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EME2040 Learning Theories

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  • Created by M. Suazo
  • K. Rossi
  • Amy Johnstone

Transcript

  • 1. Behaviorism Theory
    EME 2040
  • 2. Classical Conditioning
    By A. Walker
    The natural reflex that occurs in response to a stimulus.
    (Introduce a stimulus to achieve a desired response; eventually the neutral stimulus becomes parallel with a reflex).
    Ivan Pavlov
    • Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1904; studied the physiology of digestion.
    • 3. Became famous for his experiments with dogs:
    • 4. Presented the stimulus (food) to the dogs, and in response the dogs began to salivate, while Pavlov rang a bell.
    • 5. Eventually, the dogs associated ringing bell with food and began to salivate every time Pavlov rang the bell, even if food was not present.
    (1849-1936)
  • 6. John Watson
    By A. Pittman & M. Suazo
    • Before Watson gave his speech “Psychology as the Behaviorist View It,” in 1913 at Columbia University, the psychology department disagreed about the ideas of the nature of consciousness and the different methods of studying it. Watson’s speech answered a lot of questions that were being asked but few were being answered. This eventually is what the behaviorist stood for on their position.
    • 7. Watson’s most famous study is Little Albert Experiment. In this theory, Watson believed that children had three basic emotional reactions, fear, love and rage. Watson wanted to prove that these emotions could be artificially conditioned in children.
    • 8. Watson believed in "learning through stimulus substitution." The substitution of one stimulus for another.
  • With Technology
    Classical conditioning can occur in the classroom, by uniformly beginning the class’ daily schedule in the same manner every day.
    For example, beginning the day by standing at attention and reciting the pledge of Allegiance.
    Routine and structure will assist the smoothness of the class’ daily schedules. With the application of technology, the principal can come over the school’s intercom system with the daily/weekly announcements. After the principal’s speech, the students will stand at attention for the Pledge of Allegiance.
    The stimulus in the above scenario would be the principal coming over the school’s intercom and providing the student body and faculty with the daily/weekly news. The response to the end of the principles speech would be the class standing at attention to recite the Pledge of Allegiance.
    Without Technology
    In the beginning of the new school year, the teacher can give a synopsis of how she will:
    Gain the class’ attention
    Silence the room.
    The teacher can give a brief description of how she will alert the students’ attention – by clapping twice (the stimulus) – and thus associating the teacher’s claps with silence (response). Eventually the class will associate the teacher’s double claps with “it’s time to fall silence and pay attention.”
    By A. Walker
  • 9. Personal Thinking
    I will utilize Pavlov’s the Behavioral Learning Theory of Classical Conditioning. When I was in elementary school, my teacher practiced the previous scenario of classical conditioning (clapping of the hands in return for silence).
  • 10. Operant Conditioning
    By K. Rossi
    • Learning that is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus-response patterns.
    • 11. Reinforcement (reward) increases the chance that a behavior will occur.
    • 12. Punishment decreases the chance that a behavior will occur.
    • 13. Reinforcement is a powerful motivator:
    • 14. Positive responses = repeated behaviors
    • 15. Negative responses = extinguished behaviors
     B. F. Skinner
    1904 –1990
  • 16. With Technology
    • A teacher could design tests on a computer that give both positive and negative reinforcement depending the answer the student chooses.
    Example:
    When preschool children utilize the leapfrog computer, the correct answers are positively reinforced with verbal and visual reward.
    Without Technology
    • Verbal reinforcement in the classroom for good or bad behavior.
    Example:
    When a student behaves badly, and is reprimanded . They learn that that behavior is not appropriate and stop doing that behavior.
    Teaching Implications
    I think that using Operant Conditioning in the classroom is an effective way to teach students right from wrong whether using technology or not.
  • 17. Social Cognitive Theory
    By A. Johnstone
    Focuses on the motivational factors and self-regulatory mechanisms the help shape a person’s behavior.
    Albert Bandura
    • Collaborated with Richard Walters on the book Adolescent Aggression in 1959.
    • 18. One of his most famous studies on behavior was that of the Bobo doll.
    • 19. His most famous therapy is the modeling therapy. This therapy shows a person suffering with a psychological disorder a person who is suffering with the same disorder but in a positive fashion. By viewing this positive technique the person will model their behavior the same way.
    • 20. Focused his work on self-efficacy, which is a personal observation about a person’s ability to feel, think and motivate to learn.
    • 21. He has often been called the father of cognitivist movement.
    His theories have been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning.
  • 22. With Technology
    In Bandura’s classic Bobo doll study a film of a subject yelling sockeroo, hitting and punching a Bobo the clown doll was shown to kindergarten children. When the same children went to play many displayed the same behavior and verbiage.
    In the classroom we could use things that encourage cognitive thinking and behavior:
    In this theory the teacher does not need to be up front about what the student’s should be learning.
    The student’s should watch or play the activity and take away from it what they interpret is important thought or behavior. The student could watch a positive experience and use it to improve upon a negative in their life.
    Without Technology
    The teacher would model the behavior she would like her students to use.
    • How to complete an assignment?
    • 25. Proper way to interact with your peers.
    The teacher would incorporate observational modeling into their assessment and field notes.
    As a student you would observe modeling by fellow students and/or teacher and learn and adapt from what you see.
  • 26. Personal Thinking
    Social Cognitive Theory is extremely important in the classroom today. As much as we would prefer our students to think for themselves or not repeat negative behavior we could use this mimicking technique in a positive way. By utilizing positive cognitive thinking and behavior encourage change in the classroom.
  • 27. Sources
    • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html
    • 28. http://www.learning-theories.com/
    • 29. http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Watson.html
    • 30. Integrating Technology and Digital Media in The Classroom 6th Ed.: Teachers Discovering Computers, Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, and Gunter (2009).