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Lecture 4
 

Lecture 4

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    Lecture 4 Lecture 4 Presentation Transcript

    • HTML Basics Ryan Dinwiddie UCC Spring 2010
    • HTML
      • Short for H yper T ext M arkup L anguage, the language used to create documents on the World Wide Web.
      • HTML was invented by Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva.
    • HTML
        • HTML is a collection of styles (indicated by markup tags ) that define the various elements of a World Wide Web document.
        • HTML document can be read and displayed by many different browsers running on different types of computers – platform independent!
    • HTML: What do you need?
      • Editor (Notepad)
      • Browser to view results
      • Place to put your web site (store the files that contain the HTML code, images, music, etc.), preferably on the internet
      • URL for your page (domain name, or folder within a domain)  if your page is on the Internet
      • (Links to your page!)
    • HTML
      • A web page is best thought of as a set of visual elements (words, paragraphs, lists, tables, images, etc.)
      • HTML defines the structure and layout of the elements on a web page with a variety of tags.
      • Each tag may have a set of attributes that modify the appearance or layout of the visual element contained by the tag.
    • HTML Tags
      • Container Tags
        • <Begin formatting>some text</End formatting>
        • For example: <B>some bold text</B>
        • <H1>some heading </H1>
      • Empty Element Tags
        • For example <HR> <BR>
      • Comment Tag
        • <!-- Hi, I'm a comment. -->
        • Use them document complicated layouts!
    • HTML tags
      • Case insensitive
      • Unrecognised tags are simply ignored by browser!!
      • Container tags must be nested!!
    • Structure of HTML document
      • Basic structure:
    • BODY tag and attributes
      • E.g., the BGCOLOR attribute of BODY tag specifies the color of the whole document.
      • E.g., the TEXT attribute of BODY tag specifies the default color of the text in the whole document .
      • <BODY BGCOLOR = “yellow” TEXT = “purple”>
    • Headings and Paragraphs
      • Supplies default formatting information:
        • <H1>A Top-Level Heading 1</H1>
        • <P> A paragraph of text </P>
        • <H6>A 6 th -level Heading</H6>
      • Alignment Attribute:
        • ALIGN = position (LEFT, CENTER, or RIGHT)
        • <P ALIGN = CENTER>A centred paragraph</P>
      • <BLOCKQUOTE>, <CAPTION>, <PRE>
        • Special paragraph formatting tags
    • Text Formatting tags
      • Always container tags!! Always use closing tag!
      • Logical Styles:
        • <EM>, <STRONG>  add emphasis to text
        • <BIG>, <SMALL>  increase or decrease text size
        • <SUB>, <SUP>  subscript or superscript
      • Physical styles:
        • <B>, <I>, <U>  Bold, Italics, and Underline text
        • <FONT SIZE=# FACE= “name” COLOR=“colorName or #rgb” >
        • E.g., <FONT SIZE=+2 FACE = “arial” COLOR = “darkblue”>
    • HTML Lists
      • Ordered List
        • <OL TYPE = A>
        • <LI>list item A
        • <LI>list item B
        • </OL>
      • Unordered List
        • <UL TYPE = SQUARE>
        • <LI>bulleted list item
        • <LI>another list item
        • </UL>
    • Hyperlinks
      • <A> … </A> is an anchor container tag
      • HREF is an attribute of the anchor tag
      • <A HREF = “http://www.umpqua.edu”> UCC </A>
      • Absolute (off-site) vs. Relative (within site) URL’s
      • Naming locations within a document:
        • <A NAME=“top”>Text to link to</A>
      • Linking to a named location within a document:
        • <A HREF=“#top”>Click here to go to Top.</A>
        • <A HREF=“index.htm#top”>Go to Top of Home page</A>
    • Multi-media: Images
      • < IMG SRC = “logo.jpg” WIDTH = 300
      • HEIGHT=100 ALT=“Logo” >
      • Creating an image link:
        • <A HREF= www.u mpqua.edu>
        • <IMG SRC = “Logo.jpg WIDTH=150 HEIGHT=50
        • ALT = “Click here to go to UCC” >
        • </A>
      • Other IMG tag attributes:
        • ALIGN, BORDER, HSPACE, VSPACE
        • USEMAP = “map url”  creates a “hyperlink map” for image
      • To including other Multi-media elements:
        • just link to .wav, .mpeg, .mp3 files with an anchor tag.
    • HTML Tables
      • In HTML, tables are described by a set of rows .
      • Each row has a set of data , which form columns.
          • <TABLE>
          • <TR>
          • <TH>Heading for first column
          • <TH>Heading for second column
          • </TR>
          • <TR>
          • <TD>Data for first column, row 1
          • <TD>Data for second column, row 1
          • </TR>
          • </TABLE>
    • More on Tables
      • Common <TABLE> attributes:
        • BORDER, CELLSPACING, CELLPADING, WIDTH
        • e.g., <TABLE BORDER=4, WIDTH=50%>
        • Use BORDER = 0 for no border (e.g., fancy layouts)
      • Common <TD> attributes (most apply to <TR> also):
        • BGCOLOR  set the colour of the cell
        • ALIGN, CHAR, VALIGN  alignment within cell
        • COLSPAN, ROWSPAN  to create “merged cells”
        • e.g., <TD VALIGN=MIDDLE CHAR=“.”>
    • Using table to do complex layouts
      • Since a <TD> element may contain text, images, lists, links, etc., tables are often used to create complex page layouts! E.g. look at source for Joseph’s home page.
      • Need to get good at using COLSPAN and ROWSPAN attributes.
    • Using table to do complex layouts
      • Best to layout table on paper or using Word first, then jot down COLSPAN and ROWSPAN values for any “merged cells” – write down sequence of <TR> & <TD> tags required.
      • Warning : if you don’t design complex tables first, you will get confused and frustrated – guaranteed!