Smart Grid Needs Smart Consumers


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Prof. Philip Johnson from the UHM Information and Computer Sciences department talks about problems with the deployment of the Smart Grid, and how creating Smart Consumers can overcome those problems. Slides from the REIS seminar series at the University of Hawaii at Manoa on 2010-10-14.

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Smart Grid Needs Smart Consumers

  1. 1. The smart grid needs smart consumers Philip Johnson Collaborative Software Development Laboratory Information and Computer Sciences University of Hawaii
  2. 2. Smart grid?
  3. 3. Smart consumers?
  4. 4. Need?
  5. 5. What is the smart grid? (i.e. how does it differ from our current “dumb” grid?)
  6. 6. 1. Accommodate all generation and storage options
  7. 7. 2. Enable new products, services, and markets
  8. 8. 3. Provide power quality for the digital economy.
  9. 9. 4. Optimize asset utilization and operate efficiently.
  10. 10. 5. Anticipate and respond to system disturbances.
  11. 11. 6. Be resilient against attacks and natural disasters.
  12. 12. 7. Enable active participation by consumers.
  13. 13. What is a smart consumer?
  14. 14. 1. Has access to energy data
  15. 15. <ul><li>2. Understands energy concepts </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>3. Can take action to use energy efficiently. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Q: Why do we need smart grids and smart consumers?
  18. 18. Answer 1: Fossil fuels are a problem, globally and locally
  19. 19. Oil production is unlikely to increase forever.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Oil dependent economies have most to lose. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hawaii’s oil addiction <ul><li>Imported oil supplies 90% of Hawaii’s energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most dependent state in the nation. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hawaii’s oil addiction <ul><li>Hawaii imports 51M barrels of oil annually. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14-21 day supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one missed delivery from disaster </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Hawaii’s oil addiction <ul><li>Hawaii energy expenditures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$6.1B (2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average expenditure: $437K per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing by $700M per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of our GDP (3x other states) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Fossil fuels -> increased CO 2 -> increased seawater pH -> coral reef problems. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Fossils fuels -> climate warming -> sea level rise </li></ul>Waikiki after 1m sea rise
  26. 26. Answer 2: HCEI (Why do we need smart grids and smart consumers?)
  27. 27. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative <ul><li>Meet 70% of our energy needs by 2030 through energy efficiency and renewable energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop building fossil fuel plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate 40% of our energy locally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize solar, wind, wave, geothermal energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernize the power grid (smart grid) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. OK, so the smart grid is good. But do we really need smart consumers?
  29. 29. Silver Bullet #1: Just charge more for electricity. “Smart” consumers will result.
  30. 30. However: U.S. economy already has the potential to cost-effectively reduce annual non-transportation energy consumption by 23% by 2020 . $520B investment -> $1.2T savings “ Unlocking energy efficiency in the US Economy”, McKinsey & Co.
  31. 31. Silver Bullet #1 problem: Consumers are not economically rational. We could already reduce our energy costs by 25% if we wanted to.
  32. 32. Silver Bullet #2: Education If we only understood the issues, we’d change.
  33. 33. Information campaigns <ul><li>Geller advertised a 3 hour workshop on energy efficiency in paper. </li></ul><ul><li>40 people attended. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- and post-questionaires indicated the participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>had increased energy literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>were motivated to implement energy conservation. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Results of workshop <ul><li>One month followup revealed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 person lowered temp on hot water heater. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 people put insulating blankets on heater. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 people installed low-flow shower heads. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But all 40 had been given them! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Silver Bullet #2 problem: Information alone does not necessarily lead to behavior change.
  36. 36. Silver Bullet #3: Automation Take away control from the consumer through “smart” appliances and demand response.
  37. 37. Automation: Initial experiences <ul><li>Boulder’s “smart grid city” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of those surveyed did not want demand response installed in their homes. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Automation: Initial experiences <ul><li>Santa Cruz: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Stop Smart Meters Campaign”: Smart meters cause brain tumors, headaches, nausea, dizziness, and sleep disruption. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Automation: Initial experiences <ul><li>Scotts Valley Smart Meter Resistance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart meters emit 5x radiation of cell phone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones are linked to brain tumors... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, smart meters -> 5x brain tumors? </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Silver Bullet #3 problem: Automation interacts with social systems in unpredictable ways. Power utilities have very little experience and are learning the hard way.
  41. 41. Summary <ul><li>The smart grid would be good. </li></ul><ul><li>Smart consumers would also be good. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides need each other. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not obvious how to get there. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The “Smart Consumer” research question: <ul><li>What kinds of information, </li></ul><ul><li>provided in what ways and at what times, </li></ul><ul><li>enables consumers to make </li></ul><ul><li>positive, sustained changes </li></ul><ul><li>in their energy behaviors? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Put another way: <ul><li>What do we need to change about the grid to enable consumers to be smart? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need to change about consumers to enable the grid to be smart? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Two research projects <ul><li>WattDepot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software infrastructure for energy collection, storage, and analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Kukui Cup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “next generation” dorm energy competition </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Why WattDepot? <ul><li>Because no existing system could: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect data from many meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support sub-minute data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate simulation of sensor data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide internet-accessible repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support visualization variety & flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow customization/enhancement or extension (i.e. open source) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need “enterprise” scale, not “home” or “utility” scale. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Architecture Devices Meters WattDepot Sensors WattDepot Server WattDepot Clients HTTP HTTP
  47. 47. Sensors <ul><li>Software to collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface to specific meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store data in server via HTTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed for flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulates vendor-specific code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any platform or language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just needs to output XML over HTTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current implementations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TED 5000 home energy meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veris power meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modbus/TCP meters </li></ul></ul>Sensors Server Clients
  48. 48. Servers <ul><li>Central data repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RESTful HTTP API </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluggable back-end database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data represented as XML or JSON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices represented as Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server-side capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation of sources (virtual sources) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data interpolation </li></ul></ul>Sensors Server Clients
  49. 49. Servers: Virtual Sources <ul><li>Virtual sources combine sub-sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps real-world entities to system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy can be multi-level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But meter clocks may not be synchronized </li></ul>Saunders Hall Floor 2 North Saunders Hall Floor 2 South Saunders Hall Floor 2 Saunders Hall
  50. 50. Servers: Timestamp Problem <ul><li>Unsynchronized clocks cause problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naïve data comparison difficult </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Servers: Data Interpolation <ul><li>Data resampling at arbitrary times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linearly interpolate between data points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solves timestamp problem for virtual sources </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Clients <ul><li>Data extraction & visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any platform or language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using REST or Google Visualization APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current implementations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic visualizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Android mobile application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All independent of data input source </li></ul></ul>Sensors Server Clients
  53. 53. Clients: Heatmap and Gauge
  54. 54. Clients: GeoMap
  55. 55. WattDepot applications <ul><li>Active: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple simulation of Oahu grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software engineering course projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UH Dorm energy repository </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UH Faculty housing project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Skolde sensor fusion project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UH Physics Dept. project </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. WattDepot research issues <ul><li>Appropriate privacy policies for energy data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain anonymity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support aggregate analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for fusion of energy data with environmental and other data types. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate into WattDepot or federate with other repositories? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the API? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make data actionable? </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. The Kukui Cup <ul><li>Research Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to obtain sustained, positive behavioral changes in energy usage amongst freshman college students living in the dorms? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “next generation” dorm energy challenge </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. Research Challenges <ul><li>Freshman dormitory residents do not receive a bill for energy usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No financial incentive to conserve energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual dormitory rooms cannot be metered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No way to isolate individual energy usage, only collective usage (floor-level). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freshmen generally know relatively little about energy issues and their impact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively little a-priori interest. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. Kukui Cup Design Component: Competition <ul><li>Which floor can reduce their energy the most? </li></ul><ul><li>Which student can earn the most Kukui Cup points? </li></ul>
  60. 62. Kukui Cup Design Component: Incentives <ul><li>iPod for grand prize winner </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza parties for winning floors </li></ul><ul><li>T-shirts for participants </li></ul>
  61. 63. Kukui Cup Design Component: Energy Feedback <ul><li>How much power is your floor using? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampled every 15 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much energy did your floor use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the last day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the last week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does this compare to others? </li></ul>
  62. 64. Kukui Cup Design Component: Gaming <ul><li>Point system for activity participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Badge system for “cluster” areas. </li></ul>
  63. 65. Kukui Cup Design Component: Social Media <ul><li>Web application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalized login-protected home page. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facebook: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kukui Cup activities posted to your Wall. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart phone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile interface to website. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 66. Kukui Cup Design Component: Literacy <ul><li>Events/Presentations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Planet Foundation, Sierra Club, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorm room energy audit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 minute energy literacy video episodes </li></ul></ul>
  65. 73. Kukui Cup Research Issues <ul><li>Which design components were effective? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the barriers to adoption? </li></ul><ul><li>Are energy conservation behaviors sustained past the competition? </li></ul><ul><li>How can design components be adapted to residential and office environments? </li></ul>
  66. 74. How you can get involved! <ul><li>Engineering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve the disaggregation problem. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 75. How you can get involved! <ul><li>Computer Science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human computer interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Engineering </li></ul></ul>
  68. 76. How you can get involved! <ul><li>Social Sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics of sustainable energy </li></ul></ul>
  69. 77. How you can get involved! <ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophies </li></ul></ul>
  70. 78. Thanks to our sponsors!
  71. 79.