Gerald Ford• 38th President 1974-1977• July 14, 1913 December 26, 2006.• Grew up in Grand Rapids, Michigan.• He starred on the University of Michigan football team, then went to Yale, where he served as assistant coach.• During World War II he attained the rank of lieutenant commander in the Navy.
Jimmy Carter• 39th President 1977-1981• Born October 1, 1924 –• Naval Academy – Served in Navy for 6 years• Wealthy peanut farmer• Senator and Governor from Georgia
Andrew Young• 1st African- American to become United Nations Ambassador for the United States.
Mikhail Gorbachev• Became the General Secretary of the Communist Party in the USSR in 1985.• Began a new era of reform in the communist country.
Mikhail Gorbachev• Glasnost – openness in discussing social problems• Perestroika – “restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system in 1987
INF Treaty - 1987• The treaty eliminated nuclear and conventional ground- launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges. By the treatys deadline of June 1, 1991, a total of 2,692 of such weapons had been destroyed.
November 9, 1989• After a misunderstanding, Gunther Schabowski famously announced in a live broadcast international press conference that (effectively) all rules for traveling abroad were lifted, in effect "immediately".• Tens of thousands of people immediately went to the Berlin Wall where the vastly outnumbered border guards were forced to open access East German Minister of Propaganda; famous for accidentally beginning the points and allow them destruction of the Berlin Wall!! through, which proved to be the end of the Berlin Wall.
East German Soldiers React• Soldiers were not sure of their orders up until the very end.
Hands across the divide• East German border policemen, refuse to shake hands with a Berliner who stretches out his hand over the border fence at the eastern site near the Checkpoint Charlie border crossing point.
Celebration!• East Berlin citizens climb up the Berlin Wall near the Brandenburg Gate, November 10, 1989, to reach the western part of the divided city.
December 25, 1989• Leonard Bernstein gave a concert in Berlin celebrating the end of the Wall, including Beethovens 9th symphony (Ode to Joy) with the word "Joy" (Freude) changed to "Freedom" (Freiheit) in the text sung.
Importance• The fall of the Wall was the first step toward German reunification, which was formally concluded on October 3, 1990.• Major symbol of Cold War was gone.
Break Up of the USSR• After years of Soviet military buildup at the expense of domestic development, economic growth was at a standstill.• Failed attempts at reform, a stagnant economy, and war in Afghanistan led to a general feeling of discontent, especially in the Baltic republics and Eastern Europe.
Boris Yeltsin• The Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991 when Boris Yeltsin seized power in the aftermath of a failed coup that had attempted to topple reform-minded Gorbachev.
• Bosnia and Herzegovina• Croatia• Kosovo• Macedonia• Montenegro• Serbia• Slovenia
Tiananmen Square 1989• A series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing in the Peoples Republic of China beginning on 14 April 1989.• The protests were sparked by the death of a pro- democracy and anti-corruption official, Hu Yaobang, whom protesters wanted to mourn.• Soldiers and tanks from the Peoples Liberation Army were sent to take control of the city.• The number of deaths is not known.
Tiananmen Square 1989• An intelligence report received by the Soviet politburo estimated that 3,000 protesters were killed, according to a document found in the Soviet archive.• Following the conflict, the government conducted widespread arrests of protesters and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press.
Invasion of grenada• October 25, 1983 and was the first major operation conducted by the US military since the Vietnam War.• Codenamed Operation Urgent Fury.• WHY? the lives of American medical students who were living on the island were endangered.
Operation Just Cause• The United States invasion of Panama was launched on December 20, 1989 – WHY? – Safeguarding the lives of U.S. citizens in Panama. – Defending democracy and human rights in Panama. – Combating drug trafficking.
Operation nifty package• The 1989 invasion of Panama by the United States removed him from power; he was captured, detained as a prisoner of war, and flown to the United States.• Noriega was tried on eight counts of drug trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering in April 1992.
Iran-Contra Scandal Israel would ship weapons to a relatively moderate, politically influential group of Iranians, and the U.S. would then resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. A portion of the proceeds The Iranian recipientsfrom the weapon sales was promised to do everything diverted to fund anti- in their power to achieve Sandinista and anti- the release of six U.S. communist rebels, or hostages, who were being Contras, in Nicaragua – held by the Islamist terror Which was violation of the group Hezbollah. Boland Amendment
The Conflict• On August 2, 1990 the country of Iraq invaded and occupied the tiny country of Kuwait over a “supposed” dispute over oil.
United States Responds• President George W. Bush declared that the invasion “would not stand”.• Bush decided to send American troops to protect Saudi Arabia (Desert Shield) and eventually liberate Kuwait (Desert Storm).
Outcome• American forces led by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf would eventually annihilate the Iraqi forces with the world’s most advanced weapons.
Air War Assessment• Began January 17, 1991 and lasted about 6 weeks until the ground attack began.• Air power was then used to assist the ground assault.• Air power gave the Tomahawk destroying US an extreme Iraqi postion advantage
The Ground War• On Feb 24, 1991 Marine divisions launched the ground offensive.• Gen. Schwarzkopf hatched his “Hail Mary” attack plan.• The ground assault by the Allies precipitated a general rout on the part of Iraqi forces positioned in Kuwait.