Uday salunkhe unravelling the mystical indian organization culture


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This article talks about Unravelling the Mystical Indian Organization Culture. It has been co- authored by Dr. Uday Salunkhe, Director of the prestigious Welingkar Institute of Management and Research.

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Uday salunkhe unravelling the mystical indian organization culture

  1. 1. UNRAVELLING THE MYSTICAL INDIAN ORGANISATION CULTURE – CUES FOR GLOBALISATION Prof Dr Uday Salunkhe, Dr P S Rao, Prof Ms Ketna L Mehta Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai*Abstract: This paper is a culmination of a research study conducted in India on “Changing face ofIndian Organisation Culture” In particular this paper identifies and groups companies into foursegments and dissects culture into: Organisation communication, Management team evaluation,work group assessment, management self-perception, organisation relations and organisationchanges. This grouping and specific insights into the Indian cultural dimensions throws upinteresting cues for the global corporation intending to tie up or with Indian companies.Introduction:A study of Indian culture is a mystical and fascinating voyage into the realm of esoteric, unique,typical images. The Indian civilization itself is over 5000 years old and is one of the most ancientand well-preserved cultures. This fact is very significant as it reflects on the way individualsinteract and behave as leaders, teams and groups. With globalization and the cross-pollination ofideas, products, services the success or failure of any organization still rests with the connectivityand blending of people. The trust, faith and acceptance of different views is a fallout of theembedded culture called memetics - the study of memes, a term coined by Richard Dawkins todenote the gene of culture, that is the hypothetical building blocks of culture which may behaveanalogously to genes in biology. The cultural Origins of the Indian subcontinent can be trackedback to the Indus valley civilizations, the remains of which are cherished today as archeologicaltreasures. Here is some information on Indian Sculpture. Today, the cultural diversity is markedby 25 states and 7 union territories and 24 chief Indian languages. Indias economy Indiaseconomy is a mixture of traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide rangeof modern industries, and a multitude of support services. Faster economic growth in the 1980spermitted a significant increase in real per capita private consumption. A large share of thepopulation, perhaps as much as 40%, remains too poor to afford an adequate diet. Financialstrains in 1990 and 1991 prompted government austerity measures that slowed industrial growthbut permitted India to meet its international payment obligations without rescheduling its debt.Policy reforms since 1991 have extended earlier economic liberalization and greatly reducedgovernment controls on production, trade, and investment, The strong winds of the globalizationhave swept Indian shores and the IT software sector, BPO, Pharma & Biotech sectors have putIndia prominently on the Global map. Kautilaya’s writing in the Arthashastra depicts that thefoundation of India’s social culture rested on a developed structure of law with popularsovereignty, organized administrative and judicial system, assurances of fundamental right andliberties of the people, rights of inheritance and succession, ownership and corporateorganisation. In approximately all mattes of life the rule of law was the governing principles.However, the Indian thinking about law starts from the concept of rit which is of Vedic origin.The rit, also known as order has been the basis of Indian culture, legal theory, politics andphilosophy. The threads of Indian more and practices were spun around the concept of rit whichregulated individuals and social activities for achieving all the true goals of life in a just andequitable manner. 1
  2. 2. India is proud of the adage “Unity in Diversity” which translates into a prolific merging of colour,caste, creed ideologies, and religions. India is one of the oldest civilizations and Indian culture is5000 yrs old. There are specific Indian cultural habits. After a meal, Indians have ‘saunf’ or‘paan’ which is supposed to aid the digestive process.“These paan shops”and packed labels areavailable in all corners of the world now.At home generally shoes, chappals,(footwear) areremoved outside before stepping in.At Places of worship like a temple or Gurudwara footwear isnot worn as a mark of respect to the diety. Honouring a elder or senior person with a Namaste,with head bowed touching their feet is part of the culture to demonstrate respect. A senior personin age and at the top of the hierarchy in an organisation is ‘listened’ to and instructions followedwithout disagreeing. It’s a mark of respect for the status of the person.Indian Culture & effect on Business:Any Organisational policy has to consider the inherent culture of the community that it has as itscore employees. As an example the government owned Airline, Indian Airlines & Air India tilldate has the saree as its attire and uniform for its airhostess and staff. The communication to itscustomers would be that they serve them with the same hospitality that ancient India was wellknown for.There are over 25 festivals during the year. Each festival has a unique significance to thecommunity at large. Corporate gifting is generally a part of business culture and as per hierarchiesappropriate gifts are given. Handing them over personally by visiting their homes / offices is amark of respect and interpersonal relations. The President / MD would utilize this opportunity toinvite the employees along with their family members to have a one to one interaction with themand enjoy the festival with sweets and relevant cuisine.Food:Dr. Swati Piramal of Nicholas Piramal, a huge pharma company in India has openly stated thatplenty of business deals have been sealed after savouring her personally hand-made dessertsserved at her home. The personal touch is extremely important. Rather than dining out in arestaurant or catering, making a special dish and serving in personally at home conveys a deepsense of bonding and caring. Infact, she never repeats her desserts too, which is again anindication of interest for the businees guests.During Festivals, there is a community lunch where all the members of the organization, sittogether and enjoy a meal together. In the Indian culture, food is always served to the elders andchildren first. Thus, when the CEO hands a plate / thali to his employee and coaxes him/ her toeat first – it transforms the employee with this kind of respect; where hierarchy play a veryimportant role. This gesture cultivates the employee and s/he is willing to go that extra mile infuture where work is concerned. This gesture is also noticed and talked about which gives theleader a benevolent image. Conversely when there is a pooja (Satyanarayan) and the CEO isinvited and he participates in the proceedings which are in a humble surrounding, it elevates theemployees morale and sense of belonging with the organization. Eating Together, with nodifferentiation and serving others – whatever their level in the hierarchy builds bridges within theorganisation. 2
  3. 3. 1. Organisation cultureFew countries in the world have such an ancient and diverse culture as Indias. Stretching back inan unbroken sweep over 5000 years, Indias culture has been enriched by successive waves ofmigration, which were absorbed into the Indian way of life. (www.lokpriya.com)It is this variety which is a special hallmark of India. Its physical, religious and racial variety is asimmense as its linguistic diversity. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indiancivilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day.The Indian calendar is one long procession of festivals. These are as varied in origin as they arelarge in number. There are innumerable national, regional, local, religious, seasonal and socialfestivities. This is not surprising considering the fact that India is the land of gods, goddesses,saints, gurus and prophets.Festivals here are characterised by colour, gaiety, enthusiasm, feasts and a variety of prayers andrituals. of this land.Here is a list of some of the festivals:Baisakhi , Buddh Purnima, Christmas Deepawali ,Dussehra,Easter ,Ganesh Chaturthi ,Good Friday , Hola Mohalla Holi, New Year Days ,Onam ,ParsiFestivals , Pongal , Rakhi ,Ramnavami , Dussehra, Rath Yatra,Shivratri , Ugadi, Id , Janamashtmi, Ladakh Festival , Lohri , Mahavir Jayanti , Makar Sankranti , MuharramOne more is cricket. Whenever there is a cricket match with India playing, the offices aredeserted and employees take leave from work watch it on television. Festivals account for awhole lot of manday lost from the workplace.ReligionsIn India, religion is a way of life. It is an integral part of the entire Indian tradition. For themajority of Indians, religion permeates every aspect of life, from common-place daily chores toeducation and politics. Zorastrains India is home to Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism,Jainism, Sikhism and other innumerable religious traditions. Hinduism is the dominant faith,practised by over 80% of the population. Besides Hindus, Muslims are the most prominentreligious group and are an integral part of Indian society. In fact India has the second largestpopulation of Muslims in the world after Indonesia.Common practices have crept into most religious faiths in India and many of the festivals thatmark each year with music, dance and feasting are shared by all communities. Each has its ownpilgrimage sites, heroes, legends and even culinary specialties, mingling in a unique diversity thatis the very pulse of society. To bond with their employees, organisations take them en masse toshirdi (Samadhi to SaiBaba) or Vaishnodevi in Jammu. There are fifteen national languages recognized by the Indian constitution and these are spokenin over 1600 dialects. 3
  4. 4. Indias official language is Hindi in the Devnagri script. However, English continues to be theofficial working language. For many educated Indians, English is virtually their first language,and for a great number of Indians who are multi-lingual, it will probably be the second. ThoughSanskrit the mother of all languages, has India as its birthplace it is not so widely prevalent as aspoken language.The country has a wide variety of local languages and in many cases the State boundaries havebeen drawn on linguistic lines. Besides Hindi and English, the other popular languages areAssamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Malayalam,Marathi, Punjabi, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.Attire:One of the powerful attractions in India is the colourful and diversified attire of its people. Thesilk saris, brightly mirrored cholis, colorful lehangas and the traditional salwar-kameez havefascinated many a traveller over the centuries.Though the majority of Indian women wear traditional costumes, the men in India can be foundin more conventional western clothing. Shirts and trousers are worn by men from all regions inIndia. However, men in villages are still more comfortable in traditional attire like kurtas, lungis,dhotis and pyjamas. In the corporate world, it’s quite a common sight to see women in trousersand suits as well as traditional attire.Indian dressing styles are marked by many variations, both religious and regional and one islikely to witness a plethora of colors, textures and styles in garments worn by the Indians. © 2000 lokpriya.com. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. Cuisine The food available in India is as diverse as its culture, its racial structure, its geographyand its climate. The essence of good Indian cooking revolves around the appropriate use ofaromatic spices. The skill lies in the subtle blending of a variety of spices to enhance rather thanoverwhelm the basic flavour of a particular dish. These spices are also used as appetisers anddigestives. Indians are extremely particular about their food and its style of cooking; and prettyvocal too about their comments on the canteen food provided in the company premises. Eventoday before & after meals they offer prayers. A meal is rounded off with the after-dinner paanor betel leaf which holds an assortment of digestive spices like aniseed, cloves, arecanut, andcardamom.People:India for centuries has been regarded as a nation of the learned and the knowledgeable. A roll callof honour, a parade of distinguished personalities from all walks of life - the stalwarts of thefreedom movement to Noble laureates, from politicians to scientists, from social activists tosportspersons, from economists to artistes, from industry icons to philosophers - men and womenwho have made India proud in the last one hundred and fifty years; beginning of an effort tochronicle their lives as a tribute to their contributions. Indian Music is as diverse as its culture.Ranging from classical music (which invented the first ever percussion musical instrument) toIndian fusion jazz to bebop.ORGANISATION CULTURE"How do we measure the success of an organization or company? Is it all about profit? Arecompanies and organizations becoming the most important units in our society? How importantis it for managers to understand the underlying cultural and value systems of theiremployees?."(Dr. Jagadish Pathak, 2001)The term "organisation" is defined as "the action of organising, the structure of an organisedbody, the fact or process of becoming organised." The term "organise" is defined as "to form intoa whole with inter-dependent parts;" to give a definite and orderly one at that, which means that itis formed to achieve some purpose. An organisation is a social group deliberately created andmaintained for the achievement of specific objectives. In other words, an organisation is aconscious creation. It consists of human beings who are directed to achieve some explicit goals.When human beings are employed to achieve these goals, division of labour inevitably followsand a hierarchical structure of authority emerges. The basic unit of an organisation is role, notpersons. This must be kept in mind. This is why it continues in existence despite change ortransfer of incumbents to the role. One of the oldest scriptures pertaining to the great Indiancivilisation and heritage vividly explains this particular aspect of organisation and the division oflabour in a political fashion.The most vexing and unresolved problems confronting management today, especially in theIndian managerial scenario, is that of satisfying the members in an organization. Research in thearea of motivation has produced valuable insights into how hierarchical leaders should behave.But they are still by and large helpless when faced with the necessity of changing the behaviourof persons having basic personality defects. Though we assign these "defects" to personality,these are essentially the defects of a wrong organisational policy borrowed from the West andimplemented in the East. Organisations have individual cultures peculiar to themselves. Thebehaviour of people belonging to organisations is conditioned by their cultural patterns. 5
  6. 6. Some of these are traditions. It is the vocational modes of thoughts, methods of production,habitual manner of accomplishing tasks, the social structure of the people and group rivalrywhich prevail.Management scholars pay a good amount of attention to these industrial anthropologicaldevelopments in organisations. What is needed is a realisation of the importance of culture indetermining human behaviour, even in technologically advanced industrial societies. If anemployee feels closer to the union than to his employer, the cause is partly cultural. Culture canbe changed consciously to an extent but only if the managers understand its roots.References:The author is a Senior Faculty in Management Studies and Head of the Department ofM.O.P. (A Graduate-level Programme in Modern Administrative Management) atGovernment Polytechnic Institute, Panaji (Goa). He may be contacted at: © Dr.JagdishPathak 2001© Dr.Jagdish Pathak 2001 Organisation, Culture, ManagerThe Culture Change Planner by Judd Norman offers a four-phase approach to culture change:"Anyone working to bring about lasting culture change will attest to the enormity of thetask. Without a framework, culture change appears hopelessly complex. The four-phaseNormative Systems Culture Change Process was developed in order to organize such effortsinto meaningful steps."Changing culture in many ways parallels farming. The first phase, Analysis and ObjectiveSetting, is dedicated to analyzing and preparing the soil. Phase II, Systems Introduction,plants the seed of change. The third phase, Systems Integration, is the cultural equivalent ofadding fertilizer and water so that the plant takes root and flourishes. And the fourth phase,Evaluation, Renewal and Extension, is similar to harvesting the crop and gathering new seedfor the next planting."A Brand-New Culture for the Merged Firm by Kenneth Smith looks at the possibility ofdiscarding the cultures of the constituent parts of the merged organisation and creating a newculture together. He looks at three components of organisational culture: values, work rituals andleadership. He argues that the best approach is "to define which culture and leadershipcapabilities are required to be successful in the restructuring industry and then to plan andmanage the selection and development of leaders to arrive ultimately at the intended culture." 6
  7. 7. Culture & the Individual [Return]Culture is created by the interactions between individuals. Individuals are affected by the culture.The relationship between the two needs careful study.Personality Traits and Workplace Cultureby Mark Mallinger and Ileana Rizescu offers some thoughts on the relationship between theindividual and organisational culture. The describe the Integrated Cultural Framework, whichcontains six dimensions.Individual Personality And Organizational Culture Or "Lets Change This Place So I Feel MoreComfortable" by Gerald Barkdoll explores the hypothesis that individuals (particularlyorganizational leaders) attempt to change the culture of their organizations to fit their ownpersonality preferences.International Culture IssuesDiffering national cultures can have a big effect on international mergers or joint ventures.Reinventing Organizational Culture Across International Boundaries by Wellford Wilms, DeoneZell & Dennis Cuneo looks at a successful joint venture between General Motors and Toyota.ORGANISATION CULTUREDefination:It is the way business owners and managers structure and organise the company to obtain theirobjectives. It is the cohesion of values, heroes, myths, beliefs and symbols that has come to meana great deal to people who work there.STUDY OF ORGANISATION CULTURECulture is created by the interactions between individuals. To decipher the organization culture,the authors conducted their study in the following manner:1. Read about the Company through their literature; brochures, advertising messages, Annual Reports, Press Reports.2. Study the physical settings of the Company.3. Interview Company people/employees4. Observe how people spend their time5. Test how the company greets strangers and attend telephone calls.GROUPING OF COMPANIESFor ease of study, we segmented our sample of the companies into four:-• Family-managed companies• Private sector companies• Public sector companies• Multinational companies 7
  8. 8. COMPANY SEGMENTS; WHICH WERE STUDIEDFAMILY PRIVATE PUBLIC SECTOR MULTINATI-MANAGED SECTOR COMPANIES ONALCOMPANIES COMPANIES COMPANIESNewage Industrie Thermax Indian Airlines LintasBhawani Gems The Times of India Bank of India Rhone PoulencLokhandwala Group Blue Dart Express Engineers India Ltd. Hindustan LeverChafekar Godrej Soaps Eureka ForbesEnterprises Gujarat Ambuja Johnson & JohnsonShaikh Construction Cement O & M International Blow Plast Ltd. Toyo Engineering Polychem Mitsui Corporation Century Rayon Bhor IndustriesMAIN ASPECTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE:1. OVERALL ANALYSIS:• Goals, objectives of the Organisation• Involvement of subordinates in decision making• Emphasis on Training• Work Climate and atmosphere2. ORGANISATION COMMUNICATION:• Written• Oral• Upward• Downward• Circular3. MANAGEMENT TEAM EVALUATION:• How bosses behave4. WORK GROUP ASSESSMENT:• How subordinates behave 8
  9. 9. 5. MANAGEMENT SELF-PERCEPTION: • Leadership styles 6. ORGANISATIONAL RELATIONS: • Inter-personal relationship 7. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGES: • Ability to change The study was carried out in the city of Mumbai, India through personal Interviews . After the analysis of the responses based on the questionnaire these were the salient findingsI. FAMILY MANAGED COMPANIES “ANNADATACULTURE” (Annadata in Hindi means “The one who provides”) OVERALL ANALYSIS • They prefer a multi-purpose person- an employee who will be an accountant, administrator, sales person etc. This is because they like to limit the no. of employees on roll. • The person is bound to the organization and is extremely devoted, subservient to the owner and spends his lifetime there. • Employee Turnover is kept minimum i. Good treatment – all employees are treated as part of the family and work as a unit ii. Salary on time iii. Advance loan granted to meet certain personal commitments like, Health problem, Marriages and renovation of homes. iv. Employees are involved in family celebrations like, marriages, birth of a child, etc v. Expose them to such work areas by virtue of which they may acquire skills which may not be of great importance to other organisations. • Authority i. Limited in the hands of few. ii. Unstructured relationship among people iii. No personnel policies 9
  10. 10. ORGANISATION COMMUNICATION• DownwardMANAGEMENT TEAM EVALUATION• Less emphasis on self development and trainingWORK GROUP ASSESSMENT• Owner is source of guidance for professional and personal problemsMANAGERIAL SELF PERCEPTION• Management Approach i. task oriented ii. traditional iii. hard nosed• Rarely use of improved work methods• Rarely reinforce and support positive behaviour of subordinatesORGANISATIONAL RELATIONS• Employees do not trust top management• If employees have a conflict or disagreement with management they usually work it out directly or seek modifications.ORGANISATIONAL CHANGES• Organisation does not seek adequate input from employees on those changes that affect them.PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES “WORKHARD-PLAYHARD CULTURE” ?SALIENT FEATURES1. Goals and objectives of the company are clearly defined.2. Cost and Financial data is utilised for rewards and guidance.3. Considerable emphasis on training and self-development.4. Involvement of subordinates is high5. Structured relationship amongst employees6. Achievement is recognised7. Open and candid atmosphere with a good work climate8. Good utilisation of workforce and other resources9. Adequate delegation10. Superiors have knowledge about problems faced by subordinates.11. Good Co-ordination amongst work units.12. High productivity standards.13. Freedom to work14. Performance evaluation is guided by merit irrespective of age15. Perks/ Perquisites are in proportion to the amount of profitability. 10
  11. 11. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES: ‘TARGET CULTURE’SALIENT FEATURES ARE:1. The emphasis is on quantitative budgets and task-oriented.2. Well-defined Goals & Objectives which are reviewed periodically.3. Performance Evaluation based on results4. Openness/ Candidness professed but not practised5. Downward Communication6. Power in the hands of few7. Productivity Standards are high8. High Confidence in subordinates9. Roles and Responsibilities are very clear10. Risk-taking is lowWORK CULTURE• Most of the managers are perceived as task oriented and realistic• Very few are perceived as imaginative and futuristic.• Risk taking is low• Subordinates do not know where bosses stand on controversial issues.OVERALL ANALYSIS• Openness and candidness, professed but not practised• Low involvement of employees in decision-making, problem-solving, policy changes etc.SUPERIORS AS PERCEIVED BY SUBORDINATES• There is not much sharing of power/ authority• Not much concern/ adequate concern is shown about physical or psychological working conditions.• Very high stress on productivity• Organisation roles and responsibilities very clear, without any overlapping.SUBORDINATES AS PERCEIVED BY SUPERIORS• The subordinates role is mostly seen as one of dependancy and conformity.• Subordinates work standards are maintained high• Within the group good lateral communication 11
  12. 12. PUBLIC SECTOR COMPANIES ‘CHALTA HAI CULTURE’(Chalta hai in hindi means “it doesn’t matter” or “everything goes”)THE SALIENT FEATURES ARE: ?• Overstaffing• Limited Vision, for the Chief Executive’s tenure is for two years• Major decisions influenced by Ministry• Good emphasis on training & development• Work climate does not encourage employees to do their best and perform well.• Organisation does not reward personnel on the basis of merit• Emphasis on the written word and toe little oral communication.• Organisation does not promote creative thinkers and innovative performers.• Lack of attention to creative thinkers and innovative performers• Work environment tends to increase absenteeism, slackness & leads to unproductivity.FOREIGN-AFFILIATED COMPANIES ‘HYBRID CULTURE’SALIENT FEATURES:• There is considerable influence of the culture of the foreign collaborated Company.• Managers at all levels participate in setting goals• Good amount of emphasis on HRD• Full utilisation of Resources• Excellent work climate for employees to give their best.FOREIGN AFFILIATED COMPANIESOVERALL ANALYSIS• There is adequate delegation of authority co-operation within departments is a regular norm.• The resources of the organisation are fully utilised.• People in the organisation are open and candid with management. There is an excellent work climate for employees to give their best.ORGANISATION COMMUNICATION• Written• DownwardMANAGEMENT TEAM EVALUATION• High productivity standards• Continous improvement• High team spirit• Clear Job description 12
  13. 13. WORK GROUP ASSESSMENT• Full utilisation of Resources• Employees have pride in themselves and their work• Freedom to workMANAGERIAL SELF-PERCEPTIONOrganisational Relations:• Trust• Organisational DevelopmentORGANISATION CHANGES• Communication is circular• High productivity standards• Emphasis given on continuous improvement.• Work groups are successful in accomplishing their goals consistently• The organisation takes considerable effort in moulding the new employee.• Policies and major decisions decided by foreign partner and have implementation difficulties.CONCLUSION: a) The positive factors which lead to the success of Companies • Consensus decision-making • Open environment • Effective dialogue between superiors and subordinates • Organisation environment • Democratic, Participative Management • Flexible Organisation • Emphasis on right recruitment and selection • Adequate induction/ orientation programs mould an employee in the Organisation Culture • Healthy succession Policy • Sense of belongingness • Opportunities to grow, emphasis on HRD. • Free information flow • Employees of different age groups 13
  14. 14. CLARITY OF OBJECTIVES/ PERFORMANCE EVALUATION• Well defined Goals and objectives• Periodically evaluated• The employees at various levels are involved in setting these goals and objectives; however in some cases we find that the Participation level is low.• Performance evaluation based on results achieved. In some cases it is observed that there is excessive pressure for results.ORGANISATION COMMUNICATION• Most of the communication is downward• Although at operational level the communication is adequate, the same however is inadequate in organisational changes, policy changes etc. b) Following Factors were found Detrimental from the Organisation Culture point of view:• Mistakes committed not tolerated• Lack of respect for employees• Technical obsolescence• Autocratic leadership style• Militancy of labour• Organisational conflicts and non-resolution of the same at the appropriate time• Discouragement of Innovation• Favouritism• Unhealthy working conditions• Subordinates not taken into confidenceCHANGES REQUIRED• Greater autonomy• Longer tenure for the chief executive• Rewarding personnel on the basis of merit and not merely seniority• Open atmosphere• Good utilisation of human energies• High productivity standards 14
  15. 15. ReferencesMalcolm Warner; Pat Joynt, 2003; Managing Across Cultures; Australia; Thomson LearningBasch Michael; Customer Culture:How FedEx and Other Companies Put the Customer FirstEvery Day,2002; N/PreMitchel Charles; International Business Culture, 2000; USA; World Trade PreDeal T E; Corporate Cultures-the Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, 2000; New York; PerseusSadler Philip; Managing Change, 1996; London; Kogan PageBerger Brigitte; Culture of Entrepreneurship, 1991; New Delhi; T.McGraw-HillCraig Hickman; Creating Excellence:Managing Corporate Culture,Strategy & Change in theNew Age, 1984; New York; Penguin GroupCapra Fritjoe; Turning Point:Science,Society And Rising Culture, 1983; London; FlamingoD. Amarchand; Corporate Culture and Organisational Effectiveness ,1992; New Delhi;Globle BusinessS Bhattacharyya; Achieving Managerial Excellence: Insights from Indian Organisations, 1989;New Delhi; MacmillanOden. Howard; Managing Corporate Culture, Innovation, and Intrapreneurship Deal E.Terrence; Kennedy. A. Allan; The New Corporate Cultures: Revitalizing the Workplaceafter Downsizing, Mergers, and ReengineeringFairholm.W. Gilbert; Leadership and the Culture of TrustDeeks John; Business and the Culture of the Enterprise SocietyAngie Mary ; Salva Ramirez; McDonalds: A Prime Example of Corporate Culture, in PublicRelations QuarterlyStein. HowardListening Deeply: An Approach to Understanding and Consulting in Organizational Culture 15
  16. 16. Author’s ProfileProf. Dr. Uday Salunke Director - Welingkar Institute of Management is amechanical engineer with a management degree in Operations, and a Doctorate inTurnaround Strategies. He has 12 years of experience in the corporate world includingMahindra & Mahindra, ISPL and other companies before joining Welingkar in 1995 asfaculty for Production Management. Subsequently his inherent passion, commitment anddedication toward the institute led to his appointment as Director in 2000. Dr. Salunkhehas been invited as visiting fellow at the Harvard Business School, USA and EuropeanUniversity, Germany. He has also delivered seminars at the Asian Institute ofManagement, Manila and has been awarded "The Young Achievers Award-2003" in thefield of Academics by the Indo American Society recently. 16