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Managing the Winds of Change
California Experiences



Dora Nakafuji
University of Hawaii

September 17, 2009




        ...
World Perspective – We’re not alone!




    •   Reduce and mitigate climate change impacts (pollution,
        GHG)
    •...
Overview

• Answers to TEST at end
  of seminar
• Policies Drivers &
  Integration Challenges
• Where we are Today
   – Wi...
Renewable Integration TEST Questions


• What will the future electricity system look like and
  where will renewable reso...
Renewable Portfolio Standards

•   28 states have different mandatory RPS (portfolios mix of resources)
•   Combination of...
Renewable Energy & Climate Change Policies

• A flexible, market-driven policy to ensure that a certain
  amount of renewa...
CA RPS Eligible Technologies

 • Biomass            • Municipal solid waste
 • Biodiesel            conversion

 • Conduit...
Great so what’s the problem?




                               8
A Critical Question

How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable
energy resources onto our power system without
sacr...
Ex. California RPS Projections


                                                     Projected Renewables to Meet Califor...
Ex. Technology – Lay of the Land

                           •   Comprised of multiple utility
                           ...
Components of the Grid

             Emission
RECs         penalties                                        The electricit...
Integration Challenges

•
                                       *Source: EIA
    Constrained and insufficient
    transmi...
A Critical Question

How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable
energy resources onto our power system without
sacr...
Geographic
& Seasonal
Variability of
Wind




          15
Managing the Electrical Grid

•   Decisions are based on a set of conditions
     – Dispatch of energy is based on existin...
Typical Summer Demand with Wind & Solar Gen. Profiles


                                             &             * Typic...
Power (MW)




                                                                                                           ...
A Critical Question

How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable
energy resources onto our power system without
sacr...
Demand Is Met with Different Generating Unit Types


* Intermittent (wind & solar) resources?
                            ...
Managing the Mix

•
                                                              * Typical Summer Month
                 ...
Ideal Situation

              Supply Meets Demand




                           Output of
    MW




                   ...
Problems Encountered

    Supply exceeds                                     Supply does not
    Demand at                ...
Wind Ramps and Impacts on Other Generation

                                  Wind drop off
                              ...
A Critical Question

How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable
energy resources onto our power system without
sacr...
Managing the Mix                2010 Load Duration Curve
                                                                 ...
O p e ra tio n P ro c es s                    Iss u e s

                                                                 ...
Managing the Risks – New Markets & Infrastructure


                                                     •   Traditional p...
Timing & Economic Analysis


                                 0.1

                                0.09
LCOE ($/KWh) - Cur...
Three Pulls – Technology, Market, Policy/Regulatory

Not an overnight process                                  • Character...
Why should WE care? Can we make a difference?




   Signs




                  Current Impacts


                       ...
Today’s Challenges!
                      V90 Largest land based
                      wind turbine to date




          ...
Tomorrow’s Designs


                                           ! "
                                             "




   ...
Increased Data Quality & Confidence

                                            3   *



                      SOLANO



...
Strategic Assessment Approach


Resource Assessment
                              •   Identifies key focus locations for
 ...
Wind Resource Assessment



                                              09 :; .
                                        ...
5
    2                  7

        Solano Vaca-Dixon-
        Contra Costa
        275 MW
        GenCost: $275 M



    ...
Sodar & Tall Tower Monitoring

•   Responds to industry’s need
    to acquire accurate, upper
    atmospheric wind data wi...
Improving Wind Forecasting Capabilities



 Photo of Altamont Pass by Steve Deutsch, 2003

• Conduct research to help
  id...
WindSENSE Project Link Forecasts with Operations


 Goal: Develop Wind SENSE to provide control
 room operators an awarene...
Transform Statistics to Actions

•   Development of a web-portal to             Example of
    access information tracking...
Help Bridge the Gaps between Climate Prediction and
Electricity Industry


•   Translate the potential impact on          ...
Looking at System Solutions


                          Some Wind Industry Challenges in CA:
                          • C...
Developing New Technologies

                                                     Control Surface




                    ...
Points to Consider


• Aging infrastructure – sensors and monitoring
  programs, new materials, technology
• Workforce and...
Making a Difference


•    What will the future electricity
     system look like and where will
     renewable resources ...
References

•   State incentives and news
     – http://www.dsireusa.org/
•   Global & Climate news and renewables
     – ...
Continue to Gain Knowledge & Understanding




 Questions/Comments??
                        Contact Info:

              ...
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Managing the Winds of Change – California Experiences

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Dora Nakafuji from HECO describes her experiences on planning and integrating renewable energy into the California grid, and how Hawaii will deal with those same challenges. Slides from the REIS seminar series at the University of Hawaii at Manoa on 2009-09-17.

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Transcript of "Managing the Winds of Change – California Experiences"

  1. 1. Managing the Winds of Change California Experiences Dora Nakafuji University of Hawaii September 17, 2009 1
  2. 2. World Perspective – We’re not alone! • Reduce and mitigate climate change impacts (pollution, GHG) • Strengthen energy security by reducing dependence on oil • Eliminate fuel poverty by diversifying with environmentally- friendly resources • Support economic growth & competitiveness 2
  3. 3. Overview • Answers to TEST at end of seminar • Policies Drivers & Integration Challenges • Where we are Today – Wind Resources Solano 65 MW – Research & Support Altamont Pass Efforts 562 MW San Gorgonio – Statewide Integration & Pacheco Pass 359 MW Planning 16 MW • 2020 and Beyond? Tehachapi Ranges 710 MW Orange San Diego 36 MW 4 MW *2005 3
  4. 4. Renewable Integration TEST Questions • What will the future electricity system look like and where will renewable resources likely to come from – remote locations, out-of-state? – How do we currently get electricity today, tomorrow, future? • What is needed for the grid to accommodate renewables (technologies/infrastructure, market, regulation)? – What are the drivers and challenges for integration? • What are the impacts of increasing renewable energy penetration on system reliability and dispatchability? – Why all the fuss about integration? • Will the “planned” system last another 30-40 years? – Why is the life span for wind generators, PV systems etc? 4
  5. 5. Renewable Portfolio Standards • 28 states have different mandatory RPS (portfolios mix of resources) • Combination of new Energy Efficiency or Renewable Energy resources 5
  6. 6. Renewable Energy & Climate Change Policies • A flexible, market-driven policy to ensure that a certain amount of renewable energy is included in the portfolio of electricity resources serving a state or country • Ensures that renewable energy technologies (i.e. solar, wind) and the public benefits of these clean technologies be recognized as cost-effective and competitive in the electricity markets. • Helps put the Key Renewable Energy Policy Impacting California 2010 2016 2020 electricity industry on a Accelerated RPS Renewables Renewables (from IEPR / EAP / 20% of generation 33% of generation SB1250/107 path toward Governor’s Response) (~54,000 GWh) (~98,000 GWh) increasing California Solar 3,000 MW of new solar sustainability. Initiative (~5,000 GWh 1) 20% of RPS from biopower 20% of RPS from biopower (~11,000 GWh1) (~20,000 GWh1) State Bioenergy Goal (Executive Order S-06-06) 20% biofuels produced in 40% biofuels produced in California California Governor’s GHG Specific GHG reduction targets allocated to RE will most likely be contained in the Reduction Targets & Climate Action Team Recommendations to the Governor, expected in 2006. AB32 6
  7. 7. CA RPS Eligible Technologies • Biomass • Municipal solid waste • Biodiesel conversion • Conduit hydro • Ocean wave, ocean thermal, tidal current • Fuel cells using • Photovoltaic renewable fuel • Digester gas • Small hydro • Geothermal • Solar thermal electric • Landfill gas • Wind 7
  8. 8. Great so what’s the problem? 8
  9. 9. A Critical Question How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable energy resources onto our power system without sacrificing reliability? Facts of Life: • Mandated Renewable Portfolio Standard (wind, geothermal, biomass, etc) 9
  10. 10. Ex. California RPS Projections Projected Renewables to Meet California Policy Goals ∼ ∼ 000 Renewable Energy Generated Statew ide (' Gap Small Hydro/Ocean Solar PV SolarCSP Biomass G Wh) Geo Wind Data Sources: 2004, CEC Electricity Report which includes all renewables in the State, not just IOUs; 2010 and 2020, PIER Renewables Projections. 10
  11. 11. Ex. Technology – Lay of the Land • Comprised of multiple utility service areas • Mix of generation resources (base, peak, intermediate & intermittent) • More than 124,000 miles of (T&D) power lines with over 2000 substations • Supplies over 294 billion kilowatt-hours per year to 35 million Californians • Electricity generation of over 61,000 MW supply electricity into California’s grid • 30% imported from out of state across high voltage DC lines 11
  12. 12. Components of the Grid Emission RECs penalties The electricity system is a blend of hardware, market competitive and regulated components !# "$ % $& ( $ ') * ! " $& ( +# ' Power purchase , agreements Transmission access ! - &( + $' agreements Energy efficiency Storage or (PV, DG, Physical constraints other regulation DER) services Process constraints 12
  13. 13. Integration Challenges • *Source: EIA Constrained and insufficient transmission and distribution (T&D) infrastructure • Limited peak generating capacity and flexible units • Lack of operating experience at high renewable penetration levels • Abundant in-state renewable resources and aggressive policy for growth, but lacking a “game plan” (RPS) to help prioritize development • Lack of integrated system • Aging workforce & infrastructure!!! 13
  14. 14. A Critical Question How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable energy resources onto our power system without sacrificing reliability? Facts of Life: • Mandated Renewable Portfolio Standard (wind, geothermal, biomass, etc) • Wind, geothermal, biomass…resources have different generation characteristics 14
  15. 15. Geographic & Seasonal Variability of Wind 15
  16. 16. Managing the Electrical Grid • Decisions are based on a set of conditions – Dispatch of energy is based on existing system and market signals conditions (demand) determines dispatch, expertise determines resources committed and response – Desired resource response is deterministic – ON or OFF – If resources do not respond or are insufficient…alternatives are dispatched • Wind and solar add additional variability to the set of conditions used in informing decisions • System operators don’t have a “read” on the prevailing conditions to adequately forecast wind and solar 16
  17. 17. Typical Summer Demand with Wind & Solar Gen. Profiles & * Typical Summer Month 0 & Average System Load Average Wind . Average Solar / . Both wind and solar face intermittency challenges Averaged Solar Generation Averaged Wind Curve Generation Source: IAP CEC/PIER Curve 17
  18. 18. Power (MW) Typical Output Profile for Different Generators 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 15:56:01 15:57:25 15:58:50 16:00:19 Peaker 16:03:17 16:04:49 16:07:40 16:09:13 Base Generation 16:10:35 16:12:00 16:13:33 Time 16:14:58 16:16:30 Intermittent (Wind) 16:17:51 16:19:16 16:20:48 16:22:17 16:23:46 16:25:07 16:26:31 18 16:27:54
  19. 19. A Critical Question How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable energy resources onto our power system without sacrificing reliability? Facts of Life: • Mandated Renewable Portfolio Standard (wind, geothermal, biomass, etc) • Wind, geothermal, biomass…resources have different generation characteristics • Current power systems were not designed to operate with large amounts of differing and variable renewable resources 19
  20. 20. Demand Is Met with Different Generating Unit Types * Intermittent (wind & solar) resources? Use peaking units Typical Daily Demand Profile Cycling Use cycling units MW Baseload Use the most efficient, lowest cost baseload units Midnight 12 noon Midnight Source: HECO IRP 20
  21. 21. Managing the Mix • * Typical Summer Month PLANNED OPS Always striking a 60000 balance between 50000 IMPORTS HYDRO changing demand and Generation (MW) PSH 40000 supply (temporal and WIND SOLAR PV locational variant) 30000 SOLAR CON. • GAS TURBINE 20000 CA loading order 10000 COMB. CYCLE STEAM requires energy BIOMASS GEOTHERMAL efficiency, renewables, 0 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 NUCLEAR clean NG Hour 40000 ACTUAL OPS 35000 IMPORTS HYDRO 30000 Generation (MW) PSH 25000 WIND SOLAR PV 20000 SOLAR CON. 15000 GAS TURBINE COMB. CYCLE 10000 STEAM 5000 BIOMASS GEOTHERMAL 0 NUCLEAR 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 Hour 21
  22. 22. Ideal Situation Supply Meets Demand Output of MW intermittent units (as available) Min & Max output of base (firm) generating units Midnight 12 noon Midnight 22
  23. 23. Problems Encountered Supply exceeds Supply does not Demand at meet demand at minimum load maximum load Excess Energy – curtailed or dumped WE PAY FOR Costly Energy – procured, WE PAY FOR Output of MW THIS intermittent units (as available) Min & Max output of base (firm) generating units Midnight 12 noon Midnight 23
  24. 24. Wind Ramps and Impacts on Other Generation Wind drop off over 15 minutes Flexible unit started to fill gap • Wind (or solar) ramping down • If available - stand-by or reactive units must ramp up to continue to meet demand 3500 Ramp Rate Down Capacity 3000 2500 PSH CA ramping using available (MW/min) 2000 GAS TURBINE STEAM hydro-power 1500 COMB. CYCLE HYDRO (200MW/min limit*) 1000 * Source: HI & CEC 500 0 1 25 49 73 97 121 145 Hours 24
  25. 25. A Critical Question How do we accommodate a large amount of renewable energy resources onto our power system without sacrificing reliability? Facts of Life: • Mandated Renewable Portfolio Standard (wind, geothermal, biomass, etc) • Wind, geothermal, biomass…resources have different generation characteristics • Current power systems were not designed to operate with large amounts of differing and variable renewable resources • When ANY resource is not carefully integrated (planned) onto the power system, the system will be more prone to failures 25
  26. 26. Managing the Mix 2010 Load Duration Curve July 21, 2003 6-9AM 55000 • July 19, 2004 Striking a balance 6-9AM QSS CAISO load, actual, MW 50000 2010X Total Actual L-W-S D1 2010T Total Actual L-W-S between changing 45000 A A8 A1 A4 July 1, 2002 6-9AM May 3. 2004 4-7AM May 3. 2004 demand and supply 40000 A12 B2 A9 F1 8-11 PM February 16, • A1 May 15. 2003 2004 A A1 H2 1-4 AM QSS 00-2AM Do it at the least cost 35000 3 H F2 B3 A11 D2 A3 G1 G4 B6 B1 MW A1 G5 B4 G2 • A5 A2 30000 A14 B5 C3 Do it without sacrificing G3 I1 C1 G G7 G10 G8 June 24, 2004 B7 G9 G11 I3 C2 25000 H3 J2 I2 reliability 4-7PM QSS C4 J1 • 20000 Do it so it can be 15000 B#1 B#2 B#3 B#4 B#5 B#6 B#7 B#8 B#9 B#10 3 sustained 10000 0 2630 5260 7890 10520 13150 15780 18410 21040 23670 26300 Hours * Known system stress conditions Current Paradigm Demand = Supply Emerging Paradigm ∞ Demand = Supply + VariableSupply 0 26
  27. 27. O p e ra tio n P ro c es s Iss u e s 1 Y e ar Unit Dispatch Slower (Years) 700 1 *2 Time Scales for System Planning and Operation C ap a c ity V a lu a tio n 600 500 R e s o u rc e a n d (U C A P , IC A P ) C ap a c ity P la n n in g 3 and 400 MW 300 L o n g -T erm L o a d 200 (R e lia b ility) G row th F o re c as tin g 100 Processes vary across a wide range 3' 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Hour 1 Day 2001 A verag e L o ad vs A verag e W in d 4 * 3 0 ,0 0 0 1 ,6 0 0 1 ,4 0 0 2 5 ,0 0 0 Wind Output (MW) NYISO Load (MW) U n it C o m m itm e n t D a y-a h e a d an d 2 0 ,0 0 0 1 ,2 0 0 an d 1 ,0 0 0 M u lti-D a y ,3 * D a y-A h e ad F o re c a s tin g 1 5 ,0 0 0 80 0 60 0 S c h e d u lin g 1 0 ,0 0 0 40 0 Time Frame 5 ,0 0 0 . *, 35 0 1 J u ly lo ad J u ly w in d 6 A u g u s t lo ad A u g u s t w in d 11 16 Se p te m b e r lo ad Se p te m b e r w in d 21 20 0 0 H our 30 0 0 3 H ou rs 1 *5 H o u r-A h ea d 25 0 0 F o re c a stin g 20 0 0 L o a d F o llo w in g and !* % ( 15 0 0 MW (5 M in u te D is p atc h ) P la n t A c tive P o w e r M a n eu ve rin g a n d 10 0 0 M a n ag e m e n t * 5 500 0 Faster (seconds) 1 61 121 M i n u te s S ep t em b er Mo rn in g A u gu s t Mo rn ing M ay Ev e n in g Oc t ob e r Ev e n in g A p r il A f te rn o on R e a l-T im e an d 10 M inu tes F re q u e n c y a n d A u to n o m o u s P ro te c tio n T ie -L in e R e g u la tio n 5 6(A G C ) 3 2 *1 a n d C o n tro l F u n c tio n s (A G C , L V R T , P S S , G o ve rn o r, V -R eg , e tc .) ! ( 27
  28. 28. Managing the Risks – New Markets & Infrastructure • Traditional processes no longer adequate – new modeling tools Wind Mixed Renewables & and technology specific Wind Hydro Clean Coal information now needed • Increasing reliance on out-of-state and out-of-region renewable Wind resources makes CA dependent Wind on conditions of that state or Wind Wind region (e.g., extended drought or Hydro storm conditions) Geo Geo Wind Wind • Planning and forecasting Wind capability must now include Wind Geo Hydro consideration of climate impacts on the combined output of all in state Bio/PV Wind weather dependent resources - Solar Wind Solar wind, solar, hydro versus only a Geo Solar single resource Wind Wind Solar LOTS OF UNKNOWNS & UNCERTAINTIES 28
  29. 29. Timing & Economic Analysis 0.1 0.09 LCOE ($/KWh) - Current Dollar 0.08 & 32 17/ 0.07 8.00 0.06 7.00 0.05 6.00 0.04 5.00 cents/kWh 4.00 0.03 3.00 0.02 2.00 Wholesale Price - CEC Forecast Wholesale price - CPUC Forecast 0.01 Wind No PTC - current $ Wind with PTC - current $ 1.00 Combined cycle - current $ 0.00 0 Alameda Solano Riverside LA/Kern San San Diego 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Bernardino Year 29
  30. 30. Three Pulls – Technology, Market, Policy/Regulatory Not an overnight process • Characterize renewable resources • Limitations of transmission Significant Need and Technology infrastructure Potential to help build a • Mix of generation resources resilient Future System • Age and lifespan of existing technology • Understanding of new technology • Fit of new technology to existing infrastructure Policy Market • Local state & national energy policy • Renewables incentives & regulatory environment • Cost and demand for new • Power purchase agreements limits, technology terms and conditions • Cost-benefit of new technology • FERC & national policy • Utility structure (deregulated or • Other standards – Environmental, vertical) air quality, energy efficiency • Green energy service credit for renewables 30
  31. 31. Why should WE care? Can we make a difference? Signs Current Impacts Future Impacts 31
  32. 32. Today’s Challenges! V90 Largest land based wind turbine to date Vestas V90, 3 MW 80m tower, 90m rotor B747, 60m wing span 32
  33. 33. Tomorrow’s Designs ! " " # & ') ( " $"% 33
  34. 34. Increased Data Quality & Confidence 3 * SOLANO 7 . • Refines wind resource locations and new development potential • Identifies additional land area for 8 . , wind development 34
  35. 35. Strategic Assessment Approach Resource Assessment • Identifies key focus locations for development Technical Potential • Considers development timeframe and economics for maximum public benefits Economic Potential – Transmission – Environmental Transmission Impact – Other non-energy benefits • Prioritizes renewable and transmission build-out Other Benefits • Integrate solutions for planning needs Prioritized Results 35
  36. 36. Wind Resource Assessment 09 :; . %" < 2 9 :B . 99 % 0:$ . #$ 7 3 9 :B . <- % 2 5 != ( ># $ ? 0 $ 2 3 > 0$@ A 5 4 ? 8 & ). 7 !8 ( 36
  37. 37. 5 2 7 Solano Vaca-Dixon- Contra Costa 275 MW GenCost: $275 M Solano Vaca-Dixon 100 MW GenCost: $100 M San Bernardino Trans Cost: $140 M Etiwanda 280 MW Alameda GenCost: $280 M Contra Costa – Tesla Trans Cost: $34 M 132 MW GenCost: $132 M Riverside 1416 MW GenCost: $1416 M Los Angeles – Kern Pardee – Vincent 2376 MW San Diego GenCost: $2376M Glencliff - Los Trans Cost: $843 M Coches 150 MW GenCost: $150 M Los Angeles – Kern Tehachapi 500 MW GenCost: $500 M Imperial San Diego – Miguel 600 MW 82 MW GenCost: $600 M Trans Cost: $162 M / ) 7 5 37
  38. 38. Sodar & Tall Tower Monitoring • Responds to industry’s need to acquire accurate, upper atmospheric wind data within the operating regime of current wind turbine technologies • Enables wind data to be remotely measured at elevations of 50m to 200m – typical heights of new turbine technologies • Reduces development risk at 7, new sites with wind data substantiated by tall tower and SODAR measurements • Improves wind plant power prediction for energy generation and wind energy forecasting • Industry participation: Calpine, Oakcreek, Enxco 38
  39. 39. Improving Wind Forecasting Capabilities Photo of Altamont Pass by Steve Deutsch, 2003 • Conduct research to help identify and reduce sources of Continue to narrow wind forecasting error gap between observed and predicted power. • Efforts have identified need for coupling field monitoring with modeled wind forecasts to increase accuracy especially during summer seasons where local terrain and thermal heating drive the winds • Effort under DOE engages with the industry to develop and deploy the Wind SENSE forecasting capability into the control room and enable better integration of intermittent renewables - Previous research funded by PIER, CEC - New Wind SENSE effort funded by DOE 39
  40. 40. WindSENSE Project Link Forecasts with Operations Goal: Develop Wind SENSE to provide control room operators an awareness or “sense” of the wind conditions and energy forecasts in their native operating environments • Objectives – Build and enhance California wind forecasting efforts to improve adoption and use of optimal wind forecasting capability – Improve short-term wind energy modeling capabilities with optimally located remote sensor networks (i.e. met towers, SODAR, doppler) providing a 3-D area “sense” – Develop key indicators based on control room organizational knowledge to inform the design for an integrated forecasting interface * DOE funded 40
  41. 41. Transform Statistics to Actions • Development of a web-portal to Example of access information tracking, industry avian trending and monitoring wind observation data development in California linking their • Address CA driven issues from behavior to terrain and avian, community lighting impacts, off shore deep water ground cover. and land use concerns Results translate • Transform Analysis to in locations where wind actionable information for siting needs turbines may be re-sited to have less impact on birds in the area. Funded by CEC/PIER https://eed.llnl.gov/renewable/ 41
  42. 42. Help Bridge the Gaps between Climate Prediction and Electricity Industry • Translate the potential impact on Bringing Different Perspectives Together wind, solar and hydro generationg resources due to climate change • Key Objectives: – Bring climate change considerations to the forefront of utility planning and longer-term electricity infrastructure planning – Work with industry to determine what information is needed (i.e. resolution, type) and how to best utilize climate change results to assess impacts on future planning and validation needs 3500 3500 Source: Ramp Rate Down Capacity 3000 CEC - IAP Ramp Rate Down Capacity 3000 2500 PSH 2500 (MW/min) 2000 GAS TURBINE PSH (MW/min) 2000 STEAM TURBINE GAS 1500 COMB. CYCLE STEAM 1500 HYDRO COMB. CYCLE 1000 HYDRO 1000 500 500 0 10 25 49 73 97 121 145 1 25 49 Hours 97 73 121 145 Hours *Research funded by CEC/PIER 42
  43. 43. Looking at System Solutions Some Wind Industry Challenges in CA: • Climate change uncertainties, Leveraging CA- • Intermittency and integration issues, based expertise to • Long-term RPS siting and planning • Improved turbine performance and developing industry site-tailored designs decision tools/aids Engineering and advance computational capability to convert Data (science) to Knowledge (to deployment) Data to Knowledge Conversion Process 43
  44. 44. Developing New Technologies Control Surface Translational Tab Conventional Control Proposed Control . 3 Patent # 7,028,954 B2 • Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology • Joint industry testing of new low emission, high efficient engine for flex-fuels • Flexible fuels from bio-diesel, ethanol or other synthetic fuels 44
  45. 45. Points to Consider • Aging infrastructure – sensors and monitoring programs, new materials, technology • Workforce and transition management – training, simulations, knowledge extraction • Secure & reliable environment for a commoditize critical infrastructure – modeling of all levels • Un-intended consequences (land use, water, infrastructure) Need to develop new workforce Lots of Opportunities = & new technologies 45
  46. 46. Making a Difference • What will the future electricity system look like and where will renewable resources likely to come from – remote locations, out-of-state? • What are the impacts of increasing renewable energy penetration on Wind resource opportunities system reliability and dispatchability? • UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES: How will our landscape (land use, water use, waste management) change as we accommodate renewables? • Will the “planned” system last another 30-40 years? • Will we change or environment as we change? 46
  47. 47. References • State incentives and news – http://www.dsireusa.org/ • Global & Climate news and renewables – http://www.pewclimate.org/what_s_being_done/in_the_states/rps.cfm • California renewable resource information – http://energy.ca.gov • Other states – Texas: http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_rps-portfolio.htm – New York: http://www.dps.state.ny.us/03e0188.htm – Hawaii: http://www.pewclimate.org/node/6695 47
  48. 48. Continue to Gain Knowledge & Understanding Questions/Comments?? Contact Info: Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning dora.nakafuji@heco.com 48
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