Eliminates unwanted stimuli,wether they
are external or internal
The message is interpreted by assigning
meaning to the stimuli.
Responding provides feedback to the
sender of the message.
Proper association improves
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVES
Concentrate on the message.
Determine the purpose of the message.
Keep an open mind.
Minimize note taking.
Analyze the total message.
Do not talk or interrupt.
CONCENTRATE ON THE
Concentrate is key to effective
Focusing concentration and mental
energies on the message is the
foundation of effective listening.
Concentrate on the main points the
speaker is trying to convey.
DETERMINE THE PURPOSE OF
The three modes of listening are:a) cautious listening
a) Cautious Listening.
- is used when you need to understand and
remember both the general concept and
details of the message.
- is used when you need to understand only
the general concept of the message.
- listen for the main ideas.
- concentrate on details of specific interest
to you instead of on the general concept.
KEEP AN OPEN MIND
Respect the speaker’s viewpoint by not
allowing your own biases to block what is
Don’t listen just for statements that
back up your opinions and support your
It is response to the speaker, and it
lets the speaker know you are listening.
Feedback may be verbal or nonverbal.
Feedback is important to lets the
speaker know you understood the
message as it was intended.
MINIMIZE NOTE TAKING
Taking notes may interfere with the
Record key words and ideas in an
ANALYZE THE TOTAL
Use both visual and verbal observation
to analyze the message.
People don’t always say what they mean,
but body language and tone of voice are
usually accurate indicators of the intent
of the message.
DO NOT TALK OR INTTERUPT
Talking and interrupting interfere with
When you are talking, you cannot use all
the elements of effective listening.
Interrupting a speaker or having side
conversations is rude and reduces the
effectiveness of the communication.
BARRIERS TO LISTENING
Minimize physical distractions
May include sensory stimuly
temperature, smeil, and
We can limit this barrier by
at the front
room, not sitting
near at the
corridor or an open window, not
May include emotional states of
For example worry, fear, anger,
grief and depression.
A common distractions is
mentally contructing a comment
to make or a
question to ask
what is being said.
Good health and well being
play a specific role in
A hungry, nauseous, or tired
listener will find it difficult to
focus on the message and
Avoid negative nonverbal
actions by giving the speaker
Facial expressions-raising an
eyebrow, closing the eyes, or
crossing the arms can convey
a message of disinterest or
A listener should ensure that
a speaker can present his or
message at an appropriate
An individual presenting a
message should be given
edequate time so that he or
she does not have to rush.
A listener must be able to hear
and understand a speaker in
order to interpret the
Eg: trouble hearing the words,
dialects or a different
ADVANTAGES OF EFFECTIVE
Effective listening helps build relationships,
solve problems, ensure understanding,
resolve conflicts and improve accuracy.
Nonverbal communication is a message without
Example : A prospective customer received a
poorly printed letter announcing a furniture
sale. The poor printing is a nonverbal message
THE IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF
This nonverbal communication can be
A nonverbal communication may more honest
than a verbal one.
Nonverbal communication makes or helps to
make a first impression.
Nonverbal communication is always present.
TYPES OF NONVERBAL
Physical appearance will influence first
Physical appearance also influences a receiver’s
perceptions of a speaker’s socioeconomic status
Example : an individual who wears designer
clothes and expensive jewelry will transmit a
nonverbal message. People will perceive the
person to be wealthy and successful.
An advantages of using body language to
respond to a message is that it conveys instant
feedback to the sender.
Example : eye contact, body position and body
Example : an individual standing or sitting
erectly conveys confidence and pride.
Space, is used in nonverbal communication,
includes the size of physical area, proximity to
another person, and obstacles between you and the
person with whom you are speaking.
The amount of space people control influences our
attitudes and therefore, inadvertently is a form of
Communicators must be aware that the
amount of time devoted to a subject transmits
a nonverbal messages.
Example : if two people of equal credentials
were interviewing for a job and one arrived
15 minutes late for the interview, it is more
likely that the punctual applicant would be