initiative set up by International Standards Organisation has developed a standard, called STEP -ISO10303 (Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data) to standardise the efforts of exchanging information throughout the product/process life cycle.
In 1994 a group of software vendors founded the International Alliance for Interoperability to develop a commonly agreed STEP compliant model for the construction industry.
The agreed model is called the Industry Foundation Classes and is now maturing
Spatial Databases are databases that are capable of holding vector and raster geographic information models
I am a spatial database I can store vector and raster files and also other relational data models I am a raster file (an air photo) I am a vector file (Building Geometries) I am a RDBMS Table
The architecture of Geographical Information Systems Spatial DBMS Raster and Vector Data Files GIS GATEWAY GIS Web Server Web Services GIS Software Data Conversion Tools GIS APIs Client Applications Client Applications Web Browsers Data Layer
Structure of STEP Description Methods EXPRESS, EXPRESS-G IDEF1x ,NIAM, Integrated Resources Common Model Subsets Application Protocols Meta Models Application Reference Model (Defined by EXPRESS-G) Application Interpreted Model (EXPRESS) Implementation Methods Physical Files Structures(21) File Access Methods(22) Conformance Test assesses the implementation
IFC Schema = The Meta Model Meta Model file is called IFC Schema Meta Model file holds the IFC entities IFC entities contain descriptive information about IfcObjects. Meta Model is defined by EXPRESS The meta model file has the .exp extension ENTITY IfcOrganizationRelationship; Name : IfcLabel; Description : OPTIONAL IfcText; RelatingOrganization : IfcOrganization; RelatedOrganizations : SET [1:?] OF IfcOrganization; END_ENTITY;
IFC Physical File Physical Model file is called IFC file Physical Model file holds the IFC objects Physical Model is defined by STEP Standard Part 21 The physical model file has the .ifc extension #42 = IFCSHAPEREPRESENTATION (#26, 'Axis', 'Curve2D', (#41)); #43 = IFCCARTESIANPOINT ((0., 0.)); #44 = IFCCARTESIANPOINT ((2000., 0.)); #45 = IFCCARTESIANPOINT ((1760.000005364418, 239.999994635582)); #46 = IFCCARTESIANPOINT ((-239.999994635582, 239.999994635582)); #47 = IFCPOLYLINE ((#43, #44, #45, #46, #43)); #48 = IFCARBITRARYCLOSEDPROFILEDEF (.AREA., $, #47);
OCCURENCE OBJECT DATA(.P21) IFC PHYSICAL FILE PROPERTY ATTRIBUTE RELATIONSHIP ASSOCIATION ENTITY CLASS METADATA(.EXP) IFC SCHEMA RELATIONAL DATA MODEL OBJECT DATA MODEL FORMS EXPRESS DATA MODEL LOGICAL LEVEL CONCEPTUAL LEVEL
Express Databases I am an Express Database I can interpret STEP meta models I can store STEP compliant models IFC Meta Model (Schema) (ISO10303) IFC File (ISO10303-P21)
Storing the IFC data in ISO10303 compliant databases
EXPRESS DBMS IFC SCHEMA IFC FILE SDAI DB API Database API Clients XCAD YCAD
Alternative types of architectures Yes Yes, Database Schema Yes/No No Need for the schema No Yes (DB API)/No RDBMS ODBMS Storing IFCs in RDBMS / ODBMS Yes Building.ifc Accessing IFC with APIs EDBMS Building.ifc Data stored in form of.. Yes (DB API) Storing IFCs in EDBMS No IFC Physical File Exchange Need for an API to get information Architecture Type
Conclusion Several Possible System Architectures Physical File Level Database Level Application Level
Database Level :Database Integration Spatial DBMS EXPRESS DBMS API GML to IFC(XSLT) IFC to GML(API) RDBMS API API or GML ODBMS
Application Level Integration 1 Scope: Model Based Construction Focus: Building Information Model EXPRESS DBMS IFC/IFG SCHEMA IFC/IFG File (STEP-P21) SDAI API Database API Clients using IFC and GIS Data Spatial DBMS Raster and Vector Data Files GIS GATEWAY Web Services GIS Client Applications (APIs ,Data Conversion Tools ,GIS Software) GML GML WMS/WFS IFC API Web Services Data Conversion and Transfer Tier GIS Data Conversion API XSLT
Application Level Integration 2 Scope: Urban Management Focus: Geographic Information System EXPRESS DBMS IFC SCHEMA IFC/IFG File (STEP-P21) SDAI API Database API Clients using GIS and IFC Data IFC API Web Services Translation APIs Spatial DBMS Raster and Vector Data Files GIS GATEWAY Web Services GIS Client Applications (APIs ,Data Conversion Tools ,GIS Software) GML GML WMS/WFS
Finally, IFC is a project driven approach for information management IFC enable interoperability through the project life cycle GISs have an infrastructure driven approach GISs enable interoperability in urban modelling and management Urban Planning & Management (GIS) IFC IFC IFC Construction Project Life Cycle (IFC Based Information Systems) Geo-info. Geo-info
New Approaches: Mapping the IFCs to XML Ifc MetaModel (IFC2x.exp) Ifc Model (Building.ifc) Ifc MetaModel XML Schema (IFC2x.xsd) Ifc Model XML (Building.xml)
New Approaches: Mapping the IFCs to XML Ifc MetaModel XML Schema (IFC2x2.xsd) Ifc Model XML (Building.xml) XML Database
Alternative types of architectures Yes/No Building.xml Ifc.xsd New Approach: Storing IfcXML in XMLDB Ifc.xsd Ifc.exp Ifc.exp, Database Schema Ifc.exp Ifc.exp Schema No RDBMS/ ODBMS Storing IFCs in ODBMS / RDBMS Yes Building.ifc Accessing IFC with APIs Building.xml EDBMS Building.ifc Data stored in form of.. Yes (DOM.SAX) New Approach:IfcXML Yes (DB API) Storing IFCs in EDBMS No IFC Physical File Exchange Need for an API to get information Architecture Type