Flow charts of causes and reversing spiral of Great Depression
Graphs of stock market and unemployment in the 1930s
Election of 1932 and links to FDR inaugural address
New Deal Programs
Fireside Chats (link to audio of 1 st fireside chat)
Critics of FDR
Movies, radio and the arts of the 1930s
(R) Herbert Hoover
Food Administration WWI
Secretary of Commerce
(D) Al Smith (corner)
Governor of New York
1 st Irish Catholic to run for White House
Republican prosperity in the 1920s ensure easy victory for Hoover
The Election of 1928
Causes of the Depression Fewer goods are sold . Demand drops. In order to stay in business companies cut wages People lose their confidence & start saving their money Demand drops even further. Companies are forced to cut costs by laying people off The Spiral Of Depression Even more people Lose their confidence And spend less money People lose their jobs.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeted on October 29, 1929.
$14 billion was lost in one day.
Stock Market will not recover for decades.
Unofficial start of the Great Depression.
Great Depression in the Cities
In cities across the country people:
lost their jobs
Were evicted from their houses
Ended up living on the street.
Shantytowns, soup kitchens and bread lines appeared
People waiting in line for bread and soup and also living out of their car.
Farmers in the Midwest had over farmed the soil.
Drought conditions led to 100 of acres of soil being “blown away.”
These ‘black blizzards’ lasted from 1933 to 1939 .
The Dust Bowl
WW I vets marched on Washington DC.
Demanded the bonus that was due in 1945 be paid presently.
The Bonus Army
Bonus Army in DC…
Congress refused their demands.
Gen. MacArthur broke up the marchers and had their shanty town burned to the ground.
Public relations disaster for President Hoover.
The Election of 1932 Hoover FDR
What were we thinking?
Key Quotes: FDR’s Inauguration Speech This Nation asks for action, and action now. Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. I shall ask Congress for broad executive power to wage was against the emergency.
Text of Speech
Series of radio addresses by FDR
30 total between 1933 to 1944
FDR used these to calm American people down.
CLICK on the radio to link to hear the 1 st chat on the Bank Crisis
FDR and the New Deal
During the presidential campaign of 1932, FDR promised Americans a NEW DEAL.
This would be his program to get America back on its feet.
Help people right away
Get the US out of the Depression
Make sure another depression does not happen
Goals of New Deal Program
New Deal : Relief
Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Farm Credit Association (FCA)
Homeowners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
New Deal : Recovery
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
National Youth Administration (NYA)
Federal Housing Act (FHA)
New Deal : Reform
Federal Deposit Insurance Company (FDIC)
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Wagner Act (NLRB)
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Reversing the Spiral of Depression Cycle of Prosperity! Democrats called this Process ‘ Pump Priming’ Government Spending $ Alphabet Agencies More Jobs More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More people with Jobs = more pay $ More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More Jobs More Pay = More Taxes
FDR and the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court struck down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional.
FDR wanted to increase the size of the court from 9 to 15.
Would appoint justices who were pro-New Deal
Congress did not agree with FDR.
This hurt FDR’s image.
FDR was NOT doing enough for the poor .
Long pushed his “ Share Our Wealth ” program.
Take all income over $1,000,000 to give:
For all Americans
Dr. Francis Townshend
FDR was NOT doing enough for old people .
Proposed a $200 a month pension to everyone over 60.
This was good for (2) reasons:
$$ to boost economy
Open a job up for a younger American
FDR had NOT done enough….
Fr. Coughlin felt that FDR did not take on the powerful bankers in the United States.
Used the radio to blast FDR and became known as the “ Radio Priest”.
FDR had gone TO FAR with the New Deal.
Interfering with business and people’s lives.
Government was taking away freedoms from Americans.
Social Security Act of 1935
How is Social Security funded? Social Security Trust Fund Workers Employers
Social Security Unemployment Insurance Old Age Pension Dependent Families + Disabled
Election of 1936
October 30, 1938
Orson Wells performed HG Wells classic over the radio.
Made Wells famous
Caused a panic because people thought Martians were invading
Link to listen to the radio broadcast.
Famous painting entitled “American Gothic”.
Best known for his paintings depicting the rural American Midwest.
Folk singer during the Depression
His personal and musical styles were deeply influenced by his childhood in rural Oklahoma during the Great Depression years.
This Land is Your Land – famous song
CLICK HERE to listen to song on YouTube
Classical novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939.