Environmental Indicators: Measuring Urban Development in Mountains of India [Kashinath Vajpai]


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Environmental Indicators: Measuring Urban Development in Mountains of India. Presented by Kashinath Vajpai at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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Environmental Indicators: Measuring Urban Development in Mountains of India [Kashinath Vajpai]

  1. 1. Environmental Indicators: MeasuringUrban Development in Mountains of India Kashinath Vajpai Climate Himalaya Initiative, India info@climatehimalaya.net www.climatehimalaya.net http://chimalaya.org
  2. 2. Developing Urban Settlements Cities in Mountains of India are in the process of expansion Increase in population due to high migration from highland to lowland areas Rapid infrastructure development Two important characteristics: 1. Massive growth in absolute numbers 2. Increasing concentration Rapid population growth, high densities, poverty and high differentials in access to housing, public services and infrastructure led to an increase in vulnerability over last few decades (Aromar R., 2008) India is one of the more vulnerable and risk-prone countries in the world (IFRC 2005)
  3. 3. Urban Development Vs. EnvironmentalIssues High pollution, water scarcity, deteriorating soil, loss of biodiversity and poor agriculture productivity Various disasters, health hazards, deteriorating environmental quality, economic losses Climate change variability increased the frequency and intensity of hazards and the probability of extreme events Degrade the resilience of poor and vulnerable communities Further degrading resilience of in one half of the poor, vulnerable communities (Nicholls, et al 2006). Inadequate provisions of comprehensive and environmental sensitive planning.
  4. 4. The Extent of Problem-Example One of the studies done in India states that ‘the amount of waste generated per capita is estimated to increase at a rate 1-1.33 percent annually and estimated quantity of waste generated by year 2047 would be approx 260 million tons per year, which if not disposed off systematically would require more than 1400 sq.km of land’
  5. 5. Study Objectives To discuss the major environmental concerns in the urban areas of Indian mountains To review and analyze relevant policies and guidelines in urban development and environmental context To develop a set of indicators on various environmental parameters in urban context To analyze city development plans in concurrence with environmental considerations.
  6. 6. Information Areas in the Study Present urban developmental scenario Various environmental threats Increasing climatic variability Policies and programs on environment and urban development Categorization of various pro-environmental measures in areas like water, waste, sanitation, pollution, etc.
  7. 7. Plan: Sustaining Himalayan EcosystemMission  Management and safeguarding Himalayan glaciers and ecosystem  Exchange of information  Develop monitoring network  Community based management of ecosystem  Maintain 2/3rd area under forest
  8. 8. Policies and Plans in Place Reform led urban development program National Urban Renewable Mission (JNNURM) About 60 cities across India and selected one in mountains Missions; the Urban infrastructure and governance, and Basic services to the urban poor The Environment (Protection) Act National Urban Transport Policy National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy Accelerated Urban Water Supply Program Coal Bed Methane Policy Solar Energy Mission Wind Energy Electronic Waste (e-waste) India’s Initiatives towards Energy Security Scheme for BEE Star Rating for office Buildings The National Environment Policy National River Conservation Policy National Lake Conservation Policy
  9. 9. What Policies and Plans Entail National River Conservation Plan (NRCP): Capacity building of ULBs The National Lake Conservation Plan: Restore and conserve the urban and semi urban lakes The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling Rules): Role of ULBs in decentralized waste collection and management The Plastics (manufacture, usage and waste management) rules : Emphasizes in to specific thickness of plastics and procedural recycling. The National Urban Sanitation Policy: Specific sanitation strategy for the cities The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC): Reduce climatic impacts and emphasizes on inter connected issues towards adaptation and mitigation- focus on poor and vulnerable.
  10. 10. Various Environmental Indicators1. Water Resources2. Waste Water3. Solid Waste4. Energy Measures5. Sanitation6. Air Pollution Photo: Joydeep Mukherjee/Sanctuary Photolibrary
  11. 11. Water ResourcesWater Use Regulatory mechanism Recycle and Re-use Judicious use of and Pricing • At house hold level water and • Proper water pricing at • Community places House hold and (schools, hospitals, discouraging excess Commercial level hotels, malls/ markets, water use for • Correct metering etc.) multiple purposes system in place Correcting / • Illegal connection and suction pumps. Rainwater Harvesting Repairing the leakage • Regular monitoring • Roof top rainwater system in existing harvesting water supply system Pumping of Water • Mandatory provisions Operation and • Replace from central for RWH in buildings Maintenance place to the flood plain • Construction of soak areas having proven pits Construction of new capacity of water water lines • Controlled extraction • Incentives and disincentives for RWH
  12. 12. Water ResourceDual Water System Water saving closets Protection/Preservati • Taps on of water bodies Drinking • Flush system • Lake conservations Other purposes • Urinals • Lake protection • EcoSan toilets • Beautification ofDrinking water ponds, lakesavailability • River bank protection Household level safe • Developing the data water supply bases • Monitoring of river Provisions of water in schools and hospitals • Coordination with agencies on water Discouraging bottled bodies monitoring water in common meetings and at personal level
  13. 13. Waste WaterAgriculture and Industrial Municipal waste water Drainage systemeffluents • Proper sewerage • Developing improved Organic pollutants drainage system with disposal and storm water drains Waste water disposal decentralized system • Kuccha to pucca drains treatment • Maintenance of drains Following the norms for discharge of waste water • Planned drainage • Managing the outlet of system surface drains away fromWater quality surveillance water bodies • Integrated sewerageand mitigation system Capacity Building and Surveillance system in place Awareness generation Cost effective solution for • Use of re-modeling • Water use Arsenic, Fluoride, Iron, and and re-construction Biological contamination • Wise water management technologies Dilution of pollutant • Decentralized treatment concentration through ground water recharge Provision of STP and CETP • Re-charge and re-use • Different types of Determine type and migration of pollution • The provision in filtration systems Possible measures for control major sewerage production areas.
  14. 14. Solid Waste ManagementComprehensive solid wastemanagement (SWM) plan Policies and Legislations Municipal Solid waste • Enforcement of policies Industrial solid waste • Basel Convention on minimized use E-waste Toxic waste Waste segregation system Awareness generation and Sanitary land fill Capacity building Organized solid waste management system Bio-medical waste • Household level • Institutional levelComposting • Commercial sector Bio composting • Industrial sector Sorting of waste Landfills and methane production
  15. 15. Energy MeasuresAlternate Energy Renewable energy Energy Efficientmeasures measures Appliances s Bio Mass based • Solar panel • Light Emitting Diode • Solar Lantern • Replacing incandescent Waste based or Bio- bulbs • Solar cooker methanation • Photo voltaic • LED outdoor lightning Use of coal bed • Wind energy methane • CDM and Carbon Bio gas cooking Credits as incentives Standard & labeling program Bio based power generation Improved Supply • Certification of • Conversion industries Traffic light and solar power • Transmission • Certification of • Distribution Buildings Solar roof top- • End use efficiency • Energy efficient building photovoltaic • Research & code applications Development
  16. 16. Urban SanitationToilet /Latrine Awareness generation, Encourage ILCS andconstruction Training and Capacity building • Discourage Improved /adequate • Awareness generation on • Open Defecation household sanitation Sanitation and hygiene system for all • ILCS practices, low cost Community toilets / technical designs • Open defecation (OD) sanitation system and Dry latrine conversion Public toilets
  17. 17. Air PollutionClean Fuel Pollution Control Data base on Indoor CNG, LPG, Measures and Air pollution Encouraging Public • In Slum/EWS area battery/electricity • Major pollution sources operated vehicles, Bio Transport System • Burning of solid waste diesel • Private vehicles • Emissions of CO2, SO2, • Public transport system NOxInventorying key • Consumption of Ozone • Polluting Industries depleting substancesPolluting industries • Non motorized In and around the city Transport – cycles Awareness generation • Facilities for pedestrians and Capacity building All those included in RED category • Household level • Commercial establishments • Industries
  18. 18. Selected Examples Bio-mass based gasifires are being used in states like Bihar, Karnataka, etc. The Kolkata and Mumbai Municipality are under trial for LED and the Mumbai Municipal Corporation has implemented SSP (Slum Sanitation Project) The Delhi Government has made it mandatory to construct Rain Water Harvesting system Solar based common lights, traffic lights, water heaters, energy audits, energy efficient building, CNG buses/Autos, etc. in Delhi In Mizoram –Aizawl, there are more than 10,000 rainwater harvesting (RWH) tanks in individual houses, those were constructed by the residents at their own expense and with the technical support of state government.
  19. 19. Way Forward Need to consider different environmental factors through an inclusive city development planning process Develop the capacities and know how among the authorities, planners and elected representatives on various environmental measures A thorough analysis of environmental concerns in the urban areas Developing a set of practical localized environmental indicators those could be included during city development planning.
  20. 20. Way Forward Comprehensive process of planning by the Urban Local Bodies and Parastatal agencies Smooth delivery of civic amenities, universal access to services, and adequate provisions of basic services to the vulnerable and poor
  21. 21. Thank You