Jean Piaget Jerome Bruner ConstructivismLev Vygotsky Jessica John Dewey
Key Points of Theory• Students learn by doing• Learning is an active and constructive process (constructivism)• Students learn based on having a hands-on experience and forming what they learn• Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment (constructivism)• There are 4 leading theorists of constructivism
Key People with Theory• Jean Piaget – Profoundly influenced constructivist movement – Children construct new knowledge and build on old knowledge as they move through different stages – 4 cognitive stages • Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational – Adaptation- A childs’ cognitive understanding or development at any time – Assimilation-The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit (Atherton 2011) – Accommodation-This information or experiences are used to help a child make sense of their environment and to change their knowledge base• Jerome Bruner – In an active learned new ideas and concepts are learned based on past or current knowledge – Encourages an integrated curriculum where students learn a topic in various ways or though many different activities – Students can use a variety of technology to research 1 topic – Cognition-An individual progresses through different intellectual stages – Socratic method-When a student learns how to analyze problems, think critically about own point of view and the opinions of others, and articulate and defend their position – Spiral curriculum-Students build on what they have already learned
Key People Continued• Lev Vygotsky – Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development (constructivism) – Zone of proximal development-The difference between the problem-solving ability that the child has learned and the potential that the child can achieve from collaboration with a more advanced peer or expert – Collaborative learning-If a child worked with an advanced peer or adult he or she would be able to learn concepts that are more advanced then the child could understand on his own – Scaffolding-When a teacher discovers a childs’ cognitive/developmental level and builds their learning experiences from that point – Anchored instruction-A model for technology-based learning and is a form of instruction where the student has already learned concepts and information. This forms an anchor or basis for other information to connect to and build on• John Dewey – Learning should engage and expand the experiences of the learners – Progressive education-Focuses on educating the whole child, and not on just giving him or her facts and information – Pragmatism-The truth of a theory could only be determined if a theory worked
Classroom Implications• What the teacher does under this theory (with and without technology) – Encourage students to use active techniques – Provide students with different materials for research (i.e.. computers or books) – Show changing understanding of knowledge – Encourage learning and reflection• What the students do under this theory (with and without technology) – Connect old knowledge with new knowledge – Create own questions – Solve problems through research and reflection
What you think about the theory for your own teaching• I think that this theory would be perfect for my classroom.• I am a hands-on learner and strongly believe in active learning• Learning would be student lead• The teacher would only be there to guide students and help them think critically about problems• Technology would be readily available to use• Could be hard if you have learners that are at different levels
Works CitedAtherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Piagets developmental theory [On-line: UK] retrieved 12 April 2012 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm"Constructivism." Learning Theories. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. <http://www.learning theories.com/constructivism.html>.Field, Richard. John Dewey. Digital image. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 25 Apr. 2005. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/dewey/>.Jerome Bruner. Digital image. About the Department. Harvard University. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. <http://www.isites.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=k3007&pageid=icb.page19708&pageConten Id=icb.pagecontent44003&view=view.do&viewParam_name=bruner.html>.Lev Vygotsky. Digital image. Theories of Learning Social Constructivism. University of California Berkeley, 2011. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. <http://gsi.berkeley.edu/teachingguide/theories/social.html>.Smith, Leslie. Jean Piaget. Digital image. Jean Piaget Society. Nov. 2000. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. <http://www.piaget.org/index.html>.
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