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Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]
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Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians [Marcel Török-Oance]

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Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians (Romania). Presented by Marcel Török-Oance at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, …

Recent changes of the timberline and treeline in the Southern Carpathians (Romania). Presented by Marcel Török-Oance at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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  • 1. Marcel Török-Oance, Rodica Török-Oance, Alexandru Onaca, Florina Ardelean, Mircea VoiculescuThis work was supported by CNCSIS – UEFISCSU, project number PNII – IDEI 1075/2009 and by CNMP, project number PNII – GEOMORF 32-140/2008.
  • 2. • The most massive and highest part of theThe Southern Carpathians Romanian Carpathians • 10 % of the mountain areas lies above 2000 m • The maximum elevation is 2544 m (Moldoveanu Peak, Făgăraş Mountains) •The presence of the vegetation levels: - the alpine level (> 2200 m) - the subalpine level (from treeline to 2200 m) - the coniferous forest level (from 1300-1400 m to around 1800 m) - the deciduous forest level (< 1300-1400 m). •The Carpathians are a very old living space with intense human activity. The most important activity which affect the timberline area is the grazing.
  • 3. The Southern Carpathians have a temperate mountain climate.- the mean annual air temperatures vary between 7°C and –2°C above2100 m (-2.6°C at Omu Peak, 2505m).-the mean annual precipitations values are between 700 mm and 1200 mm o t C The variation of the -1 -1. 5 mean annual air -2 temperature and of the -2. 5 mean annual -3 precipitation at the -3. 5 Omu meteorogical -4 station (2505 m), 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 2 0 ani iS t . V f . O mu 6 1 - 2 6 2 - 2 6 3 - 2 6 4 - 3 6 5 - 3 6 6 - 2 6 7 - 3 6 8 - 2 6 9 - 3 7 0 - 3 7 1 - 3 7 2 - 2 7 3 - 3 7 4 - 3 7 5 - 2 7 6 - 3 7 7 - 2 7 8 - 3 7 9 - 2 8 0 - 3 8 1 - 3 8 2 - 2 8 3 - 3 8 4 - 3 8 5 - 3 8 6 - 2 8 7 - 4 8 8 - 3 8 9 - 2 9 0 - 2 9 1 - 3 9 2 - 3 9 3 - 2 9 4 - 1 9 5 - 3 9 6 - 3 9 7 - 3 9 8 - 2 9 9 - 2 0 0 - 2 1964-2006 interval P p ( mm) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 a ni i 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 St . V f . O mu 127 132 102 105 101 165 115 130 143 159 135 134 157 126 119 129 147 112 103 884 981 678 740 585 404 636 521 652 509 475 102 654 835 961 108 815 944 826 847 440
  • 4. The aim• to detect the changes of the timberline/treeline usingremote sensing data, old vegetation maps and field dataduring the last 50 years The data Old maps: 1:20,000 topogrpaphical maps (1930 - 1953 edition) 1:25,000 topographic maps (1980 edition) Forestry cadastre maps (1:10,000) Airphotos: black and white airphotos (1956 and 1972) color airphotos (2005, 2008) Satelite images: Landsat TM/ETM+ images (1988, 2002 and 2006), SPOT images (2008) Field data (including GPS data)
  • 5. MethodsAt regional scale:- the supervised classification of the Landsat images in order to obtain Landcover maps from different periods.- the change detection method (Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes)- the estimation of changes using Land Change Modeler tool (Idrisi Andessoftware)At local scale:- both visual and GIS analysis based on old and recent cartographicdocuments, airphotos and recent high resolution satellite images (SPOT).-Field data were used:- to differentiate the training sites (more than 300 points for each satellitescene)- for the accuracy assessment of the supervised classification- to identify the vegetation types, the geomorphological present-dayprocesses and the human impact on the timberline/treeline
  • 6. The classification of the satellite images Landsat TM and ETM+ images: For the Retezat – Godeanu Massif: August 1998- August 2006 For the Făgăraş Massif: August 1996- August 2004 1. The mitigation of the topographic effect - the shadows generated by steep slopes exaggerate the difference in reflectance information coming from the same landcover type. Shading is the main problem in using satellite imagery for classification purposes in high mountain areas. Mitigation of the topographic effect based on DEM Landsat image - Band 4 (NIR) Landsat image - Band 4 (NIR) after the correction The map of analytical hillshading Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Sun azimuth = 137.1989028 degrees Sun elevation angle = 61.8029487 degrees
  • 7. The classification of the satellite images 1. The creation of the spectral signatures for each landcover type - the differentiation of the spectral test areas (training sites) - the creation of the spectral signatures 2. The classification of the satellite images with the maximum likelihood method
  • 8. The validation of the classification demonstrated that the accuracy isbetween 87 and 93%. The most errors were detected in the extremeshadow areas. Because our study is focused only on the timberline/treeline area, we eliminated all the areas below 1400m and we grouped the landcover types in four classes: pastures, shrubs, forests and waters.
  • 9. THE CHANGE DETECTION METHOD Change detection image = Earlier image – Later imageIn all the change detection images we could observe that there are areas withsignificant changes (the values of the pixels were beyond + 2SD or -2SD)
  • 10. THE LAND CHANGE MODELER TOOL (Idrisi software)- is based on cross-tabulation analysis that compares twolandcover images of the same area from different periods of time The gains and losses of the landcover types in Retezat – Godeanu Massif (1988-2004)
  • 11. Net change of the landcover typesin Ţarcu and Godeanu Mountains
  • 12. In the massifs where the pasturage wasvery intense the natural boundaries of theforest domain have changed.The treeline ecoton has been destroyed byburning of the subalpine shrubs and byclearing
  • 13. The intensity of the pasturage activity could beexpressed by the density of the sheepfolds in thealpine area (numbers of sheepfolds/km2).
  • 14. The Godeanu and the Cernei Mountains 1965 (Emm. de Martonne, 1921 2008 2006SPOT, 2.5 m resolution
  • 15. 2008 2008
  • 16. Gains and losses in forests in Tulişa Mountains Gains and losses in shrubs in Tulişa Mountains
  • 17. Muntele Mic Massif
  • 18. Areas with no evident changesThe Retezat Mountains -thefirst national park in Romania(1935).There are no changes of thetimberline.The treeline ecoton is presentand well preserved.There is no advance of theforest because the timberlineis mainly geomorphologicalydetermined.
  • 19. The gains and losses of thelandcover types in Făgăraş Mountains (1986-2000)The Northern The Southern Slope Slope
  • 20. Avalanche paths that penetrate the forest on the northern slope of the Făgăraş Mountains The map of the geomorphological risk in Balea Valley
  • 21. The comparison between the timberline in 1953 and in 2008 on the northern slope of the Făgăraş Mountains 1953SPOT, 2008
  • 22. The gains and losses of the landcover types on the southern slope of the Făgăraş Mountains (1988-2004)SPOT, 2008
  • 23. Comparison between the theoretical (climatic) timberline and the real timberline The Northern SlopeThe Southern Slope
  • 24. The Arjana Massif - the lowest area (1512 m) in Southern Carpathians where subalpine level was identified 1952 1952Airphoto, 2005
  • 25. SPOT, 2008 1952 1.72 haAirphoto, 2005
  • 26. CONCLUSIONS• The human impact in the subalpine and alpine levels, especially thegrazing, has a great contribution in shaping the present day timberlineconfiguration.• In almost all areas with intense pasturage activities the treeline ecotonhas been destroyed and the timberline is 300-400 m lower than thetheoretical (climatic) limit of the forest.• In the areas with abandoned alpine pastures the dominant process is theadvance of the shrubs and spruce seedlings. In some cases we noticedalso the recover of the timberline. At low altitudes this process is moreintense i. e. Arjana Massif.• In the protected areas (Retezat National Park) there are no significantchanges of the timberline. The treeline ecoton is also well preserved.• In the areas where the timberline is a geomorpholgical one, there arealso no important changes (the northern slope of the Fagaraș Mountainsand the Retezat Mountains).• Although there is an obvious trend of the temperature to increase wecould not established if the process of the forest recover is a consequenceof the climatic change
  • 27. In the further studies:- to improve the method for the reducing the topographic effect- to use satellite images with very high resolution- to establish representative test areas for the monitorization of thevegetation changes- to collect climatic data from the timberline area using data loggers THANK YOU !

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