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Climate-hydrology-ecology interactionsin glacierized river systemsDavid M. Hannah1, L.E. Brown2 and A. M. Milner11School o...
Shrinking glaciers    (Dyurgerov & Meier, 2005)• Growing evidence indicates glaciers shrinking• Glacierized basins highly ...
atmospheric                  local                         energy/ mass circulation                climate                ...
Hydrological response?• Short-term discharge increase (A)• Longer-term discharge decrease (B C)• Weaker compensation effe...
Ecological response? High                                                              Chloroperlidae                     ...
Aims1. To present a novel, alternative glacier river classification   tool (Alpine RIver and Stream Ecosystem = ARISE)2. T...
Alternative glacier river classification (ARISE)• Previous approaches based mainly on water temperature• ARISE uses quanti...
Taillon-Gabiétous basin, Pyrenees• > decade of research               France• 7.7 km2                        Spain• 1800-3...
N      A10m          B  C
Methods: water sourcing              800                                       Distributed                                ...
2002   2003A: glacialB: groundwater                              (Brown, Hannah & Milner, 2009)C: confluence
Methods: macroinvertebrates• 5  0.1m2 Surber samples (250µm  mesh)• Collected at each site bi-weekly• Preserved in 4% for...
A                B                C•   Meltwater contribution = dilute quickflow + distributed glacial
(c)                    25         (a)                                       70                                       60   ...
•   Macroinvertebrates as potential indicators of climate change        (a)                           140                 ...
(b)                      1200                      1000                                         Diamesa                   ...
Response to shrinking glaciers?In the long term:• Decreases in meltwater contributions  increased   taxonomic richness/ d...
Validation in other glacierized basins                                                         350Rob Roy, New Zealand    ...
Validation in other glacierized basinsKårsavagge, nr. Abisko, Sweden                                    Watershed         ...
Validation in other glacierized basinsKårsavagge, nr. Abisko, Sweden   Longitudinal                        No. macroinvert...
Concluding thoughts and future research• Integrated, long-term research into the climate-hydrology-  ecology cascade in ot...
Acknowledgements  NATURAL  ENVIRONMENT  RESEARCH COUNCIL    ABISKO SCIENTIFIC    RESEARCH STATION    THE ROYAL SWEDISH    ...
Climate-hydrology-ecology interactionsin glacierized river systemsDavid M. Hannah1, L.E. Brown2 and A. M. Milner11School o...
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Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems [David Hannah]

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Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems. Presented by David Hannah at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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Transcript of "Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems [David Hannah]"

  1. 1. Climate-hydrology-ecology interactionsin glacierized river systemsDavid M. Hannah1, L.E. Brown2 and A. M. Milner11School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK.2School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK.d.m.hannah@bham.ac.uk
  2. 2. Shrinking glaciers (Dyurgerov & Meier, 2005)• Growing evidence indicates glaciers shrinking• Glacierized basins highly sensitive (most vulnerable) to climate change
  3. 3. atmospheric local energy/ mass circulation climate exchange meltwater generation stream flow and drainage contributions (snow, glacier and groundwater) physico-chemical habitat benthic communities
  4. 4. Hydrological response?• Short-term discharge increase (A)• Longer-term discharge decrease (B C)• Weaker compensation effect  change seasonality• Glacial/ nival  pluvial regime  flashier/ inc. disturbance (Milner, Brown & Hannah, 2009)
  5. 5. Ecological response? High Chloroperlidae Leptophlebiidae (NZ) Nemouridae Leuctridae Heptageniidae Rhyacophilidae Chironominae Limnephilidae Perlodidae Taenioplerygidae Baetidae Simuliidae Empididae Oligochaeta Tipulidae Diamesinae Orthocladiinae esp Diamesa Low (Milner et al., 2001) 0 2 4 6 8 10 Water temperature (T max)
  6. 6. Aims1. To present a novel, alternative glacier river classification tool (Alpine RIver and Stream Ecosystem = ARISE)2. To advance hypotheses concerning impact of climate change on glacierized river system hydrology and ecology3. To identify future research imperatives and directions
  7. 7. Alternative glacier river classification (ARISE)• Previous approaches based mainly on water temperature• ARISE uses quantified water source contributions  different physicochemical habitat  benthic communities• No quantitative relationships between water source (Brown, Hannah & Milner, 2003; 2009) contributions and stream macroinvertebrates1. Effect of reduced meltwater contribution on community structure?2. Individual species response (bioindicators)?3. How vulnerable is biodiversity to shrinking snowpacks and glaciers?
  8. 8. Taillon-Gabiétous basin, Pyrenees• > decade of research France• 7.7 km2 Spain• 1800-3022 masl• steep slopes 30-70°• meadow, above treeline• 5% permanent snow/ ice• 2 glaciers• snowpacks <2700 masl• karst system• hillslope/ alluvial aquifers
  9. 9. N A10m B C
  10. 10. Methods: water sourcing 800 Distributed Quickflow 700 0 Groundwater 100 600 Upper Site Site ASO4 (µeqL ) 500 Site B-1 Site C Subglacial 400 Groundwater 50 distributed2- 50 300 200 100 100 0 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 100 50 0 Dilute snow- and ice-melt Si (ppm) Snow • Water samples:  weekly (high and low flow) at 3  river gauges  monthly samples of groundwater/ hillslope tributaries  snow pits • EMMA  determine water source contributions (Brown, Hannah et al., 2006)
  11. 11. 2002 2003A: glacialB: groundwater (Brown, Hannah & Milner, 2009)C: confluence
  12. 12. Methods: macroinvertebrates• 5  0.1m2 Surber samples (250µm mesh)• Collected at each site bi-weekly• Preserved in 4% formalin, then sorted in the laboratory• Identification to species level, where possible
  13. 13. A B C• Meltwater contribution = dilute quickflow + distributed glacial
  14. 14. (c) 25 (a) 70 60 20 Taxonomic Richness No. EPT Genera 50 15 40 30 10 20 5 y = -50.35x + 79.89 y = -23.25x + 29.93 10 R = -0.769 R = -0.844 0 0(b) 100000 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proportion meltwater 10000Total Abundance Significant increases in: 1000 100 taxonomic richness 10 y = -2.12x + 4.74 total abundance 1 R = -0.855 mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proportion meltwater with decreasing meltwater contributions
  15. 15. • Macroinvertebrates as potential indicators of climate change (a) 140 120 100 Habroleptoides Abundance 80 berthelemyi 60 40 20 (b) 0 350 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 300 250 Perla Abundance 200 grandis 150 100 50 0 (c) 400 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 350 300 Rhithrogena Abundance 250 200 spp. 150 100 50 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proportion meltwater
  16. 16. (b) 1200 1000 Diamesa latitarsis spp. Abundance 800 600 400 200 0(a) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 250 200 Rhyacophila Abundance 150 angelieri 100 50 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proportion meltwater • Potential loss of endemic species  biodiversity and conservation implications
  17. 17. Response to shrinking glaciers?In the long term:• Decreases in meltwater contributions  increased taxonomic richness/ diversity in streams = higher alpha diversity (within-stream)But…• Decreases in meltwater contributions lower habitat heterogeneity = lower beta diversity (between-stream)• Local extinction of some species (e.g. Rhyacophila angelieri) = lower gamma diversity (basin/ region)
  18. 18. Validation in other glacierized basins 350Rob Roy, New Zealand Mean abundance (individuals m ) -2 300 Individuals 250 200 150 100 50 0 300 R1 R2 R3 Hydrobiosis Mean abundance (individuals m ) -2 250 EPT taxa spp. Costachorema spp. 200 Nesameletus austrinus Zelandoperla 150 spp. Zelandobius 100 spp. Deleatidium angustum 50 Deleatidium cornutum 0 100 R1 R2 R3 Mean abundance (individuals m ) Diptera & Coleoptera -2 Neocupira hudsoni grp. Hydora spp. 50 Eukiefferiella spp. Mauridiamesa spp. 0 R1 R2 R3
  19. 19. Validation in other glacierized basinsKårsavagge, nr. Abisko, Sweden Watershed ark B1-B12 al P ion Nat sko Abi K3 f ry o K1 nda K2 K4 Bou K5 K7 K8 K6 K9N 2km Abisko River
  20. 20. Validation in other glacierized basinsKårsavagge, nr. Abisko, Sweden Longitudinal No. macroinvertebrate families Lateral hillslopes/ groundwater
  21. 21. Concluding thoughts and future research• Integrated, long-term research into the climate-hydrology- ecology cascade in other glacierized river basins is vital• Interdisciplinary science is fundamental:  to predict river hydrology and ecology under scenarios of future climate/ variability  to assess the utility of glacierized river systems as indicators of global change  to develop conservation strategies for these fragile ecosystems atmospheric circulation local climate energy/ mass exchange• ARISE useful tool but requires wider evaluation meltwater generation and drainage stream flow contributions (snow, glacier and groundwater)• Shrinking glaciers  high, urgent physico-chemical habitat importance  quantify and model climate-hydrology-ecology links benthic communities
  22. 22. Acknowledgements NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL ABISKO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STATION THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Sarah Cadbury Chris Mellor Barney Smith Debbie Snook
  23. 23. Climate-hydrology-ecology interactionsin glacierized river systemsDavid M. Hannah1, L.E. Brown2 and A. M. Milner11School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK.2School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK.d.m.hannah@bham.ac.uk
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