Amanda and Rebecca – Elem. Ed. Team 2
The cognitive theory is based on traditional psychological concepts that deal with
thinking, remembering, and deciding.
Cognitive psychologists view activities such as thinking, remembering, and
deciding by how they relate to behavior.
The cognitive theory asserts that thinking and remembering are more of a
behavior and that the use of behavior analysis is needed to assess their effects
Cognitivists objected to behaviorists’ beliefs that learning is simply a reactionary
Paivio proposed that when information is presented both visually and verbally,
it enhances recall and recognition .
Dual Coding Theory
This theory proposes that people process information in two separate
1. Processing of images
2. Processing of language
There are three sub processes identified in this
Verbal or nonverbal representations are directly
Verbal system is activated by nonverbal communication or vice-versa.
Text-based systems and graphic representations trigger mental associations.
Gagne developed his theories based somewhat on the behaviorist’s and information-
processing point of view.
He listed five areas of learning outcomes:
1. Verbal information
2. Intellectual skills
3. Cognitive strategies
4. Motor skills
He also identified nine events if instruction
for developing lesson plans:
1. Gain attention of the learners
2. Inform learners of the objective
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
4. Present the stimulus or lesson
5. Elicit performance
6. Provide feedback
7. Assess performance
8. Enhance retention and transfer
Gardner developed a theory of multiple intelligences,
starting with eight and modifying it to eleven, but it is the
original eight intelligences that continue to endure.
The original eight intelligences are:
These eight intelligences can be used to determine the
type of instruction and technology that will work best for
Bloom defined three learning domains:
1. Cognitive -
Intellectual level; organization of ideas and thoughts
2. Affective -
Emotions, interests, attitude, attention, awareness
3. Psychomotor -
Motor skills and physical abilities
He identified six levels for acquiring knowledge within the
cognitive domain. These levels are known as Bloom’s
Provides teachers with guidelines for developing
Offers teachers insight into students’ learning
styles and needs.
Gives teachers different levels of cognitive
domains to work with.
Aids teachers when selecting technology and
Allows students to determine how they learn
Can help students determine their most
effective way to study.
Helps students work to their full potential.
Aids students in deciding what technology or
software to choose.
Provides students with a better learning
environment due to more informed teachers and
comprehensive lesson plans.
After having a team discussion, we felt that:
We thought that this theory is very relevant for teachers, and we know we will
use its principles when creating lesson plans. Paivio's dual coding theory is
important to visual learners because it provides visual stimulus as well as
verbal. Gagne's five areas of learning outcomes can help when creating
lesson assessments, and his nine events of instruction is basically the model
we would use in order to create our lesson plans. Gardner's eight multiple
intelligences will help us understand how students learn and what
technology/software will benefit them. Bloom's Taxonomy will help determine
what is needed in order to make lessons more thorough so they address as
many of the six comprehension levels as possible.
Some lessons and activities that would be presented in our classrooms:
Memory games- such as flash cards and puzzles
Problem solving- crossword puzzles
Critical thinking worksheets- reading analysis logs
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"Multiple Intelligences." New Oceans and the World of NLP. Ed. New Oceans. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
“Dual Coding Theory (A. Paivio).” Web. 22 Nov. 2010 <http://tip.psychology.org/paivio.html>.