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Varieties of sustainability: The local expression of a global norm [Jörg Balsiger]
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Varieties of sustainability: The local expression of a global norm [Jörg Balsiger]

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Varieties of sustainability: The local expression of a global norm. Presented by Jörg Balsiger at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September …

Varieties of sustainability: The local expression of a global norm. Presented by Jörg Balsiger at the "Perth II: Global Change and the World's Mountains" conference in Perth, Scotland in September 2010.

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  • 1. Varieties of Sustainability:The local expression of a global norm Jörg Balsiger ETH Zurich and University of Geneva
  • 2. ‘Domesticating’ a ‘globalized’ norm ● (In IR), norms are shared beliefs and expectations about what constitutes appropriate behavior in a given situation. ● (In IR), norms emerge from international cooperation, are anchored in ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ legal instruments, and transposed domestically. ● (In IR), theoretical and empirical interest involves whether (compliance) and how (implementation) a norm is applied; rarely a focus on how it is understood. ● The global(ization of the) norm of ‘sustainable development’ - a familiar story of clarity (e.g. guidelines) and ambiguity (e.g. substitutability) ● What can we learn about SD from mountain regions?Global Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 3. What sustainable development? ● Project context: CCES-Mountland (ETH Domain) ● Method: Surveys in six ‘case environments’ for ranking SD indicators Economy Environment Society Agricultural GDP per capita Forest area Forest area for protection of humans/infrastructure Use of forest growing stock Agricultural area Visitors in recreational forests Rural road density Forest growing stock Cultural objects Economic value of water Forest growing stock Farm and forestry employment Public agriculture budget Ecological compensation area Integrated water management Farm and forestry income Protected areas Participatory landscape planning initiatives Firm closures in forestry and Water contamination Associational life agricultureGlobal Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 4. CasesBullet (Agroforestry) Parc Jura Vaudois (Regional Park development) Integralmelioration Visp-Baltschieder- Raron & Brigerbad-Visp-Lalden (Integrated land reform) 3. Rhone Correction, Priority Measure Visp (Integrated Water Landschaftsentwicklungs- Resource Management) konzept Brig-Salgesch (Integrated landscape development)Global Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 5. Hypotheses Case characteristics ● SD dimensions most relevant to the case environment are rated highest ● The narrower the case environment’s thematic focus, the less balanced the SD understanding Political sector ● Environmental indicators will be rated highest by NGOs; economic indicators by the private sector; and social indicators by government ● Government will rate SD dimensions most equally Level ● Environmental indicators will be rated highest by national-level actors; economic indicators by municipal/regional actors ● Who will rate SD dimensions most equally?Global Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 6. Findings – Case characteristics 6 5 Bullet (agroforestry) 4 Parc JV (park development) Environmental, economic, PM Visp (IWRM) 3 IM VBR (land reform) and social indicators most  2 IM BLV (land reform) LEK BS (landscape highly rated in park project 1 planning) 0 Econ Env Soc 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Bullet (agroforestry) SD dimensions most Parc JV (park development)  and least equally PM Visp (IWRM) rated in land reform IM VBR (land reform) IM BLV (land reform) LEK BS (landscape planning) SD BalanceGlobal Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 7. Findings – Political sector 6 NGOs rate environmental 5 indicators highest  4 3 Government Private sector Private sector rates () 2 NGOs economic indicators highest 1 Government rates social  0 Econ Env Soc indicators highest 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Government Government rates SD  Dimensions most equally Private sector NGOs SD BalanceGlobal Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 8. Findings - Level Environmental indicators 6 rated highest by  5 4 Municipal (inter)national level actors Regional 3 Cantonal 2 National International Economic indicators rated 1 highest by municipal &  0 regional actors Econ Env Soc 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 SD dimensions rated more Municipal equally by municipal than by Regional national actors Cantonal (parallel survey with federal National agents shows lower balance than International cantonal actors) SD BalanceGlobal Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010
  • 9. Conclusions ● Significant diversity in local understanding / rating of sustainable development, both in terms of individual indicators and balance among SD dimensions. ● Preliminary results suggest that political sector is a more significant driver of variation in SD understanding than case characteristics or level of government. ● Balanced rating of SD dimensions does not scale up linearly, but the municipal actors rate them more equally than their national counterparts. ● Implications: ‘Principled domestication’ of a global norm through diversity in local expression ?Global Change and the World’s Mountains | Perth, Scotland | 26-30 September 2010