Assessing student learning in diverse ways: Portfolios Rosalind Duhs Centre for the Advancement of Learning and Teaching (CALT) This document is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales license, available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/.
support the development, demonstration and valid assessment of a wide range of personal, professional and academic capabilities, both inside and outside a programme of study; (Personal Development Planning PDP)
provide evidence of work done and learning achieved;
show reflection on and analysis of evidence and learning;
support the integration of learning from different parts of the course and beyond.
Plan portfolio assessment in line with intended learning outcomes and course learning and teaching activities to enhance higher order learning
Planning aligned assessment methods Think and act like a biologist, historian, or computer scientist, etc. Teaching and Learning Activities Assessment methods Learning outcomes, learning activities and assessment are tightly linked. Learning outcomes Act like a biologist, historian or computer scientist Learn to act like a biologist, historian or computer scientist
What is learning/higher order learning (HOL)? From: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/cap/resources/pubs/eguides/eskills/guidelines/higher/ Originality, Creativity and Innovation Established Principles and Relationships Synthesis and Conceptualisation Organisation and Structure Arguments, Reasoning and Justification Techniques and Procedures Evaluation and Decisions Terminology, Language and Protocols Personal Interpretation and Meaning Facts, Assertions, Rules and Laws Formation and generation of Knowlege and practice of ADAPTIVE LEARNING Knowledge created = HOL ADOPTIVE LEARNING Knowledge transmitted
Base assessment tasks on using rather than replicating knowledge, e.g. assess through problem-solving which requires knowledge-based analysis and judgement
Assess in varied ways and include tasks (eg Modified Essay Questions - MEQs, projects) which require deep engagement and relate to real-life roles and competencies
Embed feedback and promote student understanding of how work is assessed Figure: Berry O’Donovan & Chris Rust ASKe Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, (Assessment Standards Knowledge exchange) Oxford Brookes University
Evaluate the potential impact of portfolios on student learning
A systematic review of the use of portfolios (in Burns 2008)
Available evidence demonstrates that portfolios can support both the learning and assessment of general competencies ...
Success factors included: concurrent use in both formative promotion of learning and summative assessment; (mentor)
Summative assessment of the portfolio was important in ensuring portfolio learning maintained its status alongside other assessed material.
E-portfolios: flexibility (Woodward 2004) Digital portfolios: Fact or fashion?
‘ One of the inherent dangers with digital portfolios, for example, is that the technological novelty of the product could overshadow the purpose of the portfolio. The danger is that learning to use the technology itself could then subsume the learning opportunities of portfolio construction.’
‘ There is strong evidence from this research that digital portfolios need to be developed within a carefully designed framework in the same way the paper-based portfolios have been developed …’
E-portfolios: flexibility (Woodward 2004) Digital portfolios: Fact or fashion? Cont …
… the combination of text, audio, graphic and video based representation of information collectively termed ‘multimedia’ student engagement in learning
Ownership of author and user: ‘hyper-linked portfolios offer choice to their audience’ (p.230)
‘ Hartnell-Young and Morris, however, caution that a “multimedia portfolio is not expected to be a graphic designer’s dream, the emphasis should be on learning” (1999, p. 28).’
E-portfolios: comparison three universities (Wilhelm 2006 p.70)
‘ Implementing e-portfolios helps to develop a “culture of evidence” (Barrett & Wilkerson, 2004) for ongoing program improvement. E-portfolios are a useful assessment tool in this process.’
‘… reflection is a process of critically examining one’s present and past practices as a means of building one’s knowledge and understanding in order to improve practice.’
‘… a more comprehensive understanding of reflection was evident and many … reported that articulating their personal theory (often for the first time in their career) impacted positively on their ability to reflect on practice.’
The effectiveness of the use of a portfolio is enhanced by combining portfolio assessment with interview.
‘ a single-examiner portfolio interview focusing on standardised questions and a global rating scale is a feasible portfolio assessment method that can be used to assess clinical reasoning skills in an integrated, professionally authentic manner.’
Baume, D. (2001). A briefing on assessment of portfolios [Electronic Version]. Learning and Teaching Support Network Generic Series Assessment 6 from http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/ftp/Resources/gc/assess06portfolios.pdf
Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 2nd ed. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Burch VC, Seggie JL. (2008) Use of a structured interview to assess portfolio-based learning. Medical Education, Vol. 42 :894-900
Jones, E. (2010). Personal theory and reflection in a professional practice portfolio [Electronic Version]. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 35, 699-710 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602930902977731
Klenowski, V., Askew, S., & Carnell, E. (2006). Portfolios for learning, assessment and professional development in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 31 (3), 267-286.
Mentowski, M. and Associates (2000). Learning that lasts: integrating learning development, and performance in college and beyond . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
O’Donovan, B., Price, M., and Rust, C. (2004) Know what I mean? Enhancing student understanding of assessment standards and criteria. Teaching in Higher Education , Vol. 9, No. 3.
Rees, C. and Sheard, C. (2002) The reliability of assessment criteria for undergraduate medical students' communication skills portfolios: the Nottingham experience. Medical Education, Vol. 38, No. 2: 138-144
Wilhelm, L., Puckett, K., Beisser, S., Wishart, W., Merideth, E., & Sivakumaran, T. (2006). Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Electronic Portfolios at Three Universities [Electronic Version]. Tech Trends , 50 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/l3412700x44l4752/fulltext.pdf
Woodward, H., & Nanlohy, P. (2004). Digital portfolios: fact or fashion? [Electronic Version]. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 29, 227-238 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260293042000188492
Links from LTSS: e-portfolios http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ltss-blog/?cat=74