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Central-North-Caucasian Cities in the Field of Attraction between Uplands and Lowlands [Alexander Drozdov]
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Central-North-Caucasian Cities in the Field of Attraction between Uplands and Lowlands [Alexander Drozdov]

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Central-North-Caucasian Cities in the Field of Attraction between Uplands and Lowlands. Presented by Alexander Drozdov at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, …

Central-North-Caucasian Cities in the Field of Attraction between Uplands and Lowlands. Presented by Alexander Drozdov at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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  • 1. Central-North-Caucasian Cities in the Field of Attraction between Uplands and Lowlands Alexander Drozdov and Olga Glezer Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences drozdov2009@gmail.com yalog@rambler.ru
  • 2. Main points1. Territory and objects, origin of the cities2. Two types of the cities: resorts and capitals - history and economy3. Changes in urban-rural linkages4. Tourism: before the 1990s, nowadays, plans for future5. What will be reasonable?
  • 3. The Main Caucasian Ridge is more than 1000 km long
  • 4. The central part of North Caucasus
  • 5. Cities under consideration City Status PopulationCherkessk Capital ~ 117 000Nal’chik Capital ~ 270 000Vladikavkaz Capital ~ 310 000Pyatigorsk Resort > 200 000Yessentuki Resort ~ 81 000Kislovodsk Resort ~ 130 000
  • 6. Active period of the conquest of North Caucasus, 1842-1849
  • 7. Evidence of resorts history.Kislovodsk as a fortification, 1803
  • 8. Resorts, more evidence
  • 9. Kislovodsk, some other evidence, left – 1920, right - 2009
  • 10. Resorts, structure of economy
  • 11. Holiday-makers in sanatoria, thousands of people Years 1960 1990 2000 2005ResortsKislovodsk 163,3 283,0 61,2 106,4Yessentuki 106,6 245,6 28,1 65,3Pyatigorsk 57,9 210,5 33,2 49,6Zhelezno- 42,8 121,2 31,3 56,8vodskTotal 370,5 860,3 153,8 278,1
  • 12. Evidence of capitals history. Nal’chik, XIX, XX, XXI centures
  • 13. Nal’chik (left) and Republic in total, branches of industry (%), 1992
  • 14. Republic in total,economy structure (%), 2009 Metallurgy - 6 Electric energy – 17 Light industry – 4 Food production – 40 Agriculture and others – 33There is no reliable data about tourism – only approximate estimations: for example, theannual number of visitors in El’brus area coming from the cities can turn 150 000 people
  • 15. Evidence of Vladikavkaz history, XIX and XXI centures
  • 16. Changes after the 1990s General: decay of agriculture and industry, aggravation of ethnic problems, complicated migratory processes Specific for: resorts – variation in number of clients but conservation of main function capitals – decrease of heavy industry, generation of conflicts, search of investors
  • 17. Typical streams caused uplands-lowlands tension, before and nowadaysMany thousands of sheep on the way to lowlands
  • 18. The area of tourismdevelopment in 1970-1980
  • 19. Three zones, number of tourists Zones 1999 2003Nortern piedmont 836 000 485 000 (spa-resorts)Montainous 212 000 ?Black sea coast 2 285 000 6 100 000
  • 20. The mountainous zone now - chaotic development
  • 21. There are ambitious plans for 2020: to construct mountain hotels for ~150 000 visitors They can bring to many conflicts withnature conservation,traditional land useetc
  • 22. They can be dangerous due to avalanches, mudflows etc
  • 23. However new plans are developed…
  • 24. It will be reasonable to try to adapt new plans to contemporary social- economical-ecological situation and:1. To understand that in the next 10 years agriculture and heavy industry can’t developed significant2. To do something in the field of tourism (it is probably possible)
  • 25. In the field of tourism1. To continue the main function of spa-resorts, but to expand one-day excursions from there in the mountains to 3-5 days;2. To develop mountain tourism and also recreation of inhabitants of regional capitals and big cities, but: to use landscape planning to reduce conflicts; to organize ecological and social expertise of new development plans; to defend nature reserves from aggressive business; to improve quality of service etc
  • 26. Thank you !

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