Parks, people and traditional knowledge; a challenge for regionalized development [Sebastien Boillat]
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Parks, people and traditional knowledge; a challenge for regionalized development [Sebastien Boillat]

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Parks, people and traditional knowledge; a challenge for regionalized development. Presented by Sebastien Boillat at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth,......

Parks, people and traditional knowledge; a challenge for regionalized development. Presented by Sebastien Boillat at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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  • 1. Parks, people and traditional knowledge; achallenge for regionalized developmentThe case of the Tunari National Park (Bolivia) Sébastien Boillat, Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Switzerland
  • 2. 1. Context2. Ecological outcomes3. Ecosystem management „from within“4. Exploring political ecology5. Conclusions and research agenda
  • 3. Cochabamba department Bolivia 75‟000 people; 350 Quechua communities 11‟000 urban settlers 1Million urban people1. Context
  • 4. Legal framework and enforcement 1962: small protected area above the city; law enforced (1%)1991: whole mountain range (areas above 2750 m)decreted a National Park by Law “Nr.1262”:• Expropriation of uncultivated areas• Ban on livestock breeding and wood cutting• State forestation programme• No new constructions allowed• No consultation, no indemnization, no information
  • 5. 2. Ecological outcomes
  • 6. Biodiversity• 40 plant communities identified, described, mapped Forest (Polylepis besseri) Shrub (Berberis comutata) Scrub (Dodonaea viscosa) Tussock grass Low grass Forbs (Oxalis macachin) (Festuca dolichophylla) (Muhlenbergia peruviana) Plantation (Pinus radiata) Wetland (Plantago tubulosa) Xeric (Puya glabrescens)
  • 7. Diversity of plant communities and land use • Diversity highest in rain-fed cultivation zones "Intermediate" land useNegative effect • intensity (e.g. rain-fed of protection on number of cultivation) corresponds plant to the highest diversitycommunities of ecosystems Park • Ecosystem Gap diversity higher at intermediate land use intensity *probable area effects
  • 8. Loss of traditional knowledge: effect of the Park ? Graph 5.10.: School children that know indicators for weather prediction in Chorojo and Tirani 25 24 20Number of children 15 Chorojo Tirani 10 10 5 5 4 3 2 0 Dot not know Know Know and recreate Source: Chirveches (2006)
  • 9. 3. Ecosystem management: aperspective « from within »Ecosystems = “Places”Pampa Kinray Moq’o Meq’a PuntaLoma K’asa Mayu Kallk’a T’oqoQhochi Ch’anka Monte Churo Phaqcha “Place types” Orqo
  • 10. 240 toponyms 68 toponyms
  • 11. “Inviting the places”“Here the Era Moq‟o, the gulches, or the springs, and all of that, youhave to say it out loud, in Quechua, like this: „Qan qhawarinkitarpusqayquta‟ (please watch over our crop field). (Epifanio Aguilar,43, Tirani) places are living beings“Some places are strong, like those in the highlands, and theyhelp to produce potatoes, oca, barley and oats. (…) We performthe q‟oa so the land produces; the Pachamama is the one whocares for the earth.” (Candelaria Rojas, 34, Chorojo)
  • 12. How a place gets a name “Here is Jatun Mariano, and his younger brother Juch‟uy Mariano, he has his name, and it was always so. So we found it out.” (Ignacio Vargas, 75, yatiri of Chorojo) Don Mariano = Aqorani Peak (4606 m)Dialogue with placesKnowledge as skill(Tim Ingold)
  • 13. Sacred places Khuchi RumiKilla Rumi Sombrerito Orqo Cumbre RumiNegro Jusq‟o Laguna San Juan Asna Ciénaga Kasasani Monte
  • 14. Principles of land use in relation to TEK• Integral, extensive and diversified use• Need to build relationships with “the places” There is a link between traditional knowledge, worldview and an extensively used, diverse landscape• No nature-culture separation• No “wilderness” areas• An “a-dual” cultural landscape
  • 15. … But there are also unsustainable processes Respect grazing circuits or send kids to school ? Plant trees and leave the land to the park ? Fencing? Out of question ! Migrate or build a terrace ?
  • 16. 4. Towards reconciliation? Exploringthe political ecology of the TunariNational Park Co-production of traditional and scientificknowledge lead to valuate diversity at ecosystemlevel Evidence of a cultural landscape to be enhanced
  • 17. Suyus or Municipios ?
  • 18. New paradigm in conservation should solve the problem… Fortress approach « Paper Park » “Nature-society hybrids” (Zimmerer, 2000) Conservation of biodiversity no more autonomous from resource use 20 years old idea Consensus Role of traditional resource use for building in biodiversity managementBio-cultural Cultural Co-diversity landscapes MAB management
  • 19. Stakeholder (actor) mapping 2003 Who is ready to dialogate ?
  • 20. The « reversi game » of conservation Exploring further
  • 21. The « reversi game » of conservation Co-management Fortress No park UN Conserv. 1980International System NGOs Parks Peasant + Government National direction ind. org. TNP authorities Local Env. District Municipality NGO Peasants Peasants Urban pop. (enforced (non-enforced Local zone) zone)
  • 22. The « reversi game » of conservation Consensus No consensus No park UN Conserv. 2000International System NGOs Parks Peasant + Government National direction ind. org. TNP authorities Local Env. District Municipality NGO Peasants Peasants Illegal Urban pop. (enforced Local settlers zone) (non-enforced zone)
  • 23. The « reversi game » of conservation Consensus No consensus No park UN Conserv. 2010International System NGOs Parks Peasant + Government National direction ind. org. TNP authorities Local Env. District Municipality NGO Downscaling conflicts Peasants Peasants Illegal Urban pop. (enforced (non-enforced Local settlers zone) zone)
  • 24. Costs and benefits of the parkBenefits ecological economic political socio- culturalRural – Erosion Ranger jobs Protection -enforced protection Forestry, against tourism urbanizationRural – not - - - -enforcedUrban Erosion Tourism Image of an Recreation protection; « ecological » area water city conservationCosts ecological economic political socio- culturalRural – Biodiversity Loss of land Loss of self- Loss ofenforced and water and grazing determination traditional loss areas knowledgeRural – not (Erosion) Lack of gvt. Legal -enforced support insecurityUrban - Restrictions Conflicts with - on urban dev. rural dwellers
  • 25. Some news from the Tunari …21-06-2007Government deputy: proposes modification oflegal framework to legalize urbanization andsettlements in the area And about the rural communities ?11-12-2007 Los TiemposDepartmental and municipal authorities,university, college of architects, and ecologistsasked the army to militarize the area22-08-2010 El Diario500 hectares of forest burnt in the area near thecity. Inspecting authorities found an illegalcocaine processing plant in the area
  • 26. « Hostage zone » Conflicts linked with urbanization
  • 27. Conclusions We have gained detailed “system” and“target” knowledge that could enable co-management of the Tunari Cordillera Co-management is made impossible bypolitical appropiation of the Tunarilandscape by urban groups “Politics lag” between theory and practice ofconservation Protected areas, as well as theirquestionning, are part of global change (nota response to global change) Political ecology : gain transformationknowledge we need
  • 28. Research agenda Are highlanders actually being empoweredby the current political process ? Who wins, who loses ? A differentiatedapproach Evolving ideologies and perceptions; amulti-stakeholder approach (includingurban groups) Conservation policies, agrarian policies,decentralization ? An institutional approachto legal pluralism
  • 29. ¡ Muchas Gracias !
  • 30. Methods #1Species Plant communitiesVegetation mapping (“ecosystems”)•From the parts to the whole•Observation should not depend on the observer•Knowledge is deduction process
  • 31. Methods #2Observation, Spatial unities Characteristics,contemplation, (toponyms) resourcesrevelation,dreams, tradition•Defining the whole precede defining the parts•Observation depends on the observer•Knowledge is perception skill Traditional activities
  • 32. Fundaments of TEK and SEK Relationships TEK and SEK build on different fundaments, but are not exculsive to each otherPeasants may perceive SEK as a “particular case” or an “extension”of their knowledge, which considers only material relationships