It is my assumption that the field of Instructional Technology incorporates instruction as an approach for relaying information for one to learn. Information can be relayed using a variety of methods, however, it is how one processes the information in order to learn that is the catalyst for how instruction should be designed or relayed.
Observe the behavior that one exhibits in order to determine if one learned
What does it mean to learn? Robert Gagne (1995) defines learning as a process that leads to change in the learner’s disposition and capabilities that can be reflected in behavior. Similarly, psychological theories use behavior (i.e. human performance) as a determining factor that learning has occurred (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). Definitions of learning vary by learning investigators. Therefore, additional definitions refer to learning as the inclusion of environmental interactions (Driscoll, 1994), learning occurring as a result of experience (mayer, 1982), and learning defined as a change in behavior due to practices or experience (Shuell, 1986).
R ules for designing instructional material and activities are derived from learning theories and principles created by learning investigators (Gagne, Wager, Golas, and Keller, 1995) . Learning investigators created these theories in order to analyze how humans learn. The theories are as follows:
Learning is not entirely up to the individual; ones culture and environment contribute to what is learned.
Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
Learning takes place within the individual (i.e. memories & intentions) and outside the individual (i.e. surroundings) (quote). Gagne’s theory evaluated learning capabilities, internal/external learning conditions, and nine events of instruction that facilitated learning.
Learning occurs from receiving outside information and is processed by the individual for retention.
I believe learning occurs when one can relate (I.e. experiences, observations) to the information presented and apply the new information to daily activities. This philosophy aligns with Constructivism. Constructivism consist of the individual constructing the new knowledge based on thinking about and interpreting there experience ( Newby, pg. 34)
“… Each individual has a unique set of experiences, seen through a unique lens, each individual constructs a unique body of understanding. According to the constructivist perspective, learning is determined by the complex interplay among students’ existing knowledge, social context, and problems to be solved (newby, 34)”
Learning is obtained through external cues of environment and culture.
Learning is a process that takes place when information is needed for survival.
1 st philosophy: Learning is accrued when relevant information is presented