The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface
of the earth is called soil.
2. Soil is the upper layer of the crust and is closely linked to
3. Landform determine the type of soil.
Factors affecting soil formation
Age of rock
According to colour,thickness,age,texture,chemical composition and physical properties different types of soils are as follows:
According to colour,thickness,age,texture,chemical composition and physical properties different types of soils are as follows :
Alluvial soil Red and Yellow soil Laterite soil Black soil Arid soil Forest soil Types of soil
Major soil types
The most widely spread and important soil.
Spreads over northern entire plains.
Deposited by three river system.
Can be seen in the deltas of eastern river
According to age to age alluvial soil can be classified in old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar). New alluvial is more fertile tha old alluvial. Has adequate proportion of potash,phospharic acid and lime. Ideal for sugarcane,paddy,wheat and other cereals and pulse crops. So, the region of alluvial soil is thickly populated and intensively cultivated
Alluvial Soil deposited by the rivers
The soil is black in colour and it is volcanic in origin.
Created from igneous rock, and is called ‘ regur soil ’.
It is ideal for growing cotton and so called black cotton soil .
Black soil covers part of Maharashtra,Saurashtra,Malwa,
Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh
Red and Yellow Soil develops on crystalline igneous rock in the areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of Deccan Plateau
Also found in parts of Orissa, Chattisgarh,south of middle Ganga Plain and the eastern piedmont zone of western Ghats
Red and Yellow soil
The red colour is because of the diffusion of iron in the form of iron oxide in the crystalline and metamorphic rock.