From empire to nation ottomans!

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From empire to nation ottomans!

  1. 1. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey After periods of internal problems and weak rulers ottoman empire appeared to be ready to collapse. incapable sultans created opportunity for power struggles between Janissary commanders, religious experts, and rival minsters Provincial Officials and the Ayans (Land-owning elite) conspired together and cheated tax $$$ from sultan. Took $$$ from already impoverished peasantry.
  2. 2. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey Riots led by artisans began springing about the empire. Less need for local artisans. Ottoman Merchants become dependent on European counter parts. No bueno Because of the lack of internal order, Ottomans lose the Northern Balkans in Eastern Europe. Austrian Hapsburg dynsaty (Ottoman rulers) are overthrown in Hungary
  3. 3. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey Main threat to Ottoman empire survival are… the RUSSIANS!  Military setbacks and Russian Advancements in the black sea pressure Ottomans  Weak alliances with Christian powers further emphasize disorder in the Ottoman Empire. Uprisings in Serbia(1804) break out and are quelled in a few years at a large cost.  Greece revolts against Ottomans in 1820, independence in 1830. Serbian independence in 1867  Balkan wars from Ch.23
  4. 4. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of TurkeyReform and Survival O.E. beats the odds and survived into the 20th century because of two reasons  Divisions between European Powers.  Multiple nations in Europe feared another power would gain to much territory out of O.E. land.  In response Britain Supported the O.E. to prevent Russian control of Istanbul
  5. 5. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of TurkeyReform and Survival Large part of survival was social reform within O.E. Two factions in O.E. politics, those wanting changes more akin to Europe and those wanting to change to previous precedents from early O.E Think Conservatives vs. Liberals First printing press arrives in O.E. territory in 1727
  6. 6. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey Reform and Survival Sultan Selim III takes power Selim III pushed for bolder reforms. His main efforts were focused at reforming the army and administration Angered Janisarry Corp. Selim was killed in a Janissary revolt in 1807.
  7. 7. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of TurkeyReform and Survival Following Selim’s failure Mahmud II triumphed in reforms Mahmud created a secret army with help of European advisors in 1826 Janissary uprising in Istanbul, all were slaughtered by the new secret force. Made Tanzimat reforms to further westernize O.E. Established Diplomatic corps on western lines
  8. 8. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey Reform and Survival Tanzimat Reforms(1839-1876) introduce western education, telegraph lines, and railways. New constitution created based on European prototypes. Artisans suffer further because of the removal of import taxes that protected local producers. Rights for women debated but never were changed
  9. 9. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey Repression and Revolt Tanzimat Reforms did allow the O.E. to resist western aggressors, but created social problems. Western educated bureaucrats and officers began seeing sultanate as barrier to more radical reforms  New western elite clashed with Ulama and the Ayan(conservatives)
  10. 10. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey Repression and Revolt Sultan Abdul Hamid responds to growing westernized population by returning to a despotic absolutism government.  During his reign he nullifies the newly set constitution.  Retains certain freedoms such as the freedom of press Despite all his acts against westernization Hamid pushed for westernization in military arms and techniques Established railways and more telegraphs with German aid.
  11. 11. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of Turkey Repression and Revolt Abdul Hamid’s rule came to an end after an almost bloodless military coup in 1908.  Turkish intellectuals and politicians whom were exiled formed the Ottoman society For Union and Progress in Paris in 1889  O.S.F.U.P.P. wanted to resume far reaching reforms and bring the 1876 constitution back into effect  Sultan was overthrown and created as a religious position
  12. 12. From Empire to Nation: OttomanRetreat and the Birth of TurkeyRepression and Revolt The new elite officers began to quarrel among themselves in factional fighting.  People most affected by the decision to overthrow Sultan were the people of the fertile crescent in Arabia.  Arabians wanted less Turkish power ruling over them, but were further subjugated. Unfortunately their time was limited before WW I
  13. 13. Questions for Candy! What territories did the Ottomans lose? What happened to position of Artisans? Printing press introduced? Describe Mahmud’s reforms. What did Abdul Hamid do to stop westernization? What finished the Ottoman Empire?

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