Environmental
Impact Assessment
Table of content
Introduction
History
Reason
Purpose
Philosophy
Key elements
Analysis
Procedure
Shortcomings
ESM ...
EIA
Systematic process for identifying and
evaluating the potential effects of proposed
actions on the physical, biologic...
EIA
It intended as an instrument of
preventive environmental
management. It provides a
framework and an information basis...
EIA
It applies to the assessment of the
environmental effects of those public and
private projects which are likely to
ha...
History
It was first introduced in the USA within
the framework of the National
Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) in 1969, w...
Reason
Direct and indirect effects of
a project on the following
factors:
Human beings
Soil, water, air, climate and the...
Purpose
To allow government officials,
business leaders, and all concerned
citizens to understand the
environmental conse...
Purpose
To implement a strategy to prevent
adverse impact on the environment
after the implementation of plans and
constr...
Purpose
“To LOOK before you
LEAP!”
EIA is now a required process in
more than 100 nations.
The International Association...
Philosophy
Impact assessment is designed as a
preventive measure
It should give environmental
considerations equal weigh...
What changes can EIA bring ?
Before introduction of EIA:
Government planning and decision-making
“D-A-D” ---- “Decide, An...
What changes can EIA bring ?
After Implementing EIA:
Government planning and decision-making:
“D-D-D” ---- “Discuss, Deci...
Key elements
EIA must be undertaken early in the development of
proposed projects, plans, and programs, and must be
comple...
Cont…..
3. EIA must analyze all reasonably foreseeable environmental
impacts or effects of a proposed action effects may b...
Analysis
Physical components:
Land
Air
Water
Energy
Analysis
Bio-Cultural components:
Nature
Culture
People
Access
General Steps in EIA Process
Formulate project
Identify potentially significant
environmental impacts
Evaluate impacts
Dev...
Procedure
Deciding whether an EIA is required (Screening)
Determining the scope of EIA (Scoping)
Preparing of the impac...
Procedural steps
 Description of the project
 Description of the environment
 Identification of environmental
impacts
...
Cont…..
Phase I: Description of
project
Objective: identification and
characterization of the proposed project
Sources: de...
Cont…..
Phase I: Description of project
Input: project phases, processes,
products and materials, risks
Output: site (alte...
Cont….
Phase 2: Description of
environment
Objective: identification of affected
environment
Sources: government, public,
...
Cont…..
Phase 2: Description of
environment
Input: local/regional environments,
human concerns, standards
Output: current ...
Cont…..
Phase 3: Identification of effects
Objective: identification of likely interactions
between project and environmen...
Cont……
Phase 3: Identification of
effects
Input: phases 1 and 2, checklists,
cross-impact analysis
Output: list of potenti...
Cont……
Phase 4: Evaluation of effects
Objective: estimate magnitudes and
characteristics of impacts
Sources: specialists, ...
Cont……
Phase 4: Evaluation of effects
Input: phases 1,2 and 3, scientific
literature, expert knowledge
Output: description...
Phase 5: Management and control
of environmental effects
Objective: mitigation, compensation, and
monitoring measures
Sour...
Cont……
Phase 5: Management and
control of environmental
effects
Input: phases 1,2 and 4, standards,
methods and technologi...
Cont…….
Phase 6: Presentation of the
study
Objective: report preparation
Sources: specialist (risk communication)
develope...
Cont…….
Phase 6: Presentation of
the study
Input: phases 1,2,3,4,5, formal
regulatory
Output: report (consensus)
Problems:...
Cont…….
Phase 7: Public participation
(hearings)
Objective: negotiation with public, interest
groups, stake holders (actor...
Cont…….
Phase 7: Public participation
Input: phases 1,2,3,4,5,6
Output: opinions, comments, position
statements
Problems: ...
Cont……
Phase 8: Formal decision
making
Objective: decision making, communication,
implementation
Sources: government regul...
Cont…….
Phase 8: Formal decision
making
Input: phase 6,7
Output: formal decisions,
commitments
Problems: communication ,
l...
Shortcomings of EIA
Environmental issues are dealt with in a
reactive and project focused, rather than
a pro-active way; ...
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    1. 1. Environmental Impact Assessment
    2. 2. Table of content Introduction History Reason Purpose Philosophy Key elements Analysis Procedure Shortcomings ESM 297
    3. 3. EIA Systematic process for identifying and evaluating the potential effects of proposed actions on the physical, biological, cultural and socioeconomic components of the environment. EIA is a process for decision-making. NOT a formula for preparing a document
    4. 4. EIA It intended as an instrument of preventive environmental management. It provides a framework and an information basis for decision making on activities affecting the environment
    5. 5. EIA It applies to the assessment of the environmental effects of those public and private projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment. Projectmeans: The execution of construction works or of other installations or schemes.
    6. 6. History It was first introduced in the USA within the framework of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, which became law on January 1, 1971.
    7. 7. Reason Direct and indirect effects of a project on the following factors: Human beings Soil, water, air, climate and the landscape The inter-action between the factors mentioned in the first and second indents
    8. 8. Purpose To allow government officials, business leaders, and all concerned citizens to understand the environmental consequences of proposed actions  To cooperate in making wise decisions that restore and maintain the quality of our shared environment for future generations
    9. 9. Purpose To implement a strategy to prevent adverse impact on the environment after the implementation of plans and construction projects  Promote coordinated development of the economy, society, and environment.
    10. 10. Purpose “To LOOK before you LEAP!” EIA is now a required process in more than 100 nations. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) is a global network with 2,700 members from more than 80 countries.
    11. 11. Philosophy Impact assessment is designed as a preventive measure It should give environmental considerations equal weight with technical and economic aspects
    12. 12. What changes can EIA bring ? Before introduction of EIA: Government planning and decision-making “D-A-D” ---- “Decide, Announce, Defend” Role of NGOs, citizens: “Critics” “Objectors” “Protestors” Environmental conditions: Steadily deteriorating
    13. 13. What changes can EIA bring ? After Implementing EIA: Government planning and decision-making: “D-D-D” ---- “Discuss, Decide, Deliver” Role of NGOs, citizens: “Stakeholders” “Contributors” “Participants” Environmental conditions: Deterioration slows; some areas improving
    14. 14. Key elements EIA must be undertaken early in the development of proposed projects, plans, and programs, and must be completed before a decision to proceed is made. EIA must be an objective, Impartial analytical process, not a way of promoting or “selling” a proposal to decision makers. It must use accepted scientific principles and methods.
    15. 15. Cont….. 3. EIA must analyze all reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts or effects of a proposed action effects may be short- term, long-term, direct, or indirect. 4. The process of EIA must be open to government officials at all levels, to potential stakeholders (those with direct interests in the proposed action), and to the Public.
    16. 16. Analysis Physical components: Land Air Water Energy
    17. 17. Analysis Bio-Cultural components: Nature Culture People Access
    18. 18. General Steps in EIA Process Formulate project Identify potentially significant environmental impacts Evaluate impacts Develop mitigation measures Report / Revise Decision
    19. 19. Procedure Deciding whether an EIA is required (Screening) Determining the scope of EIA (Scoping) Preparing of the impact statement (EIS) Consultations, public participation Evaluating EIA results and consultations Reaching a decision Monitoring impacts after project implementation
    20. 20. Procedural steps  Description of the project  Description of the environment  Identification of environmental impacts  Evaluation of environmental impacts  Management and control of impacts  Presentation of the study  Public participation  Judgment by authorities
    21. 21. Cont….. Phase I: Description of project Objective: identification and characterization of the proposed project Sources: developer, planners Software: GIS, spreadsheet, graphics, statistics
    22. 22. Cont….. Phase I: Description of project Input: project phases, processes, products and materials, risks Output: site (alternatives), emissions, resource consumption, technical solutions Problems: uncertainties, technical limitations
    23. 23. Cont…. Phase 2: Description of environment Objective: identification of affected environment Sources: government, public, specialists Software: GIS, spreadsheet, graphics, statistics
    24. 24. Cont….. Phase 2: Description of environment Input: local/regional environments, human concerns, standards Output: current state, sensitive elements Problems: data and resource limitations
    25. 25. Cont….. Phase 3: Identification of effects Objective: identification of likely interactions between project and environment Sources: specialists, stake holders Software: expert systems, conceptual and qualitative models
    26. 26. Cont…… Phase 3: Identification of effects Input: phases 1 and 2, checklists, cross-impact analysis Output: list of potentially important effects Problems: criteria, qualitative judgments, completeness of coverage
    27. 27. Cont…… Phase 4: Evaluation of effects Objective: estimate magnitudes and characteristics of impacts Sources: specialists, stake holders Software: GIS, expert systems, environmental simulation models
    28. 28. Cont…… Phase 4: Evaluation of effects Input: phases 1,2 and 3, scientific literature, expert knowledge Output: description and classification or ranking of impacts Problems: criteria, model and data uncertainty
    29. 29. Phase 5: Management and control of environmental effects Objective: mitigation, compensation, and monitoring measures Sources: specialist, developer, government Software: GIS, visualization
    30. 30. Cont…… Phase 5: Management and control of environmental effects Input: phases 1,2 and 4, standards, methods and technologies Output: procedures, measures (monitoring, plan, mitigation measures) Problems: criteria, resources, judgments
    31. 31. Cont……. Phase 6: Presentation of the study Objective: report preparation Sources: specialist (risk communication) developer, government Software: visualization, GIS, text processing, multi-media
    32. 32. Cont……. Phase 6: Presentation of the study Input: phases 1,2,3,4,5, formal regulatory Output: report (consensus) Problems: communication, vested interests
    33. 33. Cont……. Phase 7: Public participation (hearings) Objective: negotiation with public, interest groups, stake holders (actors) Sources: all actors involved, media Software: visualization, GIS, text processing, multi-media
    34. 34. Cont……. Phase 7: Public participation Input: phases 1,2,3,4,5,6 Output: opinions, comments, position statements Problems: communication, conflicting objectives, plural rationalities, subjectivity, hidden agenda
    35. 35. Cont…… Phase 8: Formal decision making Objective: decision making, communication, implementation Sources: government regulations, specialists Software: GIS
    36. 36. Cont……. Phase 8: Formal decision making Input: phase 6,7 Output: formal decisions, commitments Problems: communication , legal challenges
    37. 37. Shortcomings of EIA Environmental issues are dealt with in a reactive and project focused, rather than a pro-active way; the main focus is often on mitigation; non direct effects are often neglected. Decisions above the project level at which EIA is usually applied are made without an awareness of their consequences. Long-term visions of sustainable development and associated aims and objectives are not consistently followed through; short term political interests and benefits prevail.
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