Designing and Planning a Teaching SessionPresentation Transcript
Designing and Planning aTeaching Session This document is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales license, available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/.
Today‟s menu• Approaches to study – some theories• Constructivism – what is it?• Video 1: outcomes• Outcomes-based planning – a background• Describing thinking skills• Activity 1: writing learning outcomes• Alternative views on outcomes• Lesson planning• Video 2: students today• Activity 2: how does this affect learning design?• Learning technology – what is available?• Activity 3: lesson planning• Video 3: design in a technology-rich context
Expected learning outcomesAt the end of this session participants should be able to:• state the rationale for using an outcome-based approach to planning teaching sessions• write expected learning outcomes for a specific course/session• discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various learning technologies• select appropriate teaching and learning activities to support outcomes• designing a teaching session using a template
Approaches to study – what a student does• Deep and surface approaches (Marton etc,’70s)• Strategic approaches (Biggs, Ramsden, ‘80s)• Approaches can be modified by designing the learning context (Biggs, ‘90s)• ‘Constructive alignment’ – congruence between – What the teacher intends learners to be able to do, know or understand (can be described as outcomes) – How they teach i.e. the activities – How they assess
So what is constructivism?• Piaget (1950s), Brunner (1960s) . . .• New learning and knowledge builds on old understanding – rarely a ‘blank slate’• Learning is not just adding knowledge but bringing change or transformation to pre- existing concepts to refine understanding and linkages – hence notion of ‘deep learning’• ‘threshold concepts’(Meyer & Land 2005)
Video 1• 4 mins
What the teacher intends students to learn:“outcomes”• Planning starts with clear learning outcomes and the aim of planning is to align our learning activities with these.• Rationale: the planning of learning experiences and assessment of student learning has a significant impact on students’ approaches to learning.• Part of a systematic or ‘rational planning’ model• Dominant in the UK since ’90s
Why is outcomes-based planning important?• Became dominant in UK Higher Education since the Dearing Report (1997)• Often used in proposals for new programmes or modules• Used in the QAA Subject Benchmark statements – set out general academic characteristics and standards of degrees in a range of subjects: http://www.qaa.ac.uk/AssuringStandardsAndQuality /subject-guidance/Pages/Subject-benchmark- statements.aspx
UCL ContextProgramme design includes(i) the educational aims of the programme, including its intended learning outcomes and how these will be communicated to students, staff and external audiences;Programme Institution Questionnaire (PIQ UG) “The programme provides opportunities for students to develop and demonstrate knowledge and understanding, qualities, skills and other attributes in the following areas: A: Knowledge and understanding B: Skills and other attributes - intellectual (thinking) skills C: Skills and other attributes - practical skills D: Skills and other attributes - transferable skills http://www.ucl.ac.uk/academic-manual/
Writing Learning OutcomesOutcomes should be• Written in a future tense (will, should be able to…)• Identify important learning requirements• Be achievable• Be assessable• Use language which students can understand• Relate to explicit statements of achievement….but ‘thinking’ outcomes perhaps most difficult to define
Alternative viewsLaurillard (1993) - learning/teaching is a rich dialogueHaggis (2003) - deep/surface models can be challengedRowland (2006) – outcomes imply a passive learner - learners may take on increasing responsibility for ‘designing’ their personal learning (PLEs)Siemens (2005) – ‘connectivism’: know how whereSfard (2007) – communities of practiceBut also... learners develop in unpredictable ways depending on their own independent motivations
Lesson Planning• aim of planning is to align our learning processes and activities with the intended learning outcomes.• assessment is particularly important• technology becoming increasingly central . . .
Designing learning activities in a technology-rich context (JISC template)http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearningpedagogy/workshops/session3.aspxIssues to take into account Issues to decide Who are your learners? What will learners do (learning What are your intended learning activity/ies)? outcomes? How will they be supported? Where does learning take place? How will learners receive What learning technologies are feedback? available? What resources will they use? What learning resources are What technologies will they use? available? What is the e-learning advantage? What are the challenges?
Why„a technology-rich context‟?• Video A Vision of Students Today• (How) do these changes affect learning design?
Learning technology at UCL• (How) do these technologies affect learning design?