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Luis Vega from the National Marine Renewable Energy Center describes the technical and economic aspects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Slides from the REIS seminar series at the University …

Luis Vega from the National Marine Renewable Energy Center describes the technical and economic aspects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Slides from the REIS seminar series at the University of Hawaii at Manoa on 2009-10-01.

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  • 1. Luis A. Vega, Ph.D. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) luisvega@hawaii.edu October 1, 2009
  • 2. Mission Facilitate development and commercialization of wave power (WP) devices and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems
  • 3. OTEC Primer • Energy Consumption & Petroleum Resources • OTEC Generalities • US OTEC Program 70s, 80s & 90s • Lessons we should have learned • Environmental Impact Assessment • Present Situation • Next Generation Vega OTEC 3
  • 4. Economic & Energy Indicators 4
  • 5. Petroleum Resources Resources per IEA; API; USGS: R (barrels) Present Consumption: C (barrels/year) R/C = 50 years If China & India maintain Growth 30 years diminishing resources price increases
  • 6. OTEC Primer • Energy Consumption & Petroleum Resources • OTEC Generalities • US OTEC Program 70s, 80s & 90s • Lessons we should have learned • Environmental Impact Assessment • Present Situation • Next Generation Vega OTEC 6
  • 7. OTEC Visionary Perspective • Solar energy absorbed by oceans is 4000 x humanity annual consumption; • Less than 1 % of this energy would satisfy all needs. [@ thermal electric conversion 3 %] Vega OTEC 7
  • 8. Typical Temperature vs. Depth 8 Tropical Oceans
  • 9. OTEC Engineering Perspective • Two ocean layers with T: 20 °C to 25 °C in equatorial waters… heat source and heat sink required to operate heat engine • How to convert to useful form and deliver to user? Vega OTEC 9
  • 10. Energy Carriers OTEC energy could be transported via electrical, chemical, thermal and electrochemical carriers: Presently, all yield costs higher than those estimated for the submarine power cable (< 400 km offshore). Vega OTEC 10
  • 11. Vega OTEC 11
  • 12. Open Cycle OTEC *Surface (Warm) seawater is flash- evaporated in a vacuum chamber resulting low-pressure steam drives turbine-generator; *Cold seawater condenses steam after it has passed through the turbine produces fresh water Vega OTEC 12
  • 13. Open Cycle OTEC 13
  • 14. Closed Cycle OTEC Warm (surface) seawater and Cold (deep) seawater used to vaporize and condense a working fluid, such as anhydrous ammonia, which drives a turbine-generator in a closed loop producing kWh Vega OTEC 14
  • 15. Closed Cycle OTEC 15
  • 16. Hawaii’s Ocean Thermal Resource: Truisms • OTEC could supply all the electricity and potable water consumed in Hawaii, {but at what cost?}; • Indigenous renewable energy resource that can provide a high degree of energy security and reduce GHG emissions. Vega OTEC 16
  • 17. OTEC Primer • Energy Consumption & Petroleum Resources • OTEC Generalities • US OTEC Program 70s, 80s & 90s • Lessons we should have learned • Environmental Impact Assessment • Present Situation • Next Generation Vega OTEC 17
  • 18. US Federal Government (Rephrasing late 70’s to early 80’s OTEC Mandate) By Year 2000 104 MW Installed equivalent to 100 x 100 MW Plants (Capital > $40 x 10 9) Therefore, Must implement optimized designs and industrial facilities for plantships producing OTEC electricity or other energy carriers to be delivered to shore… Vega OTEC 18
  • 19. US Federal Government OTEC Program (70’s –80’s) Hindsight should have used funds ($0.25 x 109) to build at least one “large” plant with off-the-shelve hardware… Vega OTEC 19
  • 20. OTEC Assessment (‘90s) Continuous (24/7) production of electricity and water demonstrated: - MiniOTEC (Hawai’i) - Nauru (by Japanese Companies under Tokyo Electric) - OC-OTEC Experimental Apparatus (Hawai’i) Vega OTEC 20
  • 21. 210 kW OC-OTEC Experimental Plant (Vega et al:1993-1998)
  • 22. Desalinated Water Production (Vega et al: ‘94-’98) 22
  • 23. OTEC Power Output as Function of Control Parameters • Open Cycle Control Parameters: Seawater Mass Flow Rates; Seawater Temperatures & Vacuum Compressor Inlet Pressure • Closed Cycle Control Parameters: Seawater Mass Flow Rates; Seawater Temperatures ; NH3 Mass Flow Rate & Recirculation/Feed Flow Ratio Vega OTEC 23
  • 24. Vega OTEC 24
  • 25. OC-OTEC Power Output vs. Cold Water Temperature 1-minute Averages of 1-sec samples show: Cold Seawater Temperature Oscillation as Signature of Internal Waves ( 3,500m; P 60 minutes; H 50 m) Vega OTEC 25
  • 26. Vega OTEC 26
  • 27. OC-OTEC Power Output vs. Warm Water Temperature 1-minute Averages of 1-sec samples show: Surface Seawater Temperature Variation as Signature of Warmer Water Intrusion driven by Ocean Gyre shed from Alenuihaha Channel between Maui and Hawaii (Big Island) Vega OTEC 27
  • 28. Development Barriers (Hawai’i) Tech. Issues: Need to Build & Operate Pre-Commercial Size Plant Cost Issues: Cost Effective for Size 100 MW Enviro. Issues: Relatively Minimal Political Issues: Need Federal Help… only Hawai’i “benefits” (1/300 citizens) ? Vega OTEC 28
  • 29. Vega OTEC 29
  • 30. OTEC-Vega 30
  • 31. Lessons Learned • Life-Cycle Design • Constructability • System Integration • Capital Cost Vega OTEC 31
  • 32. OTEC Primer • Energy Consumption & Petroleum Resources • OTEC Generalities • US OTEC Program 70s, 80s & 90s • Lessons we should have learned • Environmental Impact Assessment • Present Situation • Next Generation Vega OTEC 32
  • 33. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) • OTEC can be an environmentally benign alternative for the production of electricity and desalinated water in tropical islands • Potentially detrimental effects can be mitigated by proper design Vega OTEC 33
  • 34. Temp. Anomalies & Upwelling Sustained flow of cold, nutrient-rich, bacteria-free deep ocean water could cause: - sea surface temp. anomalies; - biostimulation If and only if resident times in the mixed layer; and, the euphotic zone are long enough Vega OTEC 34
  • 35. Euphotic Zone: Tropical Oceans • The euphotic zone: layer in which there is sufficient light for photosynthesis; • Conservative Definition: 1 % light- penetration depth (e.g., 120 m in Hawaii); • Practical Definition: biological activity requires radiation levels of at least 10 % of the sea surface value (e.g., 60 m in Hawaii). Vega OTEC 35
  • 36. Typical Temperature vs. Depth 36 Tropical Oceans
  • 37. EIA Can OTEC have an impact on the environment below the oceanic mixed layer (sea surface to 100 m) and, therefore, long-term significance in the marine environment? Vega OTEC 37
  • 38. OTEC Return Water • Mixed seawater returned at 60 m depth dilution coefficient of 4 (i.e., 1 part OTEC effluent is mixed with 3 parts of the ambient seawater) equilibrium (neutral buoyancy) depths below the mixed layer; • Marine food web should be minimally affected and sea surface temperature anomalies should not be induced. Vega OTEC 38
  • 39. CO2 Outgassing • CO2 out-gassing (per kWh) from the seawater used for the operation of an OC-OTEC plant is < 0.5% the amount released by fuel oil plants; • The value is even lower in the case of a CC-OTEC plant. Vega OTEC 39
  • 40. Present Situation Vega OTEC 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. Vega OTEC 42
  • 43. Cost of Electricity Production COE ($/kWh) = CC + OMR&R + Fuel (for OTEC zero) {+ Profit – Env. Credit} CC = Capital Cost Amortization (Note.- much higher for OTEC) OMR&R = Operations + Maintenance + Repair + Replacement Vega OTEC 43
  • 44. Vega OTEC 44
  • 45. Vega OTEC 45
  • 46. Vega OTEC 46
  • 47. Case Studies: Hawai’i Kwajalein (RMI) American Samoa
  • 48. Hawai’i Assessment (4Q/07) Presently, Avoided Energy Cost in SOH 0.15 to 0.20 $/kWh [was < 0.06 $/kWh in 90’s] HECO 0.147 (composite values) MECO 0.198 HELCO 0.193 Therefore, OTEC > 50 MW is cost competitive in Hawaii Vega OTEC 48
  • 49. Hawai’i: 100 MW OTEC Plant • Floating platform stationed 10 km offshore, delivering: 800 million kWh/year to the electrical grid 32 million-gallons-per-day (MGD) of water • Up-to-date cost estimates yield electricity produced at a levelized cost below current avoided cost in Hawaii Vega OTEC 49
  • 50. Hawai’i: 100 MW OTEC Plant (’07) • A PPA from the utility at 17 c/kWh includes ample return-on-investment • In addition, at $2 per-thousand- gallons sale price to the Board of Water Supply, revenue is equivalent to a reduction of 3 c/kWh in the cost of electricity production. Vega OTEC 50
  • 51. Hawaii: Updated Assessment • Securing financing , without operational records, remains a daunting challenge; • Reactivate the OTEC Federal program with specific goal of designing and operating a scaled version of a commercial size plant of $25M) ( 5 MW over a 5 year period with annual budgets • Federal Program would show equipment suppliers potential market for the technology, and should lead to design refinement. 51
  • 52. Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) According to USN: COE (May’05-June’06) 10 MW Capacity (diesel gensets) COE ($/kWh) : [0.16 + 0.05] = 0.21 [fuel + OMR&R] Vega OTEC 52
  • 53. Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) • USN willing to issue Power-Purchase- Agreement if COE reduced by at least 10% ( 0.9 x 0.21 = 0.19 $/kWh) Not feasible with 10 MW OTEC Vega OTEC 53
  • 54. American Samoa • ASPA records indicate: Annual Consumption 148.8 million kWh, equivalent to 17,000 kW (17 MW) firm capacity • Fuel Cost of electricity 0.1847 $/kWh Vega OTEC 54
  • 55. American Samoa • ASPA interested in 35 MW “future” additional capacity • Can OTEC produce electricity at a cost comparable to the present Fuel Surcharge of 0.1847 $/kWh ? Vega OTEC 55
  • 56. 35 MW OTEC COE ($/kWh) Capital Cost Loan Term COE [$/kW] [$/kWh] 12,000 ± 20% 8% 0.21 15 years {0.18 to 0.25} Note: 80% CC “ 4.2% 0.15 20 years {0.13 to 0.18} Note: 70% CC 56
  • 57. Samoa: 35 MW OTEC Plant • Floating platform stationed 3 km offshore Fatuasina Pt. , delivering: 280 million kWh/year to the electrical grid 11 million-gallons-per-day (MGD) of water • Cost estimates yield electricity produced at a levelized cost comparable to ASPA’s current Fuel Surcharge Vega OTEC 57
  • 58. 50 MW OC-OTEC Plantship • 414,400 MWh/year • 118,400 m^3/day (desalinated water) Vega OTEC 58
  • 59. Vega OTEC 59
  • 60. OTEC Primer • Energy Consumption & Petroleum Resources • OTEC Generalities • US OTEC Program 70s, 80s & 90s • Lessons we should have learned • Environmental Impact Assessment • Present Situation • Next Generation Vega OTEC 60
  • 61. Energy Carriers Two to three decades from now, would it make sense to produce H2 or NH3 in floating OTEC plantships deployed along Equator? Presently, would need barrel of petroleum fuel at least 7x higher ($400) to be “cost effective” Vega OTEC 61