What is FOSS?• What does free mean?• Does providing source make it Open Source?• Who makes FOSS? Why do they do it?• Is FOSS just for fanatics and hobbyists?• Can you make money with FOSS?• Does FOSS make for better software?
What is FOSS?Definitions"Free software" is a matter of liberty, not price. Tounderstand the concept, you should think of"free" as in "free speech," not as in "free beer" - Richard Stallman (FSF)
What is FOSS?DefinitionsThe word "free" in our name does not refer to price;it refers to freedom.• First, the freedom to copy a program andredistribute it to your neighbors, so that they canuse it as well as you.•Second, the freedom to change a program, so thatyou can control it instead of it controlling you; forthis, the source code must be made available to you - Free Software Foundation (FSF), Feb 1986
The FOSS philosophyTwo major philosophies• Free Software Foundation(FSF) philosophy• Open Source Initiative (OSI)philosophy
The Four Freedoms• The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).• The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it toyourneeds (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a preconditionfor this.• The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help yourneighbor(freedom 2).• The freedom to improve the program, and release yourimprovements (and modified versions in general) to the public,so thatthe whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to thesource code isa precondition for this. - Richard Stallman (FSF)
Facets of FOSS• Some see it as a resource• Some see it as an ethical choice• Some see it as a technical choice• Some see it as the enemy• Some see it as just another type of software What is FOSS for you?
FOSS: A Bit of history Free Software GNU/Linux Foundation Netscape GNU? Navigator (1998) Richard Matthew GNU-GPL Stallman or “rms” Open Source “hacker” culture Initiative
The GNU Project• Announced on September 27, 1983• Richard Stallman was the founder• GNU’s Not Unix• Initiated GNU OS development in January,1984• GNU OS’s Kernel gap was filled by thethird party Linux kernel, built by LinusTorvalds ,1991 Handsome GNU Head Typical beard Smart-looking curly horns
Is FOSS free? Let us consider it again…• “free of charge” to a certain degree it is true ,• But there are non-free FOSS (Free/OpenSource Software)• Licensing cost may be there• Open Source• 99.9% of the time they are cheaper thanproprietary software
What is Linux?• “Linux” was the name of the kernelcreated by Linus Torvalds.• Unix-like Operating System• Kernel; heart of an Operating System• Runs on wide variety of hardware• Nowadays Linux
Is Linux FOSS?• FOSS Kernel (http://www.kernel.org) ,Licensed under GPL• Lot of distributions with differentcomponents• Some components may not be FOSS
GNU and Linux• Misunderstanding between Linux kerneland “Linux”• Linus Torvalds didn’t wrote whole “Linux”• “Linux” is only ~3% of the OS• Pure Unix-like OS was GNU• All the “Linux” based distros are modifiedversions of GNU
Strong idea from Small Calculation Microsoft Solution Software Cost Software Copies Cost Kaspersky Antivirus 50 $900 MS Internet Information Server 2 $0 MS Windows Server 2008 5 $19,995 MS Commerce Server 1 $12,333 MS ISA Standard Server 1 $1,499 MS SQL Server 1 $4,999 MS Exchange Standard Server 1 $1,299 Window 7 Professional 50 $14,950 MS Visual Studio 3 $3,237 MS Office 50 $23,950 Adobe Photoshop 2 $1,218 Additional Client Access License 30 $2,010 Total $86,390
Strong idea from Small Calculation FOSS Solution Software Cost Software Copies Cost Linux Enterprise Server Distribution (CentOS 6.2) Any # $0 Apache (Web Server) Any # $0 Squid (Proxy Server) Any # $0 MySQL (Database Server) Any # $0 Iptables (Firewall) Any # $0 Sendmail/Postfix (Mail Servers) Any # $0 Qt SDK / GTK + (IDE & FW) Any # $0 GIMP (Graphics) Any # $0 Libre Office Any # $0 OSCommerce (c-Commerce suite) Any # $0 Total $0