International conference: ‘Global Change and the Worlds Mountains’                              Perth, Scotland,          ...
IntroductionThe significant part of annual runoff volume of centralTaurus mountain basins in Turkey, which are ataltitudes...
Case Study AreaIn this study, Sarız basin is chosen as case study area. Atthe outlet of Sariz creek, Sarız town is located...
Black Sea                                      İstanbul                          Agean Sea                                ...
As in many high plato settlements, the local economy had to beimproved by providing necessary infrastructure by the public...
Irrigation From Sarız CreekDiversion is 300m u/s from18-17 stream gaugingstationSize of the area planned tobe irrigate d i...
Sariz basin has continental climate, with maximum of 33 oC and theminimum of -24 oC. The land is covered by low bushes and...
Hydro-meteorological Observations The Sariz creek is equipped with discharge measuring station, located at 1550m elevation...
The watershed is covered by snow up to 70% of the winter seasonwhich usually extends from the beginning of January through...
Simulation Model UsedIn this research, snowmelt runoff model (SRM) is used to compute therunoff produced by melting of the...
A.10000Qn+1 = [c Sn.an (Tn + ΔTn ).Sn + cRn.Pn ].         .(1- kn+1)+ Qn.kn+1                                            8...
Model InputsSRM model uses the spatial variation of snow covered area as inputin model improvement. The images obtained by...
2700               2600               2500               2400               2300Altitude (m)               2200           ...
Sıcaklık (C)                                                                                                    -8        ...
600                                 500                                        R² = 0.9431                                ...
Snow Covered Area (%)                                                                                     10              ...
Samples from Satellite data of snow covered,no snow and cloudy parts of the Sarız Basin.
Model OutputsSRM was run for two different cases for the snow melt seasons ofthe years 2004 and 2005. The variables comput...
Hydrograph simulations for March and April of 2004 ve 2005 for case 2.
ConclusionsWith the available data of limited representation of the basincharacteristics, the simulations of the snowmelt ...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Hydroclimatology of Sariz Creek Watershed, Located In Seyhan Basin, And Simulation Of The Snowmelt Runoff Using Remote Sensing And Geographic Information Systems [Ibrahim Gürer]

601 views
562 views

Published on

Hydroclimatology of Sariz Creek Watershed, Located In Seyhan Basin, And Simulation Of The Snowmelt Runoff Using Remote Sensing And Geographic Information Systems (Mountain Watershed Case Study). Presented by Ibrahim Gürer at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
601
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hydroclimatology of Sariz Creek Watershed, Located In Seyhan Basin, And Simulation Of The Snowmelt Runoff Using Remote Sensing And Geographic Information Systems [Ibrahim Gürer]

  1. 1. International conference: ‘Global Change and the Worlds Mountains’ Perth, Scotland, 26-30 September 2010Hydro-climatology Of Sarız Creek Watershed, and Simulation of the Snowmelt Runoff Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems İbrahim Gürer, gurer@gazi.edu.tr İbrahim Ucar, iucar@gazi.edu.tr Gökhan Tasdemir,tasdemirgok@hotmail.com Faculty of Engineering, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
  2. 2. IntroductionThe significant part of annual runoff volume of centralTaurus mountain basins in Turkey, which are ataltitudes above 1200m, and have a great snowpotential, is constituted by melting of the accumulatedsnow in spring months. Modeling of accumulation andmelting of snow is important in view of operatingintegrated water resources of such high altitude basinswhich are recharged by snow melting as efficient andsustainable as possible.
  3. 3. Case Study AreaIn this study, Sarız basin is chosen as case study area. Atthe outlet of Sariz creek, Sarız town is located. Thehistory of Sariz town goes back to 7000 B.C., andlocated at 123km to the east of Kayseri city, the riverbasin covers a surface area of 1410km2, and the meanelevation is 1560m, surrounded by mountains. The maineconomy is animal husbandry and agriculture. Thepopulation is about 12700 people according to 2007census, 8000 live in downtown, but 4610 live in rural area.There is a strong immigration from Sariz town to bigtowns and EU.
  4. 4. Black Sea İstanbul Agean Sea Ankara Kayseri Mediterranean SeaLocation of Sariz Basin Sarız town
  5. 5. As in many high plato settlements, the local economy had to beimproved by providing necessary infrastructure by the public sector,e. i. Turkish State. In this case, Turkish State Hydraulics Works DSIconstructed a weir at about 300m upstream in 1983, to raise thewater level in Sariz creek; of which the annual inflow was basiclyfrom snowmelt floods, and provided the possibility of gravitationalirrigation of 1080 ha. The Sariz town and the villages around use theSariz water during irrigation season starting from the beginning ofMay.To convert dry farming into irrigated farming increases the grainsproduction tenfold. The state also expects to stop immigration andkeep the people in their original land by providing work in localindustry and decreasing the unemployment.
  6. 6. Irrigation From Sarız CreekDiversion is 300m u/s from18-17 stream gaugingstationSize of the area planned tobe irrigate d is 1080 ha.Operated by local farmers. The start of the irrigationseason is mid-April and/orthe 1 st of May. 09.12.2010 6
  7. 7. Sariz basin has continental climate, with maximum of 33 oC and theminimum of -24 oC. The land is covered by low bushes and smalltress of oak and too much erosion at barren surfaces.Sarız Creek watershed is a sub-basin of Seyhan Basin, with thecoordinates of 3827’ - 3841’ N, and 3627’ - 3640’ E. The flow isplanned to be forecasted by simulation of hydrographs of SarızCreek watershed, for the special winters’ of 2004 and 2005 snowmelting seasons (March-April).
  8. 8. Hydro-meteorological Observations The Sariz creek is equipped with discharge measuring station, located at 1550m elevation, labelled DSI 18-17 and operated by Turkish State Hydraulics Works (DSI). In this study the total hydrographs of spring snowmelt flood, which comes during March- April periods of 2004 and 2005 are simulated.Weir, Discharge measuring; 18-17 and Sarız MGİ precipitation stations.
  9. 9. The watershed is covered by snow up to 70% of the winter seasonwhich usually extends from the beginning of January through April.Perennial snow cover area starts to decrease in March and meltsaway completely before the end of April. The main reason to selectthe 2004 and 2005 snow melting periods is the more snowfall duringthese two years.The meteorological data is from the station of Turkish MeteorologicalOffice (DMI) in Sariz located at 1591m elevation. The snow data fromtwo snow courses of Electric Survey Administration (EIEI), labelled as18-K10 located at 1670m and 18-K11 located at 1760m.
  10. 10. Simulation Model UsedIn this research, snowmelt runoff model (SRM) is used to compute therunoff produced by melting of the snow accumulated during winterseason. The rate of melting is computed by using the temperatureindex. Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS)tools are also utilized to obtain more reliable results in a shorter periodof time. The part of the watershed covered by snow can be defined byMODIS sensors put in TERRA and AQUA satellites.SRM model computes the runoff components from the daily snowmeltand rainfall contributions on the watershed, and superimpose them onflow recession curve and convert it to watershed outflow by using thefollowing equation.
  11. 11. A.10000Qn+1 = [c Sn.an (Tn + ΔTn ).Sn + cRn.Pn ]. .(1- kn+1)+ Qn.kn+1 86400WhereQ= Daily mean discharge (m3/s)c= Ratio expressing the losses,runoff coefficients(runoff/precipitation) Cs for snow, Cr forraina= Degree day factor(cm/ C.day)T= Number of degree days (C.day)T= temperature variation due to elevation difference (C)S= Snow covered area / Total areaP= Precipitation contributing flow (cm)A= Basin or area of specific elevation zone(km2)k= Flow recession coefficientn= Order of the daysIt is necessary to measure T, S, and P and also determine theparameters of Cr, Cs, T, critical temperature Tkr, k and lag time L,which are characteristic parameters for a basin and even for climate.
  12. 12. Model InputsSRM model uses the spatial variation of snow covered area as inputin model improvement. The images obtained by MODIS sensors ofTerra and Aqua satellites are utilized to determine the variation ofsnow borders. For SRM analysis two 500m elevation bands wereselected. In forming the recession curve of snow cover, basiclyimages from Terra satellite was used. The Runoff coefficients ; Csand Cr were computed from flow data of flow measuring station AGI18-17.Flow recession coefficient are derived from consecutive daily flowdata of dry-no precipitation periods.To compute the daily snowmelt water (M expressed as cm), degree-day factor (a expressed as cm/0C/day), and daily degree days (Texpressed as oC), are used. Temperature gradient T value isassumed to be 0.65 oC/100m. The critical temperature value is assumed as 0.01 oC. Raincontribution area; RCA was assumed 1 for both 2004 and 2005. Inassessing the lag time, the World Meteorological Organization Studydone by comparative estimates of lag times was utilized.
  13. 13. 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300Altitude (m) 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 Area (km2) The area-elevation curve of the Sariz Basin
  14. 14. Sıcaklık (C) -8 -4 0 4 8 -12 12 16 1 Mart 04 3 Mart 04 5 Mart 04 7 Mart 04 9 Mart 04 11 Mart 04 13 Mart 04 15 Mart 04 17 Mart 04 19 Mart 04 Ortalama Sıcaklık 2004 21 Mart 04 Günler 23 Mart 04 25 Mart 04 Zon A 27 Mart 04 29 Mart 04 31 Mart 04 Zon B 2 Nisan 04 4 Nisan 04 6 Nisan 04 8 Nisan 04Temperature variation during Melting Season 10 Nisan 04 12 Nisan 04
  15. 15. 600 500 R² = 0.9431 SarızMean Precipitation, Port (mm) 400 Tomarza Pınarbaşı 300 R² = 0.9369 200 R² = 0.9741 100 R² = 0.9725 0 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 Altitude, h (m) Annual Winter February March-April Linear (Annual) Linear (Winter) Linear (February) Linear (March-April) Variation of Mean precipitation with altitude in Sarız Basin
  16. 16. Snow Covered Area (%) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 90 0 80 100 1-Mar 3-Mar 5-Mar 7-Mar 9-Mar 11-Mar 13-Mar 15-Mar 17-Mar 19-Mar 21-Mar 23-Mar Zone A Days 25-Mar 27-Mar Zone B 29-Mar 31-Mar 2-Apr 4-Apr 6-Apr 8-Apr 10-Apr 12-Apr 14-Apr 16-AprDepletion of the snow covered area in the Sarız Basin
  17. 17. Samples from Satellite data of snow covered,no snow and cloudy parts of the Sarız Basin.
  18. 18. Model OutputsSRM was run for two different cases for the snow melt seasons ofthe years 2004 and 2005. The variables computed and parametersestimated before the simulation were directly included in analysis.Hydrograph simulations for March and April of 2004 and 2005 for case 1.
  19. 19. Hydrograph simulations for March and April of 2004 ve 2005 for case 2.
  20. 20. ConclusionsWith the available data of limited representation of the basincharacteristics, the simulations of the snowmelt runoff hydrographswere resulted quite satisfactorily. Especially in Case 2, the averagevalues of Cs, Cr and flow recession coefficients helped to improve thehydrograph simulation. If the coefficients and model parameters whichare natural inputs of the SRM simulation are computed from direct fielddata, more successful model simulations can be obtainedAcknowledgmentThis research was supported by SCR of Gazi University, by ProjectContract No 2006 -02
  21. 21. THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE

×