The role of university education in cc adaptationppp ready


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Understanding the role university education can play in promoting climate change adaptation.....

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The role of university education in cc adaptationppp ready

  2. 2. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation: what is in it for Agriculture? </li></ul><ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>The role of University Education </li></ul><ul><li>- Teaching and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Research and Knowledge Production </li></ul><ul><li>- Community Engagement and Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>The Missing Link in Climate Change Education: Positioning the Universities Effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key messages of this paper...... <ul><li>Climate change is real and affects all of us; agriculture is highly vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change impact on agriculture is directly felt in terms of higher temperature, changes in timing and quantity/quality of rains and increase in the frequency of climate hazards, such as droughts, dry spells and floods </li></ul><ul><li>As climate change impacts agriculture, the consequences will trickle down to the rest of the economy, creating conditions that might seriously compromise socio-economic development efforts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key messages…. <ul><li>Adaptation aims at alleviating adverse impacts of climate change or take advantage of new opportunities presented by climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Universities can contribute to a better understanding of climate change issues through their core missions of teaching, research and community engagement </li></ul><ul><li>University education provides multidisciplinary professionals who can form networks and partnerships to facilitate climate change research and awareness creation, and help combat the challenges posed by climate change, especially through the promotion of adaptation strategies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Climate change is one of the most topical environmental issues in the world today </li></ul><ul><li>WHY ? </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Supply Food Production Human Health </li></ul><ul><li>Security Economic Development </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction contd... <ul><li>BUT.................Agriculture is the most vulnerable because it depends on weather and climate </li></ul><ul><li>How climate change impacts agriculture: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher temperatures, changes in timing and the quality of rains, and an increase in the frequency of climate hazards, such as droughts, dry spells and floods........ </li></ul><ul><li>We are concerned because: </li></ul><ul><li>70% of Nigeria’s population depend on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 40% of Nigeria’s GDP come from agriculture </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Flooded cocoyam at Okwudo, Imo State A drought scene in northern Nigeria </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Flooding in an urban area </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A drying up water body in Markurdi </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adaptation: what is in it for Agriculture? <ul><li>Adaptation: </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC (2001): adjustment in ecological, social and economic systems in response to observed or expected changes in climatic stimuli, and their effects and impacts in order to alleviate adverse impacts of change, or take advantage of new opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Adger et al . (2003): building coping capacity to increase the resilience of the environment and the ability of individuals, groups, communities or organisations to adjust to changes </li></ul><ul><li>In agriculture, adaptation incorporates changes in agricultural management practices in response to changes in climatic conditions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adaptation: what is in it for Agriculture? <ul><li>The aims of adaptation are to: </li></ul><ul><li>moderate the adverse effects of unavoidable climate change through a wide range of actions that are targeted at the vulnerable individuals and groups, </li></ul><ul><li>develop flexible and resilient societies and economies that have the capacity to address both the challenges and the opportunities presented by changing climatic conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>effectively manage potential climate risks in the present time and over the coming decades as climate changes </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation research undertaken now can help inform decisions by farmers, agro-business and policy makers with implications over a range of timeframes from short-term tactical to long-term strategic planning (Easterling et al ., 2007) </li></ul>
  12. 12. What to do...... <ul><li>Adapting agriculture to climate change will be much more systemic than simply a farm-level activity (Howden et al ., 2007) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The role of University Education <ul><li>One ultimate goal of university education globally is to provide solutions to development challenges such as climate change (Kotecha, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Call for university education to play a more active role in: </li></ul><ul><li>- understanding the impacts of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>- development of effective adaptation responses to climate change through generation of ‘CLIMATE KNOWLEDGE’ </li></ul>
  14. 14. Role of University Education... <ul><li>Several institutions already very active in climate change impact and adaptation research and teaching: </li></ul><ul><li>Australia : Australian National University offers a Masters programme in climate change), </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.A : Arizona State University and Columbia University have Master of Science in Sustainability Management and Climate and Society, </li></ul><ul><li>U.K : the Universities of Greenwich and Sussex offer Climate Change related courses at Masters and Doctoral levels, </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa : Stellenbosch University offers Masters courses in Sustainability, capturing climate change, vulnerability and adaptation </li></ul>
  15. 15. The role of University Education.. <ul><li>Key Role </li></ul>
  16. 16. Role of University Education.... <ul><li>academic teaching entails the transfer of knowledge from the academic to the student (the individual being tutored) </li></ul><ul><li>research involves the process of undertaking scientific or social science investigation or enquiry and publishing the results thereof </li></ul><ul><li>community engagement provides an opportunity for transmitting and applying the knowledge generated through these processes </li></ul><ul><li>Providing locally relevant ‘climate knowledge’ is critical in the Nigerian agricultural context </li></ul>
  17. 17. Role 1: Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Climate change teaching and learning focuses on developing : </li></ul><ul><li>the conceptual, </li></ul><ul><li>methodological and </li></ul><ul><li>analytical tools necessary to understand developments in a range of climate change issues (Kotecha, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the : </li></ul><ul><li>integration of climate change and adaptation concerns in curriculum development or curriculum re-orientation, </li></ul><ul><li>development of new or specialised programmes and, </li></ul><ul><li>establishment of joint programmes and student exchange programmes to enhance innovations in teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of locally relevant training based on local circumstances, experiences and context is key </li></ul>
  18. 18. Role 1 contd............. <ul><li>Graduating university students need to: </li></ul><ul><li>be well versed with the challenges posed by climate change if they are going to advise farmers and communities they will be working with appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>understand the implications of climate change on economic development and </li></ul><ul><li>understand the various International Conventions and Protocols surrounding climate change: </li></ul><ul><li>the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol, and a range of other informal collaborations and dialogues that provide both a framework that supports cooperation and a foundation on which to build further collective actions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Role 1 contd………….. <ul><li>Sanni et al . 2010 summarised the items being incorporated within the climate change teaching and learning component for effectiveness : </li></ul><ul><li>training targetted on future experts, agriculturists, students and relevant stakeholders, </li></ul><ul><li>teaching basic concepts of climate change and adaptation in seminars, conferences and workshops, </li></ul><ul><li>institutions liaising with international experts (especially IPCC and UNEP) to provide training on the methods and tools for assessing vulnerability and adaptation and constructing scenarios of climate and socioeconomic conditions, </li></ul><ul><li>encouraging trained students to participate actively in field works, like introducing them to local farmers and communities that are vulnerable to climate change impacts, </li></ul><ul><li>setting up of experimental farms where documented adaptation techniques can be tested. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Role 2: Research and Knowledge Production <ul><li>Scientists in Universities recognise that the unprecedented rate and magnitude of climate change presents great challenge to farmers, researchers and policy makers </li></ul><ul><li>The products of climate change-agriculture research have great potential for much wider adoption ; and </li></ul><ul><li>their adoption will build the resilience of several vulnerable groups to current weather variability and uncertainty and to future climate change </li></ul>
  21. 21. Role 2 Contd……… <ul><li>drought, heat and flood tolerant crop varieties, new ways to irrigate crops and better ways to management soils are some of the products of research that hold great promise to help farmers today and in the future </li></ul><ul><li>livestock keepers can choose improved breeds to reduce their vulnerability; </li></ul><ul><li>there are many innovative options (produced by research) to improve the sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture systems under climate change in some African regions (Kotecha, 2009) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Role 2 Contd………………. <ul><li>Incorporating activities on climate change science, impact analysis and adaptation strategies in research priorities and programmes is essential to generating climate knowledge in Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing dedicated research programmes on climate change, as seen in most Universities in developed countries, will be helpful in the Nigerian context </li></ul>
  23. 23. Role 2 Contd……… <ul><li>Research direction in Nigerian agricultural Universities should be a comprehensive framework that pulls together and integrates: </li></ul><ul><li>what is known about the climate system, </li></ul><ul><li>the way it may change in the future, and </li></ul><ul><li>the associated impacts on agro ecosystems, the livelihoods of those who depend on them and food security. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Links with expertise in climate modelling, climate forecasting etc can bring critical new sets of skills in the climate change-agricultural research arena (Makungwa, 2010). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Role 3: Community Engagement and Collaboration <ul><li>Community engagement and collaboration is necessary to: </li></ul><ul><li>transmit the product of teaching and research to relevant users </li></ul><ul><li>pull together best human and physical resources, including teaching materials to implement effective climate change academic programme, responsive to the local needs of the country </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of climate change research outputs are effectively done through multi-level research partnerships </li></ul>
  25. 25. Role 3 Contd……….. <ul><li>Collaboration can be: </li></ul><ul><li>among academic staff across scientific disciplines within the University or among Universities implementing climate change teaching and research programmes, </li></ul><ul><li>with national and international research centres and organisations, </li></ul><ul><li>with the users of the product of university education, and </li></ul><ul><li>with potential funders of the teaching or research programmes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Role 3 Contd……………. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration also include the farming communities, the government (including bilateral and multilateral donor institutions), private firms, companies, non-governmental organisations and other organisations involved in implementing activities related to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Different aspects of climate change require different expertise from different disciplines and these disciplines are located within our university environment </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessing such expertise and closely engaging farm communities will help a great deal </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Missing Link in Climate Change Education: Positioning Universities Effectively <ul><li>University education in Nigeria is bedevilled with myriads of challenges that limit its ability to provide solutions to most Nigeria’s development problems, such as climate change: </li></ul><ul><li>enormous brain drain from Africa (Nigeria inclusive) to other countries , nearly 23, 000 qualified academic professionals emigrate from Africa each year in search of greener pastures; many of these are in agriculture and natural resources, areas that are of crucial economic importance for most African countries and relevant to the climate change issues (Yanda, 2010) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Missing Link…… <ul><li>poor staffing of universities to meet the desired curriculum coverage </li></ul><ul><li>teaching and learning predominantly based on curricula adopted from countries that have colonies in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>curricula founded on an agricultural philosophy that is focused at the production of cash crops for consumption by the colonising countries, </li></ul><ul><li>teaching mode not learner-centred </li></ul><ul><li>the learning materials generally not adequately contextualised in the local environment </li></ul><ul><li>very little mix of theoretical training with field level experience, </li></ul><ul><li>in most cases, neither the farm communities nor the private sector is incorporated in the design and delivery of agricultural curricula </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Missing Link…. <ul><li>Lack of expertise in the climate change subject has been attributed to the fact that: </li></ul><ul><li>most of university teaching staff were trained before climate change became a recognised problem </li></ul><ul><li>the teaching of climate change issues perceived to be in the domain of meteorologists and climatologists </li></ul><ul><li>climate change is a global problem that is not necessarily related to local issues, thus its non-inclusion in teaching programmes </li></ul><ul><li>It is not surprising that university education in Nigeria has so far done very little to integrate climate change issues into education programmes </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Missing Link…… <ul><li>Key challenge now is how to develop good curricula that: </li></ul><ul><li>promote critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>produce relevant teaching and learning resources that can change the mindsets of people and capacitate educators </li></ul><ul><li>These are areas efforts should be channelled to ensure that such need as ‘climate knowledge’ is offered effectively in the country </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Missing Link…….. <ul><li>Already there are various disciplinary courses on which climate change science is based and these are being offered in our universities: </li></ul><ul><li>environmental science, </li></ul><ul><li>geography </li></ul><ul><li>the humanities and other relevant disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Developing new and specialised programmes (such as short courses introducing the concepts of climate change, adaptation and development) that draw on these disciplines is an immediate priority for strengthening and encouraging innovation in teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture-based institutions must move away from traditional approaches to research and include ‘systems analysis’ that provide complete understanding of the climate change issues and generate relevant solutions to climate change </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>University education has enormous role to play in adapting Nigerian agriculture to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>The nexus between climate change, adaptation and development is an under researched phenomenon in Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>It is unclear to what extent new knowledge on climate issues is being integrated into education to build capacity for adaptation, analysis and development of solutions </li></ul>
  33. 33. Conclusion contd… <ul><li>The capacity development needs confronting Nigerian Universities are on several fronts: </li></ul><ul><li>Create awareness and sensitize communities, governments and the private sector about the risks and opportunities of climate change for Nigerian agricultural development prospect </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly improve research and knowledge generation to enhance innovation and respond to climate change adaptation needs </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminate climate change information and knowledge amongst all relevant stakeholders through community engagement and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>To stay ahead of climate change, higher education institutions in agriculture and natural resources in Nigeria must seek to create the knowledge base needed to go beyond the current knowledge and push the science of climate change and agricultural to new frontiers </li></ul>
  34. 34. References <ul><li>Adejuwon, J. (2006). Food crop production in Nigeria: potential effects of climate change. Climate Research 32 : 229-245. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Adger, W., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M., Conde, C., O ’ Brien, K., Pulhin, J., Pulwarty, R., Smit, B. and Takahashi, K. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge university press, Cambridge, UK; 717-743. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Barnett, J., Dessai, S. and Jones, R. (2007). Vulnerability to climate variability and change in East Timor. Ambio , 36 (3): 323-430. </li></ul><ul><li>Chakeredza, S., Temu, A., Yaye, A., Makungwa, S., Saka, J. (2009). Mainstreaming climate change into agricultural education: challenges and perspectives. ICRAF Working paper 82, Nairobi, Kenya, World Agro-forest Centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Cugusi, B. and Piccarozzi, M. (2009). Environmental change and human mobility: A thematic literature and organisational review. Prepared for the international conference towards the G8 Summit on “Climate Change and Human Mobility in Africa” . Dialogue for a Strategic Cooperation between Italy and Africa: Rome, April 21; pp 1- 57. </li></ul><ul><li>Easterling, W., Aggarwal, P., Batima, P., Brander, K., Erda, L., Howden, M., Kirilenko, A., Morton, J., Soussana, J., Schmidhuber, J. And Tubiello, F (2007) in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability , eds Parry M., Canziani O, Palutikof J, van der Linden P, Hanson C., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: pp 273–313 </li></ul><ul><li>Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), 2003. Responding to agriculture and food insecurity challenges. Mobilising Africa to implement NEPAD programmes. Conference of ministers of agriculture of the African Union, Moputo, Mozambique, 1-2 July 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Howden, S., Soussana, J., Tubiello, F., Chhetri, N., Dunlop, M and Meinke, H (2007). Adapting agriculture to climate change. PNAS 104 : 50 (19691-19696) www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0701890104 </li></ul>
  35. 35. References… <ul><li>Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001). Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Climatic Factors in Desertification. http://www. Accessed on 17th June, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report . Contribution of the Working Groups 1, 2 and 3 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Pachauri, R. and Reisinger, A (eds.). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report. Accessed on 14th June, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Kotecha, P. (2010). Climate change, adaptation and higher education: securing our future. Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA) leadership dialogue series, volume 2, no. 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Leary, N. (2006). For whom the bell tolls: vulnerabilities in a changing climate. AIACC working paper, no 30 (pp 31). International START Secretariate, Washington DC, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Madzwamuse, M. (2010). Climate governance in Africa: adaptation strategies and institutions. Heinrich Boll Stiftung: University press, Cape town. 1-92. </li></ul><ul><li>Makungwa, S., (2010). Adaptation, agriculture and food security. In Kotecha, P. (ed.). climate change, adaptation and higher education: securing our future . Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA) leadership dialogue series, volume 2, no. 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Nhemachena, C and Hassan, R. (2007). Micro-level analysis of farmers’ adaptation to climate change in southern Africa. IFPRI Discussion paper, no 0074. Environment and production technology division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA. </li></ul>
  36. 36. References……. <ul><li>Nwajiuba, C (2011). The extreme weather (rainfall) event in Lagos: a dimension to climate change. An unpublished paper presented at the Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change workshop at the University of Nigeria, July 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sanni, M., Adejuwon, J., Ologeh, I. And Siyanbola, W. (2010). Path to the future for climate education: a university project approach. In Filho, W. (ed.). universities and climate change: introducing climate change to university programme. Available at (accessed on 2/08/2011). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tubiello, F and Fischer, G. (2007). Reducing climate change impacts on agriculture: global and regional effects of mitigation, 2000-2080. Journal of Technology Forecasting and Social Change 74 : 1030-1056. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>UN Millennium Project (2005). Investing in development: a practical plan to achieve the millennium development goals . Reports to the UN Secretary General, New York, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Yanda, P. (2010). Climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in southern Africa. In Kotecha, P. (ed.). climate change, adaptation and higher education: securing our future . Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA) leadership dialogue series, volume 2, no. 4. </li></ul>
  37. 37. THANK YOU <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>