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This article gives an in depth analysis on the Pedagogical Changes And Challenges For The Future Growth Of Decision Sciences. It has been co- authored by Dr. Uday Salunkhe, Director of the prestigious ...

This article gives an in depth analysis on the Pedagogical Changes And Challenges For The Future Growth Of Decision Sciences. It has been co- authored by Dr. Uday Salunkhe, Director of the prestigious Welingkar Institute of Management and Research.

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    Uday salunkhe   pedagogical changes and challenges Uday salunkhe pedagogical changes and challenges Document Transcript

    • Pedagogical Changes And ChallengesFor The Future Growth Of DecisionSciencesProf. Dr. Uday Salunkhe & Dr. P. S. RaoAbstractKnowledge, Innovation and change in business schools have not been researched asintensively as business and industrial organizations anywhere. If these three are to flourishin B-schools it is critical that the mechanism which can sustain and encourage should beunderstood clearly. The significance of these three raises the need of new teaching andlearning methodologies. B-schools require constant monitoring to identify the areas ofpotential improvement and to improve the quality of teaching and learning models. Anattempt is made in this paper to address the new challenges and emerging issues for bothteaching and practice of decision sciences.Key words: Knowledge, Innovation, change, teaching methodologies.IntroductionManagement Science (MS), or Decision Science (DS) is the discipline ofusing scientific research-based principles, strategies and other analyticalmethods, such as mathematical modeling to improve any organizationsability to enact rational, meaningful business management decisions. Thefield is also known as Operations research (OR) in the United States, oroperational research in the United Kingdom. These three terms are oftenused interchangeably to describe the same field.Decision Sciences are concerned with developing and applying modelsand concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management4
    • issues and solve managerial problems. The models used can often berepresented mathematically, but sometimes computer-based, visual orverbal representations are used as well or instead. The range of problemsand issues to which management science has contributed insights andsolutions is vast. It includes, deciding the appropriate place to site newfacilities such as a warehouse or factory, identifying possible futuredevelopment paths for parts of the telecommunications industry,establishing the information needs and appropriate systems to supply themwithin the health service, and identifying and understanding the strategiesadopted by companies for their information systems.In the modern economic scenario all over the world- "Management" - as astream of education and training has acquired new dimensions.Management as a Decision Science is an exciting field where you can havean immediate impact on the operations of any business. The field ofManagement is dynamic in nature. New tools and techniques arecontinually being introduced to improve the efficiency, productivity, andprofitability of any organization. All organizations and their departments,functions, or groups use Management methodologies, which includeproblem solving techniques and guidelines for various related activities.ObjectivesThe main objectives of this paper are1. to examine the present status of management education and to find out ways for quality improvements in the current system so that business responds to current paradigm shifts and global dynamics.2. schools to improve the quality of teaching and learning models.MethodologyThe methodology used was secondary data sources and survey of literatureavailable on the internet, journals, newspapers and the proceedings of theAnnual Conventions conducted by AMDISA, South Asian ManagementForum, AIMS, IAMD and ICUBER. This gave a broad overview of what hasbeen happening in the areas of management education in different businessschools.5
    • Quality of Management Education - challenges of changing scenarioThe world around us is changing and changing very fast. The speed ofchange is so fast that we cannot turn back. The changes are visible inmultiple forms and in multiple directions. The qualitative aspects ofmanagement education are as important as its technical aspects. It shouldequip students with management skills and expertise and develop in themthe right attitude.Knowledge is the driving force in the rapidly changing globalised economyand society. Quantity and quality of specialized human resources inmanagement education determine their competence in the global market.Emergence of knowledge as driving factor results in both challenges andopportunities. It is well known that the growth of the global economy hasincreased opportunities for those countries with good levels of education.In a true sense, Internationalization of management education needsnumber of changes and the thrust areas of management educationrequiring quality improvement are the following:1. Course Curriculum 2.Teaching Methods 3.Teaching Faculty 4.Research and Innovation, 5.Industry Institute Linkages and 6. Foreign collaborations.1. Course CurriculumIn the context of a rapidly changing global economy, Universities / BusinessSchools have to learn to cope up with the emerging challenge. It calls forchanges rather than updating curriculum to take up the challenges. Theupdating / restructuring course curriculum includes the followingi) International Orientation The course curriculum should be of international character. The curriculum bounded by national boundaries will not serve the purpose in present scenario. The stiff competition from global players made it mandatory for every organization, to study the issues from international perspective. The studies should include global issues like gender, nuclear, economical, social, political, cultural diversity and foreign policy etc.6
    • ii) International Marketing As market is wide open for every nation and every organization, knowledge of international marketing is of utmost importance. The curriculum should include understanding of overseas markets, their needs, their purchasing patterns, opportunities, political scenario, foreign trade policy, etc. Study of principles of trade, bi-lateral and multilateral agreements, regional groupings, foreign direct investment is highly needed.iii) Understanding Foreign Language / culture There is the need for understanding of foreign consumers, their culture and language. It is said that culture changes at every 50 km, but to understanding foreign consumer, its study is of immense value. Cultural pattern gives basic information like behavioral pattern, consumption pattern, likes and dislikes, etc. So there is a need for organized programmes like Cultural Immersion Programme, Language studies Programme etc., in collaboration with foreign universities / organizations. It is a novel way to know about diversity in culture and developing partnership /collaboration with other higher educational institutions around the globe, The universities/ Institutions have to take entrepreneurial role and be more proactive in negotiating and arriving at mutually satisfactory exchange agreements.iv) Understanding Technicalities of Foreign Trade Practices With the emergence of WTO, the International trade is governed by unique trade practices. There is need to understand these unique rules of governance. So one must know the features of national and international trade. This includes study of various agreements of tariff and trade like, agreement on preshipment inspection, agreement on technical barriers to trade, agreement on valuation of goods, principles of WTO etc., and last but not the least documentation i.e. procedural part of international trade.v) Knowledge of E-commerce / Internet Internet is just not one more point in the long continuum of inventions,7
    • but a moment of real transformation that is now beginning to be appreciated. Development of Internet is a real boon for internationalization of management education.The internet education facilitates not only e-learning process but utmostneeded to understand a new trading practice i.e. electronic commerce (e-commerce). The objectives served by Internet in learning process are. a) surfing through the information highways. b) promise on-line library c) international orientation of curriculum d) facilities in learningThe motto of learning internet is that now a days e-commerce becomesthe watchword for business world. Internet has an exclusive potential toelicit business from 100 million-plus Internet users world wide. There is nosecond opinion that Internet in general and e-commerce in particular isoverturning the old rules about competition and strategy. Many companieschoose to engage in this type of business practice in addition to traditionalbusiness methods, while others use the internet exclusively to reach existingand potential customer. It also facilitates to complete the transaction overweb only. Hence keeping in mind this very fact, the knowledge, especiallyof Internet and e-commerce is of great importance.vi) Benchmarking course Curriculum against Institutes - Overseas Apart from the above, the business schools in the country must also continuously upgrade themselves by comparing themselves with their counterparts in other parts of the world. Infact they should benchmark their course curriculum against such Institutes overseas.Here the following aspects must be stressed upona) course on technology should stress not specific computer techniques, but the very dynamism of information revolution.b) course curriculum to stress on strategic planning, systems analysis and design and operations.c) inclusion of International policy study and8
    • d) offer electives like global money, market games, Asian management models, Lab in group dynamics and the like over the traditional electives offered.2. Teaching MethodsAlready we are witnessing several paradigm shifts in managementeducation. Globalization demands change in existing structure, mode ofdelivery of education system etc. thanks to the major developments ininformation technology, learning is made easier, highly customized andlearning centred. Electronically delivered educational services make useof the real time television and computer links and make interactive learningpossible. It makes it possible to bring real life experience to class room.Paradigm ShiftsA paradigm shift is taking place in higher education particularly inmanagement education. According to Barr and Tagg (1995), the paradigmthat has governed our universities is one that defined a university as "aninstitution that exists to provide instruction. Subtly but profoundly we areshifting to a new paradigm where a university becomes an institution thatexists to produce learning. Pedagogical ChangesOld paradigm of teaching and testing New paradigm of continuous learning and improvement1 Success is artificially limited to a few 1 Unlimited, continuous improvement "winners." All others are made to and successes are the aims of the consider themselves and their work as school and community. mediocre or inferior.2 Competition-based 2 Cooperation-based.3 Lessons are linear, consecutive 3 Learning is like a spiral with offshoots, segments of one-way communication. with energy directed toward continuous improvement.4 Product-oriented. Focused solely upon 4 Process-oriented. Goals are important, results, without acknowledgment of but the process of getting to the goal is their short-term nature. Grades and at least as significant. Assessments are rankings are important in themselves. used for diagnostic and prescriptive purposes.9
    • Old paradigm of teaching and testing New paradigm of continuous learning and improvement5 The system and its processes dont 5 The integrity and health of the system, matter, as long as the ends are its processes, and its people must be achieved. maintained, or the system will be suboptimized and will eventually fail.6 School is a place where teaching is 6 School is a true community of learner done to (at) students. Students are in which administrators, teachers, and passives, while teachers are active. students learn how to get better and better at the work they do together, so that everyone succeeds optimally.7 Teachers are isolated from each other 7 Teachers work together on school time by time and space. to build success with each other and with a manageable number of students in a cohort group.8 Single-discipline instruction. 8 Multi- and cross-discipline instruction.9 School learning is restricted to the 9 School learning is the foundation for curriculum, often in its narrowest life-wide, life-deep, and lifelong interpretation. learning. 3-Dimensional Learning.10 Tayloresque factory model: Rule by 10 New model: Lead by helping and by compliance, control, command. providing vision and support, making it Authoritarian, hierarchical. possible for teachers and students to Management based upon fear. take pride in their work together and to have joy in the processes and products of continuous improvement. (In Japan this is called kaizen.)11 Centralized control over resources, 11 Site-based management of resources, curriculums, teaching methods, length curriculums, teaching methods, length of class periods, etc. of class periods, etc.12 External validation of truth and the 12 External and internal truths are "one right answer" for every question discovered through teachers and asked by teacher, text, test. students questioning together.13 Testing as the primary means of 13 Testing, when appropriate, to help assessing results of the learning modify (improve) the teaching-learning process. process. Other modes include process portfolios, exhibitions, performances, etc.10
    • Old paradigm of teaching and testing New paradigm of continuous learning and improvement14 Instruction is set up to generate (right) 14 Instruction is set up to generate better answers. and better questions, followed by student inquiry into some of the areas of those questions. Student performances demonstrate improve understanding of the nature of the questions and some of the ways they might be solved. Teachers are15 Teachers are expected to know 15 experts in their field. But more everything about their subjects. They importantly, they are the most give students data and information; enthusiastic and dedicated learners in students memorize it, then forget the classroom. Students learn from most of it. teachers, other students, the community and other sources, and incorporate these learnings into their lives, applying their insights as appropriate to real-life challenges.Teaching to learning paradigm shiftThe Learning ParadigmA paradigm shift is taking place every where in the world in highereducation. In its briefest form, the paradigm that has governed our B-Schoolis this: A B-School is an institution that exists to provide instruction.Subtly but profoundly we are shifting to a new paradigm: A B-School is aninstitution that exists to produce learning. This shift changes everything. Itis both needed and wanted.The Learning Paradigm frames learning holistically, recognizing that thechief agent in the process is the learner. Thus, students must be activediscoverers and constructors of their own knowledge. In the LearningParadigm, knowledge consists of frameworks or wholes that are created orconstructed by the learner. Knowledge is not seen as cumulative and linear,like a wall of bricks, but as a nesting and interacting of frameworks. Learningis revealed when those frameworks are used to understand and act.11
    • In the Learning Paradigm, learning environments and activities are learner-centered and learner-controlled. They may even be "teacherless." Whileteachers will have designed the learning experiences and environmentsstudents use-often through teamwork with each other and other staff-theyneed not be present for or participate in every structured learn activity.The prominent changes needed in teaching methods are:i) Interactive Teaching The two way flow of information will always be more fruitful than a traditional way of teaching. Interactive teaching is the best techniques of understanding the subject.ii) Learning through real life cases They will lead to better understanding of subject than merely teaching the text. The applied nature of text always leads to the thorough understanding of the subject.iii) Continuous education The tasks of Institute just not end at educating the students once for a life time. Institute should educate their students on continuous basis. Life long education should be made available to all, at all places and all times. The student access centres should be built up all over the world. These centres will facilitate in providing a copy of related material as well as copies of information databases in CD-ROM format also.iv) Learning support through the Web This has lead to a significant interest in the implementation of the internet based teaching through the virtual classrooms. The interaction between spatially separated learners can be organized in the following ways: a) Interaction between teachers and students b) Work on assignment alone or collaboratively with other students. c) Internet Relay Chat (ITC) is a method by which students and teacher can communicate synchronically on different channel and from different locations.12
    • v) Global Study tours Global study tours should be made part and parcel of the course, the leading business school in India and abroad send the groups of students to take a review of business environment in various parts of the world. In the recent news the California University sent a group of students to India to study the Indian Business environment. Very recently the University of Mumbai sent groups of Principals and Directors from various colleges and institutes to UK, USA, Australia and Newzeland on study tours to interact with their counter parts abroad. These study tours will lead to better understanding of business environment around the globe.3. Teaching FacultyGlobalization also demands, preparing teaching faculty to take upchallenges of tomorrow. The faculty must be international in compositionto a very significant degree. Employment of teaching faculty on the basisof nationality is just not enough.If we want to internationalize the management education, faculty ofinternational composition must be recruited. This will not only result inknowing diversity in culture but also about various issues across thenational boundariesThe prominent changes need to be made arei) Core Faculty A lot of development and value addition of management students take place only in classrooms. Therefore, a critical component of core faculty is must for running a successful Management Programme. A team of dedicated and committed core faculty enables the Head of the management institution to effectively run, evaluate, improve and monitor the Programme. Paradoxically, both in universities and privately managed institutions, the situation is far from encouraging.ii) Visiting Faculty The purpose of inviting professional and practicing managers from industry and senior academics from management institutions is to bring the real life situation to classroom exposing students to practical13
    • day to day problems which the managers were facing in running the affairs of corporate world and to develop a deep theoretical insight among them. Moreover, the intention is also to build the image of the institute in industry and enhance the industry academics interaction which will ultimately facilitate arranging summer training, final placement of students and sometimes even to know the requirements of industry in terms of syllabus and courses being taught in business school etc.4. Research and InnovationManagement education system should be highly vibrant, dynamic systemwhich is constantly experimenting, innovating and evolving. It should havethe confidence to experiment and the ability to nurture innovations tosuccess. Innovation requires autonomy and strong internal institutionalmechanisms to protect quality. Any live system evolves in constant searchfor a better fit with the changing environment.Research in Decision Sciences is crucial for improving the practice andteaching of management. It is a mater of fact that quantity and quality ofresearch undertaken by Business Schools has been largely inadequate.Research is a crucial activity for promoting all round development of theinstitution and exchanging the quality of academic processes.It conveys an important message to the students, future industry leadersthat research is thus a key educational strategy to be adopted across theentire management education system.Research carried out should not be restricted to national boundary. Theresearch on various issues of international aspects is need of the time. Jointresearch programmes with leading foreign institutes or agencies can be agood option for this. Also organizing the seminars, conferences, workshopson various issues of international aspects will facilitate ina) research on various issues of national and international interestb) platform for exchanging information of international issues around the globe andc) an opportunity to know about foreign cultures, consumption pattern etc.,14
    • 5. Industry- Institute LinkagesIn the changing times the need for better Industry-Institute linkages iscompelling. If education has to keep pace with the technological and jobmarket changes, it has to take proper steps to develop industry instituteinterface. And if industries strive to become cost effective and efficientthey will also have to ask help from the universities / Institutes.In partnership with industry can be found common goals, shared initiatives,and the mutual eagerness to create, integrate and spread new knowledge.In this mission the human resources have to be involved. Process ofeducational reconstruction and transformation is a peoples movementand when people are involved nothing can fail.Together a strengthened society can emerge, a better future and relevanteducation can flourish and happy productive individuals can thrive. Theinstitute-industry tie up is beneficial not only for the education centers i.e.the institutes and the work centres i.e. the industries but also the studentand the worker i.e. the individual. It is a symbiotic relation where the threeviz. institute, student and industry depend on each other and are benefitedmutually by this interdependence.6. Foreign CollaborationsForeign collaborations with leading Universities / B-Schools help inimproving course material, technology transfer, and joint researchprogrammes in addition to generating additional resources. This also givesboost to faculty exchange programme which in turn leads to internationalcomposition of teaching faculty.Globalization also offers new challenges as well as opportunities to theuniversities around the world in general and management education inIndia in particular. To successfully operate in a borderless world,management institutes have to maintain high quality standards, gain amulti-cultural and multi-disciplinary perspective, ability to work in differentcultures, strategic planning, developing up-to-date infrastructure facilities,and acquire the ability to internationalize their curriculum and coursesand ensure greater mobility to staff across the borders that would enrichacademic life and experience.15
    • Future challenges of Decision SciencesTodays instructors are finding that their "tried and true" teaching methodsare no longer effectively reaching todays students. Instruction mustrespond to students changing learning needs and this response can beaccomplished with continuous improvement through teachinginnovations.1. Learning Environments and Learning PreferencesThe new learning environments for this Net Generation should be active,collaborative, experiential, team based and a self- paced. The NetGenstudent prefers to learn at his own pace. They like and are comfortable withan online environment for testing, lectures and assignments. They areinformal learners, preferring "any time any place" learning to traditionalclassroom. Class time is most effective for these students when it involvesinteraction, demonstration and social networking.2. Student- Paced learningStudents prefer accessibility of information on their own terms. Not onlyshould you be posting all of your course materials online, you should alsopost them in portable formats.3. Peer-to-peer learningWhy do you think they are always asking you if they can "work together"on an assignment? They like to brainstorm and spend considerable time inonline discussions boards and blogs. In fact some of the most popularlearning environments today involve the use of Wikis (on -line editableweb encyclopaedias) and blogs. This is a culture that is very social andthrives in on-line communities.For larger projects in class, such as marketing, research survey, promotionalplan, service analysis or strategic marketing plan put your students intogroups. Just be sure that peer evaluations can be used to reduce the "freerider" effect of groups.4. Engagement and ExperienceGaming and simulations are also comfortable modes of learning for todaysstudents. Games have the true potential to excite students through16
    • competition, exploration, preparation, chance encounters and the thrill ofthe unknown. Participating in games and simulations perceive them to befun and a useful learning activity.5. Things that matter - Students SkillStudents need to be "sold" on what you are making them to do for a class,so be a marketer and sell! Students value skill-building with applicationsso as you teach them how to use software, simulations or other tools tocomplete an assignment, remind them to put that skill on their resume.Students particularly find real projects to be useful resume builders; theseprojects can act as a substitute internship and also have a tangible outcomean employer could see. Students often see even more value in doing theseconsulting projects for non-for-profit organizations as a way of serving thecommunity. Being able to double-count a project both for volunteer servicework and for marketing skills is more valuable to a student for their owninternal motivations as well as their resume.6. Learner ExpectationsStudents must be engaged using the three Hs: 1) Head 2) Heart and 3)Hands. Most NetGen students do not question the instructors knowledgeon the subject - to the contrary- they expect the instructor to be an expert inthe topic ("head") and be able to pass that knowledge on to them. NetGenstudents also need to feel that the instructor has a heart and cares for thestudents, including responsiveness and the empathy for them and theirproblems. It also includes an enthusiasm for the topic and teaching ingeneral. Finally, good teaching skills are necessary. Use of the "hands" toconvey ideas at the right level, in a clear and systematic manner, whichstimulates their interests and learning, is vital.Implementation and InnovationThe NetGen learner is here to stay and a new type of learner will be heretomorrow. As instructors, we need to acknowledge and adapt to newlearning styles, lest they "tune us out" and find the material irrelevant.Todays student is more technology savvy than ever before and theircomfort with the digital environment presents some challenges for teacherswho are often less than comfortable with this new paradigm. If you havenot already done so, begin looking at your course delivery methods andincorporate some of the technologies and methods discuused.17
    • A key factor is finding multiple solutions for learning. Engage yourself inteaching blogs, read journal articles about marketing teaching innovationsand interact with peers at conferences to exchange teaching ideas. Thinkabout a single class that involves brainstorming, peer exchange, debate,concept mapping, case involvement and an authentic project. Themultidimensional approach is the path to success.There are several learning outcomes that remain over time such ascommunication skills, critical thinking, problem solving and collaboration.The major change factor involves how these concepts and ideas arecommunicated to the students. Business School is the place to allowstudents to learn and explore new ideas and topics as they prepare for afuture that has never been more uncertain, but also one that has neverhad as many possibilities. Teaching is a process of continuous improvement, not one finding a single teaching method and staying with it forever, soyou should also continue to engage and explore the possibilities ininnovative marketing education.ConclusionsThe present state of affairs of our management education demandsimmediate attention if the drift and decay is to be avoided. The educationalculture of the 21st century warrants new reform packages and an altogetherfresh approach in tune with global futuristic trends in managementeducation. The fast expanding domains of knowledge, owing to increasingpace of information explosion, necessitates radical changes involvingnewer options of academic renewal. The need of the hour is for greaterintrospection on innovative methodologies of teaching and research inour B-Schools, the emphasis should be on improving the quality in allaspects-right from the intake of students till they are placed.References1. Achieving Quality and Continuous Improvement through Self- Evaluation and Peer Review. Accreditation Handbook of the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, St Louis, MO.2. Angelo TA (1996). Transforming assessment: high standards for higher learning, AAHE Bulletin, April, pp. 3-4.3. Ashok Chandra, Challenges in Management Education, JIMS 8M,October - December 200418
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    •   17. Lee MW, "Its Good To Be in a Business School", Business Horizons, 3/ (Summer 1960); 4-19, at p.10 18. McKeachie , W, 1999. Teaching tips, 10th ed Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 19. NISE (National Institute for Science Education), 1997 Collaborative learning: Small group learning page . http://www.wcer.edu/nise/c11/ 20. Mintu-Wimsatt, Alma, Kendra Ingram, Mary Anne Milward, and Coutney Russ (2006), "On Different Teaching Delivery Methods: What Happens to Instructor Course Evaluations?" Marketing Education Review, 16 (Fall), 49-57. 21. Naik B.M. (2000), "Industry - University partnership, Global trends and relevance for India", University News, April 14, pp 5-7 22. Pylee MV, Management Education and Future outlook, University News 44(48) November 27-December 03, 2006 23. Skipton, Charles, Erika Matulich, Raymond Papp, and John Stepro (2006), "Moving from Dumb to Smart Classrooms," Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 3 (Fall), 19-28. 24. Trehaan . Allpana (2000), "Total Quality in Management Education implementing the operational schemate through effective learning system", University News , June 5, pp 1-6. Prof. Dr. Uday Salunkhe is Group Director of We School E-mail: director@welingkar.org Dr. P. S. Rao is Dean Quality & new initiatives of We School E-mail: ps.rao@welingkar.org