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  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved. Welcome to this NRG Training session. Our topic today is NERC Compliance Policy training. This is part of our Operations and Commercial Compliance program.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • John Belk Aug 18, 2011 NRG Energy, Inc. All rights reserved.

Transcript

  • 1. Teresa Hill INST 5131 Dr. Crawford Conceptualizing the Theories of Instructional Design Contains Proprietary Information -- Do Not Release -- For UHCL. Internal Use Only
  • 2. Purpose
    • To conceptualize the theoretical underpinnings of Instructional Technology.
    • Framing the theories into understandable points of information.
    • Delineate how the theoretical underpinnings align with my philosophical belief within the realm of instruction and learning.
  • 3. Learning and Instructional Design
    • Hypothesis
    • It is my assumption that the field of Instructional Technology incorporates instruction as an approach for relaying information for one to learn. Information can be relayed using a variety of methods, however, it is how one processes the information in order to learn that is the catalyst for how instruction should be designed or relayed.
    Observe the behavior that one exhibits in order to determine if one learned
  • 4. Learning and Instructional Design
    • Learning Defined
    • What does it mean to learn? Robert Gagne (1995) defines learning as a process that leads to change in the learner’s disposition and capabilities that can be reflected in behavior. Similarly, psychological theories use behavior (i.e. human performance) as a determining factor that learning has occurred (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). Definitions of learning vary by learning investigators. Therefore, additional definitions refer to learning as the inclusion of environmental interactions (Driscoll, 1994), learning occurring as a result of experience (mayer, 1982), and learning defined as a change in behavior due to practices or experience (Shuell, 1986).
  • 5. Psychological Foundations
  • 6. Psychological Foundations
    • Behavioral Learning Theory
    • Cognitive Information Processing Theory
    • Schema Theory and Cognitive Load Theory
    • Situated Learning Theory
    • Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
    • Constructivism
    R ules for designing instructional material and activities are derived from learning theories and principles created by learning investigators (Gagne, Wager, Golas, and Keller, 1995) . Learning investigators created these theories in order to analyze how humans learn. The theories are as follows:
  • 7. Understanding of the Theories
    • Behavioral Learning Theory
      • One can observe behavior in order to determine if learning took place.
    • Cognitive Information Processing Theory
      • How information is processed between the time it is discovered and relayed by learner.
    • Schema Theory and Cognitive Load Theory
      • Learners relate new information to old in order to maintain the new knowledge long-term. Introduce new information in small bits.
    • Reiser & Dempsey, 2007
  • 8. Understanding of the Theories
    • Situated Learning Theory
      • Learning is not entirely up to the individual; ones culture and environment contribute to what is learned.
    • Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
      • Learning takes place within the individual (i.e. memories & intentions) and outside the individual (i.e. surroundings) (quote). Gagne’s theory evaluated learning capabilities, internal/external learning conditions, and nine events of instruction that facilitated learning.
    • Constructivism
      • Learning occurs from receiving outside information and is processed by the individual for retention.
    (Reiser & Dempsy, 2007)
  • 9. Aligning the Psychological Theories
  • 10. Aligning the Psychological Theories
    • Philosophical beliefs
    • We all have personal beliefs about how we learn. My personal beliefs
    • on how humans learn:
    • Learning is accrued when relevant information is presented.
    • Learning is obtained through external cues of environment and culture.
    • Learning is a process that takes place when information is needed for survival.
  • 11. Aligning the Psychological Theories
    • I believe learning occurs when one can relate (I.e. experiences, observations) to the information presented and apply the new information to daily activities. This philosophy aligns with Constructivism. Constructivism consist of the individual constructing the new knowledge based on thinking about and interpreting there experience ( Newby, pg. 34)
    • “… Each individual has a unique set of experiences, seen through a unique lens, each individual constructs a unique body of understanding. According to the constructivist perspective, learning is determined by the complex interplay among students’ existing knowledge, social context, and problems to be solved (newby, 34)”
    • Learning is obtained through external cues of environment and culture.
    • Learning is a process that takes place when information is needed for survival.
    1 st philosophy: Learning is accrued when relevant information is presented
  • 12. Learning Environments
  • 13. Learning Environments and Instructional Design
    • Scope
    • Instructional designers design learning environments based on
    • two epistemology perspectives - Positivist and Realist.
    • (insert quotes here)
    • Design of Learning Environments
    • Grounded Design
    • Instructional Design Practices
    • Constructional Design Practices
  • 14. Learner Motivation
  • 15. Learner Motivation
    • Three Levels
    • Three Categories of Influence
    To Learn To Work Self-Motivation Capability Opportunity Motivation
  • 16.
    • Gagne, R., Wager, W., Golas, K., & Keller, J. (2005). Principles of Instructional Design . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.