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Metropolises and Parks - Uneven spatial development. How to renew the regional actor's loyalty with the territory? [Manfred Perlik]
 

Metropolises and Parks - Uneven spatial development. How to renew the regional actor's loyalty with the territory? [Manfred Perlik]

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Metropolises and Parks - Uneven spatial development. How to renew the regional actor's loyalty with the territory? Presented by Manfred Perlik at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's ...

Metropolises and Parks - Uneven spatial development. How to renew the regional actor's loyalty with the territory? Presented by Manfred Perlik at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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    Metropolises and Parks - Uneven spatial development. How to renew the regional actor's loyalty with the territory? [Manfred Perlik] Metropolises and Parks - Uneven spatial development. How to renew the regional actor's loyalty with the territory? [Manfred Perlik] Presentation Transcript

    • Manfred PerlikMetropolises and Parks – Uneven spatial developmentHow to renew the regional actors loyalty with theterritory?Global Change and the Worlds Mountains.Urban-rural linkages in and around mountain areasPerth, Scotland, 26-30 September 2010
    • Outline1 New spatial and functional dynamics: Metropolisation2. New forms of uneven spatial development3. Selective landscape uses: impact on the Territorial Capital4. How to embed new citizens and keep their loyalty?5. Conclusions
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamicsEuropean macrotendency:• The metropolisation process establishs metropolitan regions which comprehend - densified metropolitan cores, - periurban sprawl,
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamicsEuropean macrotendency:• The metropolisation process establishs metropolitan regions which comprehend - densified metropolitan cores, - periurban sprawl, and – new - - leisure landscapes
    • Lille High individual mobility enables to switch between Ile de Stras-bourg different worlds ... FranceRennesNantes Lyon Bor- deaux Mont- Nice Tou- louse pellier
    • Lille High individual mobility enables to switch between Ile de Stras-bourg different worlds ... FranceRennes ...by multilocalNantes dwelling or far commuting Massif Lyon Bor- Central Alps deaux Mont- Nice Tou- louse pellier
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamics• Switzerland: The urban growth is disproportional since the 1990ies again
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamics Schweiz: Die Alpen als Teil der Metropolregion ZürichMetropolisation = two processesA Metropolitan regions enlarge along the foothills of the mountains and into the large main valleys. = Periurbanisation.
    • Periurban metropolitan areas • Spacious lots, in Switzerland in the pre-alpine cantons • Mountain- or lake-views • Low taxesLac Geneva: Municipalities with view on Mt. Blanc • High reputation Pierre Dessemontet, Martin Schuler, Abram Pointet, EPFL Lausanne/MicroGis, 2009. • Perfect accessibility
    • Two processes B Resort towns in the former peripheries used by multilocal dwelling. München Rosen- heim Basel Zürich Innsbruck Bern Lausanne Bozen Genève TrentoLyon Bergamo Milano Brescia Grenoble Novara Schuler, Dessemontet et al., 2007: Strukturatlas der Schweiz.
    • Two processes B Resort towns in the former peripheries used by multilocal dwelling. München Rosen heim Basel ZürichLeisure landscapes Innsbruckfor residential and out- Berndoor use in a 3-hour Lausanne Bozenride from the perialpine Genève Trentoagglomerations or by Lyonlow cost airline, e.g. Bergamo Milano BresciaLondon – Chamonix Grenoble Novara Schuler, Dessemontet et al., 2007: Strukturatlas der Schweiz.
    • Multilocal Dwelling in Norway (sources: T. Arnesen, T. Flognfeldt)• 50% of houshoulds have access to a 2nd- or 3rd flat• Leisure belt 250-350 km around of Oslo• From “cabin“ (30-60 m2) to “house“(100-250 m2)• Working place & meeting-point for several generationsMultilocal Dwelling Switzerland• Prestigious places• Global Branding (region + design)• 5‘200 permanent residents in St. Moritz 17‘000 in the Upper Engadine >100‘000 in the Upper Engadine in winter
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamics• The enlargement into attractive landscapes (A) is the chance of smaller metropolitan regions to attract high qualified people to become permanent residents.• With the resorts (B) these metropolitan areas have supplementary unique selling positions.• The perception is rural – but education, qualification and many other aspects of lifestyle are urban.• The Alps become a neigbourhood of the perialpine agglomerations: "Alpine gentrification”
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamicsWhat is new?• Periurbanisation is not new. Second homes either. The metropolises integrate the separated productive and recreative areas in their “territory”
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamicsWhat is new?• The functional integration• The peripheral regions are constraint to open to urban ways of life to get the support of the urban majority (innovativeness).
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamicsWhat is new?• The functional integration• The urbanisation of the rural• The urban cores need the rural areas as resources to profile their unique selling position and to attract high qualified people.
    • 1 New spatial and functional dynamicsWhat is new?• The functional integration• The urbanisation of the rural• The “rural” as urban profile• The “re-merging” of work and residence: - In the past we had the functional separation of dwelling and working linked by commuting - Now these functions are combined again – but dis- embedded at alterning places
    • 2. New forms of uneven spatial development• Investment takes places according to regional rankings where high excellent access, high skilled population and belonging to an urban agglomeration offers major credit terms
    • 2. New forms of uneven spatial development• Investment takes places according to regional rankings where high excellent access, high skilled population and belonging to an urban agglomeration offers major credit terms• Demands for dwelling sites rise according to spectacular views, lake-views, climate and quick access
    • 2. New forms of uneven spatial development• Investment takes places according to regional rankings where high excellent access, high skilled population and belonging to an urban agglomeration offers major credit terms• Demands for dwelling sites rise according to spectacular views, lake-views, climate and quick access• Centre-periphery problems get invisible (in classical terms of GDP, personal income and regional purchase power on regional scale)
    • 2. New forms of uneven spatial development• Investment takes places according to regional rankings where high excellent access, high skilled population and belonging to an urban agglomeration offers major credit terms• Demands for dwelling sites rise according to spectacular views, lake-views, climate and quick access• Centre-periphery problems get invisible (in classical terms of GDP, personal income and regional purchase power on regional scale)• Uneven spatial development rises in terms of reputation and in terms of future chances (specific value added of different economic sectors)
    • Inhabitants Wassen/UR Andermatt/UR1900 990 Trajectory/ Trajectoire 818 Trajectory/ Trajectoire Agriculture Agriculture + Army1950 880 Decline in tourism 1231 Decline in tourism Ageing population1970 764 Geriatric services 1589 Few secondary homes External Investment2000 480 1282 (golf, apartments, hotels2009 449 Future: Affordable housing 1270 Future: Land prices for Andermatts work force and rents like in St. Moritz
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial capitalWhat is Territorial capital?• Specific acquisitions and properties achieved during a historic process as a specific trajectory (p.e. Camagni/Capello, 2010)• Especially: Local (tacit) knowledge, food, identity, culture, landscape• Local actor relations (social capital))• Persistance and influence of previous trajectories and social structures (in the sense of Martin/Sunley, Bourdieu and others)• TC has found its way into European regional cohesion policies
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial CapitalWhat is the impact on Territorial Capital?• Leisure regions gain purchasing power by new residents ( Economies of scale: Retailing, personal services, real estate business) ( Economies of scope: Higher quality and higher diversity of services)• But they do not necessarily gain innovative actors ( Wealth people, but mainly consumptive people)
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial CapitalWhat is the impact on Territorial Capital?• The new residential use probably is less less problematic related to direct environmental damages or economic disparities.But there are indicators for a long-running degradation:• Displacement of relatively weak economic sectors (endogene tourism, agriculture)
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial CapitalWhat is the impact on Territorial Capital?• The new residential use probably is less less problematic related to direct environmental damages or economic disparities.But there are indicators for a long-running degradation:• Displacement• Weakening of local actors, interest, knowledge and qualification
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial CapitalIndicators for a long-running degradation:• Displacement• Weakening of local actors, interest, knowledge and qualification• Diminishment of immobile factors (residences are easily to relocate)
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial CapitalIndicators for a long-running degradation:• Displacement• Weakening of local actors, interest, knowledge and qualification• Diminishment of immobile factors• Risk of losing old skills but not maintaining new functions in the long run
    • 3. Selective landscape uses and its impact on the Territorial CapitalIndicators for a long-running degradation:• Displacement• Weakening of local actors, interest, knowledge and qualification• Diminishment of immobile factors• Risk losing old skills but do not gain new functions• Downsizing of public space
    • 4. How to embed new citizens and keep their loyalty?• Efforts to increase the possibilities of local actors and to make of new residents at least "part time actors"• Efforts to renforce the associative character of economy: associations of common interests in landscape use, regional embeddedness and attachment to leisure landscapes• Keep in touch with "expats" as ambassadors for regional interests Ropeway association Malans/GR Association Furka Steam Railway Realp-Oberwald/VS
    • 4. How to embed new citizens and keep their loyalty?• Using special know how of new residents in retirement (intellectual networks, administrative skills, bridging rural urban cleavages)• There are no best practices and no fixed innovation formulas: E.g. Andermatt: the challenge was not to look for an investor but to negotiate with the investor and to run a participative decision process. Local council Andermatt
    • 4. How to embed new citizens and keep their loyalty? But: These measures are only a band-aid to prevent worse! More fundamental changes needed: Questioning of ongoing spatial division in "nice" and "ugly” and in “productive” and “recreative”
    • 4. How to embed new citizens and keep their loyalty? But: These measures are only a patch or band-aid to prevent worse! More fundamental changes needed: Questioning of ongoing spatial division in "nice" and "ugly” and questioning the functional division between productive and consuming activities
    • 5. Conclusions1. Urban-rural linkages today means actually the integration of rural areas into metropolitan areas2. Efforts to overcome this separation should support - the loyalty of residents to become real social actors (at least “part-time actors”) and the - continuation of trajectories also in less populated areas3. The separation in productive vs. consumptive use and nice vs. ugly landscapes weakens the territorial capital and have to be questioned