2. Introduction <ul><li>The mangroves are angiosperms. It is one of the most important trees on earth. They have special characters like viviparous germination, pneumatophores, prop or knee roots and salt glands. These trees form a thick forest belt on the deltas, along major estuaries, and fringe the estuarine banks, as well as backwaters. Mangroves act as a barrier between sea and land, protecting vulnerable coastal communities from the impact of waves. The pools created by the mangrove root system provide spawning grounds for fish and habitat for many different species of animals, including bats, lobsters, manatees and birds. The mangrove swamps are rich in the larvae of many economically important fishes, prawns, crabs and bivalves. These are the most suitable area for feeding, breeding and nursery grounds of these marine organisms and hence important for aquaculture purposes. </li></ul>
3. The Benefits Mangroves provide many benefits to man and the marine environment. Mangrove wetlands provide breeding, nursery and feeding areas for a great variety of life, including endangered and threatened species. Mangroves also filter upland run off. Mangroves buffer wave action during intense tropical storms (including hurricanes). Mangroves hold soil during periods of heavy precipitation stabilizing shoreline sediments.
4. Where Mangroves Grow Mangrove trees are found growing luxuriantly in the intertidal regions along the estuaries, backwater, islands and other protected areas. They generally prefer soft, clay mud for their growth. These species show different salinity tolerant limits. The expanse of mangrove forest depends on the intertidal expanse, substratum and salinity of soil as well as water. The inundation of the mangrove region during flood or rides is also one of the important factors.
5. How to Plant Direct planting in the swamp Raising seedling in the nursery There are two ways of planting the mangrove seedlings.
6. Direct planting : Any intertidal area (between the high tide and low tide) where mangroves are absent and the substratum is of soft clay or mud and is inundated by regular tidal waters everyday, are suitable for direct mangrove planting. Select the sites where intertidal expanse is more When seedlings are collected, check these for any insect borer or other infections and injuries. Discard such seedlings. Select only healthy, non-infected and fully matured seedling.
7. Raising seedling in the nursery : This method is useful where the mangrove species are not available in plenty. This also has many advantages, like selected species are available in large quantities. Mangrove nurseries can be developed in the upper part of the intertidal region where seedlings can be grown in polyethylene bags supported with bamboo’s.
8. How to Care One the plantation is established, then there is not much to be done. Only these plantations are to be protected from the grazing cattle. Periodical checking is helpful in finding out whether there is any need to replacement. But this is very minor. There is no need of any insecticide, pesticide, fertilizer, or anything but only protection. Plants will grow on their own.
9. Sponsor Coastal Conservation and Educational Foundation, Inc.
10. Conclusion <ul><li>We have learned all about how mangrove swamps live and grow and some reasons why we should treasure them. We have even learned how we can protect them and taken action to ensure that we do. Therefore, It’s time to us to plant more and continue to live and act in a way that protects the mangrove swamps . </li></ul>
11. Pictorials The speaker of the orientation.
12. Learning more…
13. Very attentive and alert to the speaker's verbal and nonverbal behavior
14. Busy listening to the speaker. After the orientation
15. Ready to Go!!! Waiting for the other School Bus