Cognitive Theory Amanda and Rebecca – Elem. Ed. Team 2
Key Points Important cognitivists: Allan Paivio Robert Gagne Howard Gardner Benjamin Bloom The cognitive theory is based on traditional psychological concepts that deal with thinking, remembering, and deciding. Cognitive psychologists view activities such as thinking, remembering, and deciding by how they relate to behavior. The cognitive theory asserts that thinking and remembering are more of a behavior and that the use of behavior analysis is needed to assess their effects on learning. Cognitivists objected to behaviorists’ beliefs that learning is simply a reactionary phenomenon.
Allan Paivio (1925-) Paivio proposed that when information is presented both visually and verbally, it enhances recall and recognition . Dual Coding Theory This theory proposes that people process information in two separate ways: Processing of images Processing of language There are three sub processes identified in thistheory: Representational Verbal or nonverbal representations are directlyinfluenced. Referential Verbal system is activated by nonverbal communication or vice-versa. Associative Text-based systems and graphic representations trigger mental associations.
Robert Gagne (1916-2002) Gagne developed his theories based somewhat on the behaviorist’s and information-processing point of view. He listed five areas of learning outcomes: Verbal information Intellectual skills Cognitive strategies Motor skills Attitudes He also identified nine events if instructionfor developing lesson plans: Gain attention of the learners Inform learners of the objective Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the stimulus or lesson Elicit performance Provide feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer
Howard Gardner (1943-) Gardner developed a theory of multiple intelligences, starting with eight and modifying it to eleven, but it is the original eight intelligences that continue to endure. The original eight intelligences are: Linguistic-verbal Logical-mathematical Spatial-visual Body-kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist These eight intelligences can be used to determine the type of instruction and technology that will work best for a student.
Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) Bloom defined three learning domains: Cognitive - Intellectual level; organization of ideas and thoughts Affective - Emotions, interests, attitude, attention, awareness Psychomotor - Motor skills and physical abilities He identified six levels for acquiring knowledge within the cognitive domain. These levels are known as Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
Classroom Implications for Teachers Provides teachers with guidelines for developing lessons. Offers teachers insight into students’ learning styles and needs. Gives teachers different levels of cognitive domains to work with. Aids teachers when selecting technology and software.
Classroom Implications for Students Allows students to determine how they learn best. Can help students determine their most effective way to study. Helps students work to their full potential. Aids students in deciding what technology or software to choose. Provides students with a better learning environment due to more informed teachers and comprehensive lesson plans.
What we think about the theory for our own teaching… After having a team discussion, we felt that: We thought that this theory is very relevant for teachers, and we know we will use its principles when creating lesson plans. Paivio's dual coding theory is important to visual learners because it provides visual stimulus as well as verbal. Gagne's five areas of learning outcomes can help when creating lesson assessments, and his nine events of instruction is basically the model we would use in order to create our lesson plans. Gardner's eight multiple intelligences will help us understand how students learn and what technology/software will benefit them. Bloom's Taxonomy will help determine what is needed in order to make lessons more thorough so they address as many of the six comprehension levels as possible. Some lessons and activities that would be presented in our classrooms: Memory games- such as flash cards and puzzles Problem solving- crossword puzzles Critical thinking worksheets- reading analysis logs
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