ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE  Lake sediment evidence for long-range transported  atmospheric pollutants on the Tib...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE  Tibetan Plateau  ‘Third Pole’  • North-west one of the most inaccessible    and leas...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE    Lake sediment record                                                              ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Project aims:   To use lake sediments to provide data on the temporal and spatial  ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE                                                  North Lakes                         ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE                     Qinghai Hu                        Keluke Hu                 Ga Ha...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE  Sampling strategy  Multiple sediment and soil cores from each lake and catchment  An...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Results   Core chronologies   Reliable chronologies (except Chuolong Co)   Great va...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Trace metals                                          0                            ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Trace metals   (normalised data for Qinghai)                                       ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Lead Isotopes:    • Lead has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes:            ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Lead isotopes:   Qinghai Hu (North)                                       0        ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Lead isotopes:   Co E (central)                    0                               ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE        Fly-ash particles                                                             ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Trace metals: Mercury fluxes                                                       ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Trace metals:                                                                      ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE               Persistent Organic Pollutants               Fluxes: Qinghai            ...
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE   Conclusions   Lake sediment archives from across the Tibetan Plateau have shown:   ...
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Lake sediment evidence for long-range transported atmospheric pollutants on the Tibetan Plateau [Neil Rose]

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Lake sediment evidence for long-range transported atmospheric pollutants on the Tibetan Plateau. Presented by Neil Rose at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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Lake sediment evidence for long-range transported atmospheric pollutants on the Tibetan Plateau [Neil Rose]

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Lake sediment evidence for long-range transported atmospheric pollutants on the Tibetan Plateau Neil Rose, Handong Yang, Simon Turner, Rick Battarbee Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London Wu Guangjian, Yang Ruiqiang, Wang Xiaoping, Yao Tandong Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Funded by Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  2. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Tibetan Plateau ‘Third Pole’ • North-west one of the most inaccessible and least populated regions on Earth • Presumption of pristine status ‘Water Tower of Asia’ • Source of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Yangtse, Yellow, Mekong and Irrawady Rivers ‘Roof of the World’ • Averages >4000m altitude • Above atmospheric boundary layer: long- range pollutant sources (e.g. intercontinental; hemispheric) Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Lake sediment record Age Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Project aims: To use lake sediments to provide data on the temporal and spatial distribution of atmospherically deposited pollutants (trace metals, POPs, fly-ash particles) across the Tibetan Plateau. Allowing us to: • assess the scale and rates of change of inputs for a suite of contaminants across the region • provide ‘baseline’ data to assess future changes in contamination of Plateau freshwaters and background data for ecological impact studies • undertake preliminary source apportionment for deposited contaminants • determine long-term trends as a context for contemporary ITP monitoring Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE North Lakes Qinghai Hu Keluke Hu Ga Hai Central Lakes Nam Co Cuo Na Cuo E South Lakes Peku Co Cuolong Co Kemen Co Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Qinghai Hu Keluke Hu Ga Hai North 2006 Cuo Na Tso Ur Nam Co Central Chuolong Co Peku Co Kemen Co South 2007 Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Sampling strategy Multiple sediment and soil cores from each lake and catchment Analyses include: Lithostratigraphy (water, organic and carbonate content) Chronologies Sediment geochemistry (40+ elements; XRF) Trace metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn) Persistent organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs) Fly-ash particles (SCPs and IASs) Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  8. 8. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Results Core chronologies Reliable chronologies (except Chuolong Co) Great variety of accumulation rates; sub-decadal resolution Time (AD) 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 0 10 Depth (cm) 20 30 Qinghai TPNA1 Keluke TPNB1 Gaihai TPNC1 40 Cuo Na TPCA3 Cuo E TPCB1 Nam Co TPCC1 Peku Co TPSB1 Kemen Co TPSC1 50 Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  9. 9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Trace metals 0 Pb (µg/g) 10 20 30 0 Pb (µg/g) 10 20 0 5 Pb (µg/g) 10 15 20 25 0 0 0 (Pb) 5 5 5 Northern lakes 10 10 10 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) Depth (cm) 15 15 15 20 20 20 25 25 25 30 TPNA1 30 35 TPNB1 30 TPNC1 35 40 35 Pb (µg/g) Pb (µg/g) Pb (µg/g) 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 0 10 20 30 0 0 0 5 5 10 Central lakes 10 10 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) Depth (cm) 15 15 20 20 20 25 25 30 30 TPCA3 30 TPCB1 TPCC1 35 35 40 Pb (µg/g) Pb (µg/g) Pb (µg/g) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 0 0 0 5 5 10 5 Southern lakes Depth (cm) 15 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) 10 20 10 25 15 30 15 20 35 TPSA1 40 TPSB1 TPSC1 20 25 45 Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  10. 10. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Trace metals (normalised data for Qinghai) Pb/K Pb/Ti Pb/LOI 0 1 2 3 0 10 20 0 0.2 0.4 0 0 0 5 5 5 Pb Depth (cm) 10 10 10 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) 15 15 15 20 20 20 25 25 25 TPNA1 TPNA1 TPNA1 30 30 30 Zn/K Zn/Ti Zn/LOI 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 0 0 5 5 5 Zn 10 10 10 Depth (cm) Depth (cm) Depth (cm) 15 15 15 20 20 20 25 25 25 TPNA1 TPNA1 TPNA1 30 30 30 Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  11. 11. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Lead Isotopes: • Lead has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes: 204Pb (1.4%), 206Pb (24.1%), 207Pb (22.1%), and 208Pb (52.4%). • Ratios of these isotopes varies in different minerals and sources. • 206Pb / 207Pb ratios: Leaded petrol: 1.06 – 1.09 British Pb ore: 1.16 – 1.18 UK coal: 1.16 – 1.19 • Natural Pb ratios in uncontaminated sediments and peats typically 1.2 – 1.5 • Therefore Pb isotope ratio declines with anthropogenic signal. Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Lead isotopes: Qinghai Hu (North) 0 0 2 2 4 4 1950 6 6 1860 8 8 10 10 Sediment depth (cm) 12 12 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 22 22 24 24 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 32 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 206 207 Pb (EF) Pb/ Pb Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  13. 13. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Lead isotopes: Co E (central) 0 0 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 22 22 24 24 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 32 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.19 1.21 206 Pb (EF) Pb/ 207Pb Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Fly-ash particles Qinghai 2010 1990 1970 1950 1930 Cuo Na 1910 0 10 20 30 -2 -1 2010 SCP (no. cm yr ) 1990 1970 (Source: Jim Knighton, Clear Light Image Products, Copyright 2000) 1950 1930 1910 0 1 2 3 -2 -1 SCP (no. cm yr ) No SCPs Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Trace metals: Mercury fluxes Hg (mg/m2yr) Hg (mg/m2yr) Hg (mg/m2yr) 0 10 20 0 10 20 30 40 0 20 40 60 80 2010 2010 2010 Northern lakes 1990 1990 1990 1970 1970 1970 1950 1950 date date date 1930 1930 1950 1910 TPNA1 1910 TPNB1 1930 1890 1890 TPNC1 1910 1870 1870 1850 1850 1890 Hg (mg/m2yr) Hg (mg/m2yr) Hg (mg/m2yr) 0 150 300 450 600 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 2010 2010 2010 Central lakes 2000 1990 1990 1990 1970 1980 1970 1970 1950 1950 date date date 1960 1930 1950 TPCA3 1930 1910 1940 1910 TPCB1 1890 TPCC1 1930 1890 1870 1920 1910 1870 1850 Hg (mg/m2yr) Hg (mg/m2yr) 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 40 2010 2010 Southern lakes 2000 1990 1990 1970 1980 date date 1950 1970 1930 1960 • Significant increase in flux since 1970s 1950 TPSB1 1910 TPSC1 1940 1890 Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  16. 16. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Trace metals: Central South North • Altitudinally enhanced oxidation of GEM to RGM by tropospheric air? • RGM water soluble and hence more easily scavenged and deposited Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  17. 17. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Persistent Organic Pollutants Fluxes: Qinghai 2010 1990 1970 1950Year (AD) 1930 1910 1890 1870 S PCBs S HCHs S DDTs HCB 1850 0 1000 2000 3000 0 100 200 300 400 0 50 100 150 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 ng cm-2 yr-1 • Significant increase in contamination from all sources since 1970s • Some evidence for earlier contamination. Global signal Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE RESEARCH CENTRE Conclusions Lake sediment archives from across the Tibetan Plateau have shown: • Evidence for contamination from hemispheric and global sources. 137Cs (weapons testing), mercury and persistent organic pollutant data • Evidence for additional contamination in the north of the Plateau. Trace metal (e.g. lead), Pb isotope and fly-ash particle data. Regional sources such as Lanzhou? Xining? • Contamination appears to be increasing rapidly. Continued industrial development (China; N. India) Suggests future increase in contamination is likely Furthermore: • Contaminant transport to the region may be exacerbated by changes to monsoonal patterns Global Change and the World’s Mountains. Sept 2010
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