Chapter 15                     CommunicationsCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All righ...
Overview   Communication Systems and Components     Communication Components     System Maintenance   Procedures for R...
Communication Systems            and ComponentsCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All ri...
Communication Systems                      and Components   Communication components       Base station—a radio that is ...
Communication Systems                       and Components   Communication components       Mobile two-way radios       ...
Communication Systems                  and Components   Communication components       Portable radios (transmitter/rece...
Communication Systems                  and Components   Communication components       Repeater/base station—receives a ...
Communication Systems              and ComponentsCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All ...
Communication Systems                  and Components   Communication components       Cellular telephones    Copyright ...
Communication Systems                   and Components   Radio frequencies—assigned and licensed by    the Federal Commun...
Communication Systems                  and Components   System maintenance       Communication equipment needs to be che...
Communication Systems                  and Components   As technology changes, new equipment    becomes available that ma...
Communication Systems                  and Components   Since EMT-Basics may need to be able to    consult online medical...
Procedure for         Radio CommunicationCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights r...
Procedure for                  Radio Communication   General principles       Radio is on and volume is properly adjuste...
Procedure for                  Radio Communication   General principles       Speak with lips about        2 to 3 inches...
Procedure for                  Radio Communication   General principles     Address the unit being called, then give the...
Procedure for                      Radio Communication   General principles       Speak clearly and slowly, in a monoton...
Procedure for                      Radio Communication   General principles       Courtesy is assumed, so there is no ne...
Procedure for                      Radio Communication   General principles       An EMT-Basic rarely acts alone: Use “w...
Procedure for                   Radio Communication   General principles       When the transmission is finished, indica...
Procedure for                  Radio Communication   Communication with dispatch       Notify the dispatcher when       ...
Procedure for                  Radio Communication   Communication with medical direction       EMT-Basics may need to c...
Procedure for              Radio CommunicationCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rig...
Procedure for                   Radio Communication   After receiving an order for a medication or    procedure (or denia...
Procedure for                  Radio Communication   Communication with receiving facilities       EMT-Basics provide in...
Procedures for               Radio Communication   Standard reporting format       Identify unit and level of provider (...
Verbal Communication   After arrival at the hospital, give a verbal    report to the staff       Introduce the patient b...
Verbal CommunicationCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 29
Interpersonal Communication   General principles       Form a general impression       Interpret the situation       F...
Interpersonal Communication   General principles       You must understand the surroundings       Make and keep eye con...
Interpersonal Communication   General principles       Use language the patient can understand       Be aware of your o...
Interpersonal Communication   Tips for effective communication       Verbalize your support       Be a good listener wh...
Interpersonal Communication   Special populations       If a patient has difficulty hearing, speak clearly        with l...
Interpersonal Communication   Communication with hearing-impaired    patients, non–English-speaking populations,    use o...
Summary   Communication Systems and Components     Communication Components     System Maintenance   Procedures for Ra...
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Chapter 015[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 15 CommunicationsCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1
  2. 2. Overview Communication Systems and Components  Communication Components  System Maintenance Procedures for Radio Communications  Communication with Dispatch  Communication with Medical Direction  Verbal Communication Interpersonal Communication  General Principles  Tips for Effective Communication  Special Populations Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 2
  3. 3. Communication Systems and ComponentsCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3
  4. 4. Communication Systems and Components Communication components  Base station—a radio that is located at a stationary site such as a hospital, mountaintop, or public safety agency Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 4
  5. 5. Communication Systems and Components Communication components  Mobile two-way radios (transmitter/receivers) • Implies a vehicle-mounted device • Mobile transmitters usually transmit at lower power than base stations (typically 20-50 watts) • Typical transmission range is 10-15 miles over average terrain Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 5
  6. 6. Communication Systems and Components Communication components  Portable radios (transmitter/receivers) • Implies a hand-held device  Typically have power output of 1-5 watts, limiting their range Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 6
  7. 7. Communication Systems and Components Communication components  Repeater/base station—receives a transmission from a low-power portable or mobile radio on one frequency and retransmits at a higher power on another frequency Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7
  8. 8. Communication Systems and ComponentsCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8
  9. 9. Communication Systems and Components Communication components  Cellular telephones Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9
  10. 10. Communication Systems and Components Radio frequencies—assigned and licensed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 10
  11. 11. Communication Systems and Components System maintenance  Communication equipment needs to be checked periodically by a qualified technician Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 11
  12. 12. Communication Systems and Components As technology changes, new equipment becomes available that may have a role in EMS systems Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 12
  13. 13. Communication Systems and Components Since EMT-Basics may need to be able to consult online medical direction, an EMS system must provide a backup in case the usual procedures do not work Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 13
  14. 14. Procedure for Radio CommunicationCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 14
  15. 15. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  Radio is on and volume is properly adjusted  Listen to the frequency and ensure it is clear before beginning a transmission  Press the “press to talk” (PTT) button on the radio and wait for 1 second before speaking Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 15
  16. 16. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  Speak with lips about 2 to 3 inches from the microphone Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 16
  17. 17. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  Address the unit being called, then give the name of the unit (and number if appropriate) where the transmission is originating The unit being called will signal that the transmission should start by saying “go ahead” or some other term standard for that area. A response of “stand by” means wait until further notice Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 17
  18. 18. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  Speak clearly and slowly, in a monotone voice  Keep transmissions brief. If, on occasion, a transmission takes longer than 30 seconds, stop at that point and pause for a few seconds so that emergency traffic can use the frequency if necessary  Use clear text  Avoid codes  Avoid meaningless phrases like “Be advised” Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 18
  19. 19. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  Courtesy is assumed, so there is no need to say “please,” “thank you,” and “you’re welcome”  When transmitting a number that might be confused (e.g., a number in the teens), give the number, then give the individual digits  The airwaves are public and scanners are popular. EMS transmissions may be overheard by more than just the EMS community. Do not give a patient’s name over the air Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 19
  20. 20. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  An EMT-Basic rarely acts alone: Use “we” instead of “I”  Do not use profanity on the air. The FCC takes a dim view of such language and may impose substantial fines  Avoid words that are difficult to hear like “yes” and “no.” Use “affirmative” and “negative”  Use the standard format for transmission of information Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 20
  21. 21. Procedure for Radio Communication General principles  When the transmission is finished, indicate this by saying “over.” Get confirmation that the message was received  Avoid codes, especially those that are not standardized  Avoid offering a diagnosis of the patient’s problem  Use EMS frequencies only for EMS communication  Reduce background noise as much as possible by closing the window Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 21
  22. 22. Procedure for Radio Communication Communication with dispatch  Notify the dispatcher when • The call is received • Responding to the call • Arriving at the scene • Arriving at the patient’s side • Leaving the scene for the receiving facility • Arrival at the receiving facility • Leaving the hospital for the station • Arrival at the station Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 22
  23. 23. Procedure for Radio Communication Communication with medical direction  EMT-Basics may need to contact medical direction for consultation and to get orders for administration of medications. Radio transmissions need to be organized, concise, and pertinent  Since the physician will determine whether to order medications and procedures based on the information given by the EMT-Basic, this information must be accurate Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 23
  24. 24. Procedure for Radio CommunicationCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 24
  25. 25. Procedure for Radio Communication After receiving an order for a medication or procedure (or denial of such a request), repeat the order back word for word Orders that are unclear or appear to be inappropriate should be questioned Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 25
  26. 26. Procedure for Radio Communication Communication with receiving facilities  EMT-Basics provide information that allows hospitals to prepare for a patient’s arrival by having the right room, equipment, and personnel prepared Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 26
  27. 27. Procedures for Radio Communication Standard reporting format  Identify unit and level of provider (who and what)  Patient’s age and gender  Chief complaint  Brief, pertinent history of the present illness  Major past illnesses  Mental status  Assessment findings  Baseline vital signs  Emergency care given  Response to emergency care  Estimated time to load the patient for transport  Estimated travel time from the scene to the hospital  Opportunity for questions Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 27
  28. 28. Verbal Communication After arrival at the hospital, give a verbal report to the staff  Introduce the patient by name (if known)  Summarize the information given over the radio: • Chief complaint • History not given previously • Additional treatment given en route • Additional vital signs taken en route • Give additional information that was collected but not transmitted Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 28
  29. 29. Verbal CommunicationCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 29
  30. 30. Interpersonal Communication General principles  Form a general impression  Interpret the situation  Form a communication goal and planCopyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 30
  31. 31. Interpersonal Communication General principles  You must understand the surroundings  Make and keep eye contact with the patient  When practical, position yourself at a level lower than the patient  Be honest with the patient Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 31
  32. 32. Interpersonal Communication General principles  Use language the patient can understand  Be aware of your own body language  Speak clearly, slowly, and distinctly  Use the patient’s proper name, either first or last, depending on the circumstances. Ask the patient what he wishes to be called Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 32
  33. 33. Interpersonal Communication Tips for effective communication  Verbalize your support  Be a good listener when the patient needs to talk  Offer a reassuring touch  Be respectful  Separate personal bias  Be silent when appropriate Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 33
  34. 34. Interpersonal Communication Special populations  If a patient has difficulty hearing, speak clearly with lips visible  Allow the patient enough time to answer a question before asking the next one  Act and speak in a calm, confident manner Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 34
  35. 35. Interpersonal Communication Communication with hearing-impaired patients, non–English-speaking populations, use of interpreters, etc.  Potential for visual deficit  Potential for auditory deficit Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 35
  36. 36. Summary Communication Systems and Components  Communication Components  System Maintenance Procedures for Radio Communications  Communication with Dispatch  Communication with Medical Direction  Verbal Communication Interpersonal Communication  General Principles  Tips for Effective Communication  Special Populations Copyright © 2007, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 36

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