The Human Brain


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The Human Brain

  1. 1. The Human Brain: A Guided Tour
  2. 2. Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian
  3. 3. The Brain Home Page
  4. 4. Size and the Cerebrum Cerebrum Gray Matter White Matter Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) Surface Features
  5. 5. Size and the Cerebrum Ha! Ha! What do you call a brain without a 100 billion neurons? A no brainer Does a bigger brain mean you are smarter? The debate is still on. It seems that the higher brain to body mass an animal has, the smarter it is. Einstein's overall brain was a normal size, but the specific portion known for spatial intelligence was wider and had a unique anatomy. Cerebrum
  6. 6. White Matter Portion of the cerebrum that is composed of bundles of nerve fibers, myelinated so that it appears white. These are on the deep portion of the brain. Cerebrum
  7. 7. Gray Matter The cell bodies of neurons in the cerebrum. Located primarily on the superficial surface of the cerebrum- the cerebral cortex. Also, several groups of gray matter are buried deep within the cerebrum. Ha! Ha! What does a brain wear in a rainstorm? A waterproof CORTEX jacket. Cerebrum
  8. 8. Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) Several islands of gray matter, cell bodies of neurons. They are the processing link between thalamus and motor cortex. They initiate and direct voluntary movement and help with balance and postural reflexes. Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea, both diseases of muscular control difficulties, stem from problems in the basal nuclei. Cerebrum
  9. 9. Surface Features of the Cerebrum Right Hemisphere Left Hemisphere Fissures Corpus Callosum Functional Areas Lobes Sulci Cerebrum Gyri
  10. 10. Gyri The elevated ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebrum. Precentral gyrus Postcentral gyrus Surface Features (Colored portions in diagram to left)
  11. 11. Sulci The shallow grooves on the surface of the cerebrum that separate the gyri. Central sulcus- Separates frontal and parietal lobes Lateral sulcus- defines temporal lobe Surface Features Feelin’ groovy! (“Lines” on diagram above)
  12. 12. Fissures Deep grooves on the surface of the cerebrum. Longitudinal fissure- divides cerebrum into left and right hemispheres Helps to divide the cerebrum into lobes. Surface Features
  13. 13. Corpus Callosum Connects the right and left hemispheres and allows for communication between the hemispheres. Forms roof of the lateral and third ventricles. Band of myelinated nerve fibers. (Label on Sagittal Section diagram) Surface Features
  14. 14. Right Hemisphere For right-brainers Ha! Ha! Controls left side of body. Visual spatial skills. Dancing and gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities. What did the right hemisphere say to the left hemisphere when they could not agree on anything? Lets split! Surface Features
  15. 15. Left Hemisphere For left-brainers Controls right side of body. Systematic, logical interpretation of information. Interpretation and production of symbolic information. Language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored in a language format. Surface Features
  16. 16. Frontal Lobotomy Lobes of the Cerebrum Frontal Temporal Occipital Parietal Surface Features
  17. 17. Frontal Lobe Responsible for conscious thought, cognition and memory. Controls the ability to concentrate, higher intellectual reasoning, aggression, judgment, and inhibition. Plays a role in personality and emotional traits. What did the parietal say to the frontal? I lobe you! Ha! Ha! Lobes
  18. 18. Temporal Lobe Receives and evaluates input for smell and hearing and plays an important role in memory. Lobes
  19. 19. Parietal Lobe Responsible for processing of sensory input and sensory discrimination. Plays a part in body orientation. Ha! Ha! What happens when you bother the parietal lobe? It gets a little touchy! Lobes
  20. 20. Occipital Lobe Primary visual reception and interpretation area. Lobes
  21. 21. Functional Areas of the Cerebrum Frontal eye field Visual area Wernicke’s area Broca’s area Frontal association area Primary motor area General interpretation area Olfactory area Auditory area Somatic sensory area Speech/language area Gustatory area Surface Features Premotor area
  22. 22. Located in the left superior and posterior portion of the temporal lobe. Understanding and comprehension of spoken language. It is connected by nervous pathways to Broca’s area (for motor speech) and the auditory area (for hearing). Wernicke’s Area Functional Areas
  23. 23. Frontal Eye Field Part of the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe. It coordinates and maintains eye and head movements, gaze shifts, and visual reactions to auditory and tactile (touch) stimuli. Functional Areas
  24. 24. Primary Motor Area Located on the precentral gyrus (posterior region of the frontal lobe). Allows conscious movement of skeletal muscles. The axons of the motor neurons here form the pyramidal, or corticospinal tract. Functional Areas
  25. 25. Premotor Area Located anterior to the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe. Responsible for perception as well as in preparing the commands that result in physical movement (links input with output). Functional Areas
  26. 26. Frontal Association Area Located in the anterior portion of the frontal lobe. Plans behavior and facilitates working memory. Control of attention, emotional expression, creativity, physical drive and inhibition. Functional Areas
  27. 27. Broca’s Area Located in the inferior portion of the frontal lobe anterior to the premotor area. Controls movements of the lips, jaws, and tongue for speech. Functional Areas
  28. 28. Olfactory Area Located in the anterior portion of the temporal lobe. Involved with integration of smell. Ha! Ha! Why does your nose like to be in the middle of your face? It likes to be the scenter of attention. Functional Areas Microsoft Clipart
  29. 29. Auditory Area Responsible for processing information related to hearing. Functional Areas Microsoft Clipart
  30. 30. Somatic Sensory Area Located in the anterior portion of the parietal lobe. Processes tactile senses- pain, temperature, touch. The homunculus shown to the left demonstrates the relationship of features and their number of sensory receptors by size. Functional Areas
  31. 31. Gustatory Area Inferior region of parietal lobe. Responsible for taste. Ha! Ha! What book did Gus Tation write? Tasty Treats for Your Tongue Functional Areas Microspft Clipart
  32. 32. Speech Language Area Responsible for incorporating words into verbal output. Functional Areas
  33. 33. General Interpretation Area Overlaps the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. Association of cumulative information from senses. Functional Areas
  34. 34. Visual Area Located in the posterior portion of the occipital lobe. Processes vision. Functional Areas VISUAL AREA
  35. 35. Brainstem The lower extension of the brain where it connects to the spinal cord. Most of the cranial nerves arise from the brainstem. The brainstem is the pathway for all fiber tracts passing up and down from peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the highest parts of the brain.
  36. 36. Located on the superior portion of the brainstem. Nerve pathway of cerebral hemispheres. Connects the pons and cerebellum with the cerebrum Auditory and Visual reflex centers. Midbrain Corpora quadrigemina- posterior portion of the midbrain separated by the cerebral aqueduct. Controls reflexes for vision and hearing. Midbrain Brainstem
  37. 37. Pons Located in the middle of the brainstem. Respiratory center that controls rate and depth of breathing. Pons Brainstem
  38. 38. Medulla Oblongata Located in the inferior portion of the brainstem. Crossing of motor tracts. Controls heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Centers for coughing, gagging, swallowing, and vomiting are located here. Ha! Ha! Who wrote the book “The Importance of the Medulla? Y.U. Breathe Brainstem
  39. 39. Reticular Formation Located throughout the posterior portion of the brainstem. Controls motor activities of visceral organs. Controls sleep/wake cycles. Damage to this area may result in coma. Plays a role in alertness, fatigue, and motivation to perform various activities. Brainstem
  40. 40. Diencephalon Hypothalamus Epithalamus Thalamus Pituitary Gland Limbic System Pineal Gland Mammillary Bodies Olfactory Bulb Optic Chiasm
  41. 41. Hypothalamus Located inferior to and slightly anterior to the thalamus. Controls regulation of metabolism, temperature, and water and electrolyte balance. Holds many set points in homeostasis. Diencephalons
  42. 42. Limbic System Olfactory pathways: Amygdala and their different pathways. Hippocampus and its different pathways. Sex, rage, fear; emotions. Integration of recent memory, biological rhythms. Diencephalons
  43. 43. Pituitary Gland Located inferior to the hypothalamus. It secretes many hormones controlling growth, development, and puberty. Diencephalons
  44. 44. Mammillary Bodies Located inferior to the hypothalamus. It is the reflex center for smell. Diencephalons
  45. 45. Epithalamus Located posterior to the thalamus. Houses the pineal gland. Diencephalons
  46. 46. Thalamus Located directly superior to the midbrain. It relays incoming messages to the proper centers of the brain. Diencephalons
  47. 47. Pineal Gland Located posterior to the thalamus in the epithalamus. Produces melatonin. Melatonin helps to regulate circadian rhythms (daily and seasonal cycles of sleep and wakefulness) and boosts immune function. Converts signals from the nervous system into an endocrine signal. Diencephalons
  48. 48. Olfactory Bulb Diencephalons Located on the underside of each frontal lobe. Contain the cell bodies of olfactory receptor neurons and the nerve tracts connecting it to the olfactory cortex.
  49. 49. Optic Chiasm Diencephalons Where the optic nerves from each eye meet and cross. They go back through the optic tracts to the occipital lobe.
  50. 50. Cerebellum Located inferior and posterior to the cerebrum. Two hemispheres composed of outer gray matter and inner white matter. Controls posture, balance, equilibrium, and coordination of skeletal muscles. It is said to look like cauliflower. Who wrote the book “It’s a Balancing Act”? Sara Bellum Ha! Ha!
  51. 51. Lateral Ventricles Large ventricles located in both hemispheres. These contain large masses of choriod plexuses. Ventricles
  52. 52. Third Ventricle Located in the diencephelon superior to the thalamus. Chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles
  53. 53. Fourth Ventricle Located medially to the brainstem and the cerebellum. Chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles
  54. 54. Choriod Plexuses Located on the roof of the third ventricle and in the fourth ventricle. Tangled masses of capillaries that secrete cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles
  55. 55. Cerebral Aqueduct A canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid that connects the third and fourth ventricles. Ventricles
  56. 56. Meninges Dura mater Pia mater Arachnoid mater
  57. 57. Pia Mater The protective layer that clings to the surface of the brain. Meninges
  58. 58. Arachnoid Mater The middle layer of the meninges that has a net-like mesh (spider web-like). In the spaces between the fibers, there is cerebrospinal fluid. Meninges
  59. 59. Dura Mater In Latin, it means “hard mother”. It is the thick, protective outer covering on the surface of the brain. Meninges
  60. 60. Want to Quit ??YES NO