1
Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR)
Rosa Prieto
Head of the High Tech Unit
rosa.prieto@vhir.org
15/05/2014
Institut...
2
INTRODUCTION TO NGS1
2
3
4
Index
NGS TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
NGS APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW
CURS OF BIOINFORMATICS
FOR BIOMEDICAL...
NGS applications
-Amplicon sequencing
-Targeted DNA resequencing
-Exome sequencing
-Whole genome sequencing
-Metagenomics
...
4
Metagenomics is the study of a collection of genetic material (genomes) from a mixed community of organisms.
Metagenomic...
5
2
(16S rRNA)
The 16S rRNA gene is comprised of highly conserved regions interspersed with more variable regions, allowin...
7
2
Sampling and pyrosequencing methods for characterizing bacterial communities in the human
gut using 16S sequence tags....
8
2 NIH Human Microbiome Project
“our other genome”
9
•To establish associations
between the genes of the human
intestinal microbiota and our
health and disease.
• Focused on...
10
The first Genomics technique: microarrays
One gene at a time
Many genes at the same time
PRE-GENOMICS ERA
GENOMICS ERA
...
11
What is a microarray?
SOLID SURFACE
PROBES
SAMPLE
(TARGET)
Fluorescence scanning
Image analysis
Raw data
14
Wang et al., Nat. Rev. Genetics 10 (2009)
4
500 pg RNAt 100 pg RNAt (Illumina), 10 pg (ultralow Illumina), 500 pg (Roch...
15
RNAseq library construction
Very high dynamic range (105 to 107)
16
Total RNAseq
Nat. Rev. Genetics 2009
more than 95% of the transcripts will
be ribosomal
17
•Poly A+ selection for mRNAseq: 1st strand synthesis done on oligodT
attached to magnetic beads.
PROs: very effective a...
Third generation sequencing: PacBio RSII
•AMPLIFICATION OF SAMPLE IS NOT REQUIRED (LOW INPUT, AVOID BIAS, MORE UNIFORM COV...
Oxford Nanopore Technologies
https://www.nanoporetech.com/technology/the-minion-device-a-miniaturised-
sensing-system/the-...
1000$ genome for everybody
??
•18 Tb/run, 2x150 bp length
•Human sequencing only
•Bioinformatics/interpretation not
includ...
1000$ genome for everybody
And now….. what?
-Sequencing capabilities have been dramatically increased, so obtaining Tb of
sequences is no longer an i...
VHIR’s HIGH TECHNOLOGY UNIT (UAT)
•Genomics
•Metabolomics
•Cytomics
•Microscopy
•Statistic and Bioinformatics Unit
Unitat ...
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NGS Applications II (UEB-UAT Bioinformatics Course - Session 2.1.3 - VHIR, Barcelona)

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Course: Bioinformatics for Biomedical Research (2014).
Session: 2.1.3- Next Generation Sequencing. Technologies and Applications. Part III: NGS Applications II.
Statistics and Bioinformatisc Unit (UEB) & High Technology Unit (UAT) from Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (www.vhir.org), Barcelona.

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NGS Applications II (UEB-UAT Bioinformatics Course - Session 2.1.3 - VHIR, Barcelona)

  1. 1. 1 Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR) Rosa Prieto Head of the High Tech Unit rosa.prieto@vhir.org 15/05/2014 Institut d’Investigació Sanitària acreditat per l’Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS CURS OF BIOINFORMATICS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
  2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION TO NGS1 2 3 4 Index NGS TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW NGS APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW CURS OF BIOINFORMATICS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH WHAT IS NEXT IN SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES?
  3. 3. NGS applications -Amplicon sequencing -Targeted DNA resequencing -Exome sequencing -Whole genome sequencing -Metagenomics -RNA sequencing -Targeted RNA resequencing -Epigenomics -Sequencing of free DNA-RNA (plasma/serum)
  4. 4. 4 Metagenomics is the study of a collection of genetic material (genomes) from a mixed community of organisms. Metagenomics usually refers to the study of microbial communities. 2 What can we study? •The biosphere contains between 1030 and 1031 microbial genomes, at least 2–3 orders of magnitude more than the number of plant and animal cells combined. •Microbes associated with the human body outnumber human cells by at least a factor of ten. •The vast majority cannot be cultured. Metagenomics
  5. 5. 5 2 (16S rRNA) The 16S rRNA gene is comprised of highly conserved regions interspersed with more variable regions, allowing PCR primers to be designed that are complementary to universally conserved regions flanking variable regions. Wu et al. BMC Microbiol. 2010; 10: 206. Unidirectional sequencing Types of metagenomics studies using NGS -Population screening and diversity -Genome assembly -Gene prediction and annotation -Functional genomics -Ecology -Taxonomy
  6. 6. 7 2 Sampling and pyrosequencing methods for characterizing bacterial communities in the human gut using 16S sequence tags. Wu et al. BMC Microbiol. 2010; 10: 206. This is a study of methods for surveying bacterial communities in human feces using 454/Roche pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags. Comparison of different methods of sample storage (no effect), DNA extraction and purification (great effect), set of primers for amplification of several variable regions (effect) and GS FLX vs. GS FLX Titanium sequencing (no effect). Composition of the gut microbiome in the ten subjects studied. We did find that the choice of 16S rRNA gene region used for analysis had a noticeable effect, with the V6-V9 region representing an outlier. The V6-V9 primers consistently showed the lowest percentage of taxonomic assignments at the genus level. We note that our choice of V6-V9 primer and sequencing direction did not cover the V6 regions efficiently. Types of metagenomics studies using NGS
  7. 7. 8 2 NIH Human Microbiome Project “our other genome”
  8. 8. 9 •To establish associations between the genes of the human intestinal microbiota and our health and disease. • Focused on two disorders of increasing importance in Europe, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and obesity. 2 MetaHit Project Intestinal microbiota deep-sequencing for patient stratification: •rich microbiota •poor microbiota (obesity, metabolic disturbance, weight increase) The obese individuals among the lower bacterial richness group also gain more weight over time. Only a few bacterial species are sufficient to distinguish between individuals with high and low bacterial richness, and even between lean and obese participants. Our classifications based on variation in the gut microbiome identify subsets of individuals in the general white adult population who may be at increased risk of progressing to adiposity-associated co-morbidities.
  9. 9. 10 The first Genomics technique: microarrays One gene at a time Many genes at the same time PRE-GENOMICS ERA GENOMICS ERA Description of two-colour arrays
  10. 10. 11 What is a microarray? SOLID SURFACE PROBES SAMPLE (TARGET) Fluorescence scanning Image analysis Raw data
  11. 11. 14 Wang et al., Nat. Rev. Genetics 10 (2009) 4 500 pg RNAt 100 pg RNAt (Illumina), 10 pg (ultralow Illumina), 500 pg (Roche) RNAseq vs microarrays for transcriptome analysis •Much more sensitive than microarrays •Higher dynamic range •Real count of sequences vs. Fluorescence intensities •All RNA species can be sequenced (microarrays probes more focused on coding genes) •Available for all kinds of organisms •Protocols optimized for very low input •Cost is getting rapidly reduced
  12. 12. 15 RNAseq library construction Very high dynamic range (105 to 107)
  13. 13. 16 Total RNAseq Nat. Rev. Genetics 2009 more than 95% of the transcripts will be ribosomal
  14. 14. 17 •Poly A+ selection for mRNAseq: 1st strand synthesis done on oligodT attached to magnetic beads. PROs: very effective at removing ribosomal species. Less sequencing required for the same coverage compared to tRNA. CONs: RNA quality is an issue (degraded RNA makes it difficult to sequence 5’) Many RNA species get lost (non coding, miRNA…) •Standard library construction does not preserve directionality (but protocols are available to generate libraries that do preserve strandness). This may be particularly useful for finding unannotated genes and ncRNAs and for de-novo sequencing. •Small RNAseq requires specific isolation and RNA library construction protocols. •FFPE or very poor quality samples also can be sequenced using specific kits and protocols that not rely on polyA tails •Illumina and Ion Torrent sell specific kits for all these kinds of RNA libraries. •Targeted RNA custom panels also exists. Other kinds of RNA libraries
  15. 15. Third generation sequencing: PacBio RSII •AMPLIFICATION OF SAMPLE IS NOT REQUIRED (LOW INPUT, AVOID BIAS, MORE UNIFORM COVERAGE, ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEUS SAMPLES) •SMRT Technology (Single Molecule Real Time): highly processive DNApol+ labeled phospholinked fluorescent nucleotides recorded in real time → direct observation of nucleotide incorporation •Long reads (6-10 kb), a small number of reads up to 18 kb •Single reads show very high error rate (15% compared to 0,1-1% of other platforms), but stochastic, improved by circular consensus sequencing (consensus sequence of high quality) •Amplification not required (avoids bias, more uniform coverage) •Quick delivery of results (runs last from 30 min to 3 hr) •No problem for GC rich regions. Modification status of the template nucleotides (5-mC, 5-hmC) seen http://smrt.med.cornell.edu/Strategies.html 2016: end of 454 commercialization and support by Roche https://ncifrederick.cancer.gov/atp/cms/wp- content/uploads/2011/10/pacbio_technology_backgrounder.pdf
  16. 16. Oxford Nanopore Technologies https://www.nanoporetech.com/technology/the-minion-device-a-miniaturised- sensing-system/the-minion-device-a-miniaturised-sensing-system Third generation sequencing: nanopore technology https://www.nanoporetech.com/technology/introduction-to-nanopore- sensing/introduction-to-nanopore-sensing GridION Expected to be released in late Nov.2014
  17. 17. 1000$ genome for everybody ?? •18 Tb/run, 2x150 bp length •Human sequencing only •Bioinformatics/interpretation not included In: -Macrogen (Seoul) -Broad Institute in Cambridge (Massachusetts) -Garvan Institute (Sydney) Human genomes at 30x coverage 2012 2014
  18. 18. 1000$ genome for everybody
  19. 19. And now….. what? -Sequencing capabilities have been dramatically increased, so obtaining Tb of sequences is no longer an issue. -Issues to deal with: Data managing Clinical information
  20. 20. VHIR’s HIGH TECHNOLOGY UNIT (UAT) •Genomics •Metabolomics •Cytomics •Microscopy •Statistic and Bioinformatics Unit Unitat d’Alta Tecnologia (UAT) VHIR-Mediterrània Building-Ground floor uat@vhir.org We offer a set of high-tech services that support teaching activities and research activities in the biomedical field:
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