The Physical Characteristics of a Real Tidal
Energy Resource
David Woolf
ERI, North Highland College,Thurso
UHI Millennium...
Gold Rush?
http://www.thecrownestate.co.uk/newscontent/92-pentland-firth-developers.htm
ERI
● Predict environmental impacts of wave & tidal devices
● Address key roadblocks in developing the UK marine renewables se...
MaREE: A capacity building project
● Builds on: Existing expertise in marine & environmental sciences
Current activity and...
Resources and risks
Research staff: Dr. Peter Bowyer
Dr. Lonneke Godijn-Murphy
Dr. Tariq El-Geziry *
Technicians: Soeren H...
Outline of Tidal Stream
Research
• Analysis and GIS Mapping of Low Resolution
Model (POLPRED Orkney Model)
– Lora Jane Dil...
The POLPRED Model
Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory
~950 1*1km grid squares
10 minute intervals
1 year of data
1/120° lat ...
Modelled Tides (POLPRED)
MSc Project of Lora Jane Dillon. POLPRED 1/120 x 1/60 “Orkney Model” under
license from POL.
GIS Representation of Summary Information
Boat Survey and Analysis
Speed variations vs time
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
12:10
12:20
12:30
12:40
12:50
13:00
13:10
13:20
...
• Current strengths can vary over distances
of only 100 metres
• Flood and Ebb Streams can be
asymmetric
• In Strength
• I...
Inner Sound on Flood
Inner Sound on Ebb
How are the hydrodynamics altered
by introducing energy extraction?
If we introduce a tidal fence, significant
current ano...
3 Dimensional Flow
Wave Climate
• Offshore wave climate can
be effectively measured by
satellite altimetry
• At sites such as Pentland
Firth,...
Wave Modelling
Simple case of a uniform 1 metre sea propagating from the western boundary
Remote Sensing Methods
Radial Velocity by SAR ATI (X-SAR /
SRTM). N.B. one colour cycle equates
to a difference in velocit...
Conclusions
1) The Pentland Firth is a genuine resource, but is
also a valued and challenging environment
2) ERI emphasise...
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Physical Characteristics Of A Real Tidal Energy Resource [David Woolf]

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  • The potential market for marine renewable energy is by any standards large. Marine energy technology has the capacity to deliver 15-20% of UK energy needs[1]. It is estimated that in Scotland alone there is 21.5GW of exploitable marine resource and that by 2020 installed wave and tidal energy capacity in Scotland will be in the region of 15,000MW[2]. The level of marine energy development would represent at least £15bn of capital investment in Scotland alone. Estimates of employment in the sector vary between 6,000 and 24,000 by 2015[3]. Globally it is estimated that marine energy technology has the capacity to deliver between £60bn and £190bn of revenues annually requiring global investment in excess of £500bn13.
  • Basics
    20 staff at ERI
    None funded from ‘NHC’ budgets
    Support from - ICT, Library, finance, facilities etc
    Largest group of UHI postgraduate researhers outside SAMS
  • The potential market for marine renewable energy is by any standards large. Marine energy technology has the capacity to deliver 15-20% of UK energy needs[1]. It is estimated that in Scotland alone there is 21.5GW of exploitable marine resource and that by 2020 installed wave and tidal energy capacity in Scotland will be in the region of 15,000MW[2]. The level of marine energy development would represent at least £15bn of capital investment in Scotland alone. Estimates of employment in the sector vary between 6,000 and 24,000 by 2015[3]. Globally it is estimated that marine energy technology has the capacity to deliver between £60bn and £190bn of revenues annually requiring global investment in excess of £500bn13.
  • Basics
    20 staff at ERI
    None funded from ‘NHC’ budgets
    Support from - ICT, Library, finance, facilities etc
    Largest group of UHI postgraduate researhers outside SAMS
  • We can use GIS to provide a useful summary of more detailed information.
  • Physical Characteristics Of A Real Tidal Energy Resource [David Woolf]

    1. 1. The Physical Characteristics of a Real Tidal Energy Resource David Woolf ERI, North Highland College,Thurso UHI Millennium Institute David.Woolf@thurso.uhi.ac.uk
    2. 2. Gold Rush? http://www.thecrownestate.co.uk/newscontent/92-pentland-firth-developers.htm ERI
    3. 3. ● Predict environmental impacts of wave & tidal devices ● Address key roadblocks in developing the UK marine renewables sector Building capacity in the region ● Provide next generation of leaders in marine energy research ● Provide industry a dynamic & enduring R&D base in the locality SuperGen marine Strategic Research Development Grant Offshore Renewable Energy Conversion platforms – Coordination Action (OREC-CA)
    4. 4. MaREE: A capacity building project ● Builds on: Existing expertise in marine & environmental sciences Current activity and partnerships Unique resource potential of the region ● Focus Environmental issues related to marine renewable energy + the socio-economic aspects ● Aims Establish academic leadership in the H&Is in a sector that contributes to Government’s renewable energy targets To develop a sustainable programme of applied and fundamental research (+ associated KE and commercial activity) - Underpinned by strategic partnerships
    5. 5. Resources and risks Research staff: Dr. Peter Bowyer Dr. Lonneke Godijn-Murphy Dr. Tariq El-Geziry * Technicians: Soeren Hoejlund Yen-Fu Chen Dr. Jason McIlvenny ● Tidal resource assessment / Wave climate assessment ● Modelling device-environment physical interaction ● Weather windowing ● Satellite, radar, acoustics and buoys data, GIS /modelling Dr. David Woolf Theme lead PhD researchers: M. Easton - An integrated modelling framework for EIA of large-scale arrays J. Dufaur *- Meteorological forcing of current & sea level anomalies in Pentland Firth G. Marchi *- Tidal races in the Pentland Firth as an obstacle to tidal stream energy development
    6. 6. Outline of Tidal Stream Research • Analysis and GIS Mapping of Low Resolution Model (POLPRED Orkney Model) – Lora Jane Dillon, 2006-7 • Underway ADCP Surveys – Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, 2009 • High Resolution Modelling – Matt Easton, 2009 - (see also PG presentation) – Peter Bowyer, 2010 - • Remote Sensing Methods
    7. 7. The POLPRED Model Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory ~950 1*1km grid squares 10 minute intervals 1 year of data 1/120° lat by 1/60° long 58°N to 59°40'N 04°00'W to 02°00'W Temporal or Spatial Level of tide Speed of current Direction Tidal Diamonds Long term statistics Particle tracking
    8. 8. Modelled Tides (POLPRED) MSc Project of Lora Jane Dillon. POLPRED 1/120 x 1/60 “Orkney Model” under license from POL.
    9. 9. GIS Representation of Summary Information
    10. 10. Boat Survey and Analysis Speed variations vs time 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 12:10 12:20 12:30 12:40 12:50 13:00 13:10 13:20 13:30 13:40 13:50 14:00 14:10 14:20 14:30 14:40 14:50 15:00 15:10 15:20 15:30 15:40 15:50 Currentvelocity Area 1 Area 1 Area 3 Area 4 Area 5 Area 6 Area 7 Area 8 Area 9 Matching data on survey tracks (above) to low-resolution model data (below) Underway ADCP surveys
    11. 11. • Current strengths can vary over distances of only 100 metres • Flood and Ebb Streams can be asymmetric • In Strength • In Position • In Direction • “Bi-directionality” of tidal currents is rare • Asymmetry • Tidal ellipses • Eddies • Vertical shear is mainly (but not always) restricted to near the sea bottom Detailed Characteristics of the Tidal Stream Resource
    12. 12. Inner Sound on Flood
    13. 13. Inner Sound on Ebb
    14. 14. How are the hydrodynamics altered by introducing energy extraction? If we introduce a tidal fence, significant current anomalies are inevitably introduced Large anomalies result from GigaWatt- scale extraction, with diminishing returns Currents → Sedimentation Dynamics → Habitat → Ecology
    15. 15. 3 Dimensional Flow
    16. 16. Wave Climate • Offshore wave climate can be effectively measured by satellite altimetry • At sites such as Pentland Firth, there is a complex interaction of waves with bathymetry and currents •Validated wave model output is essential data for exposed tidal energy sites such as the Pentland Firth
    17. 17. Wave Modelling Simple case of a uniform 1 metre sea propagating from the western boundary
    18. 18. Remote Sensing Methods Radial Velocity by SAR ATI (X-SAR / SRTM). N.B. one colour cycle equates to a difference in velocity component of 4m/s. From Runge et al. (2004) “RASCAL PF”; Courtesy Lucy Wyatt and Jon Side N.B. Waves also! Coastal HF Radar SAR Along Track Interferometry
    19. 19. Conclusions 1) The Pentland Firth is a genuine resource, but is also a valued and challenging environment 2) ERI emphasises observation and development of VALIDATED models 3) Characteristics need to be measured and modelled to scales of 10s of metres 4) ADCP survey methods (and fixed bottom-mounted ADCP) are effective but costly and time-consuming 5) Currents and waves should also be measured by remote sensing methods to extend spatial coverage.

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