Jim Frederick
Table Mountain Consulting, LLC
TMC
• Utilize the whole tree
• Produce a variety of forest-derived
products
– Cellulose fiber
– Synthetic fuels and chemicals ...
• Plant economic optimization and market
demand for products determine the optimal
product mix
• Constraint: steam generat...
Kraft pulp mill
Methanol
to Gasoline
FT Diesel
DME
Gasification
– Biomass => CO, CO2, H2, H2O
– CO + H2 => liquid fuels and
chemicals
Pyrolysis
– Biomass => organic liquids,...
Gasification
– Biomass => CO, CO2, H2,
H2O
– CO + H2 => liquid fuels
and chemicals
Pyrolysis
– Biomass => organic
liquids,...
Choices
– Gasification/pyrolysis feedstock can be biomass OR black
liquor (OR both)
– Products can be power OR both liquid...
Black liquor
concentration
and combustion
Biomass
boiler
Residual biomass
Pulping
operations
Pulp
HP steam
From the EU BLG...
Pulp
HP steam
Export power
Liquid fuels
or chemicals
Steam
turbine
Biomass
boiler
Biomass
fuel
Pulping
operations
BL gasif...
1. Produce dimethyl ether (DME) and power
a. Maximize DME from BLG syngas (DMEa)
i. Recycle unconverted syngas
ii. Burn wo...
1. Produce dimethyl ether (DME) and power
c. Single pass syngas for increased power (DMEc)
i. Single pass for syngas throu...
2. Produce Fischer Tropsch diesel and power
a. Maximize DME from BLG syngas (FTa)
i. Syngas from black liquor gasification...
2. Produce Fischer Tropsch diesel and power
c. Maximize FT diesel production (FTc)
i. Syngas from both black liquor and bi...
1. Gasification of both black liquor and
biomass to produce syngas for biofuels
2. Power and steam generation using
combin...
Fuel
synthesis
option
Incremental
biomass for fuel
& energy, dry t/d
Net incremental
biomass to mill,
%
Syngas from
biomas...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Steam,kg/s
Liquid fuels processes
Additional steam from
CHP plant
Net steam generated in
fuel pl...
• Adequate biomass supply
• Separation and recovery of S and Na
– Temperature and pressure effects
– H2S recombined with g...
• On pulping: none
• On brownstock washing: none
• On black liquor evaporation: none
• On recovery boiler throughput:
 ga...
Sulfur separates from sodium during gasification
(and pyrolysis)
• Recapture of H2S, followed by causticizing:
H2S + Na2CO...
Lime consumption and causticizer volume
requirement and can be doubled when H2S has
to be recaptured
 55% release at 950o...
Oxidant T, C P, bar % of S
to H2S
Increase in lime and
causticizer volume required
O2 950C 30 bar 55% 55%
Air 950C 1 bar 1...
Biomass FT crude Power
t/d t/d MWe (net)
a. burn biomass for 1,659 238 88
steam & power, OR
b. gasify biomass for 4,493 23...
Impact (as % increase) Gasification
Biomass required to 225%
Evaporation load none
Rcovery boiler throughput -100%
Recaust...
• Biomass:
– Much technology development under way
– Commercial pyrolysis technology is available
• Black liquor:
– no tec...
• Mass distribution (nominal, on an ash-free
basis):
– Pyrolysis gas: 15%
– Pyrolysis oil: 70%
– Pyrolysis char: 15%
• Ene...
Source: K Mäenpää,
Metso, 2012
Gases: CO, CO2, H2, H2O(v),
methane, other light
hydrocarbons
Liquids: CxHyOz liquids from
benzene to C20
+
Char: carbon a...
Biomass Crude
pyrolysis oil
Hydrotreated
oil
C, wt-% 51.9 33.7 25.2
H, wt-% 6.2 5.2 4.2
O, wt-% 41.8 31.2
Total 100.0 70.0...
• To Dr. Kristiina Iisa for her guidance on the
pyrolysis section of this presentation
0  a2 jim frederick
0  a2 jim frederick
0  a2 jim frederick
0  a2 jim frederick
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  1. 1. Jim Frederick Table Mountain Consulting, LLC TMC
  2. 2. • Utilize the whole tree • Produce a variety of forest-derived products – Cellulose fiber – Synthetic fuels and chemicals (e.g. methanol-to-gasoline, dimethyl DME, Fischer Tropsch diesel,…) – Lignin-derived products – Pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals – Electrical power • Utilize forest materials for energy
  3. 3. • Plant economic optimization and market demand for products determine the optimal product mix • Constraint: steam generated must meet mill steam demands
  4. 4. Kraft pulp mill Methanol to Gasoline FT Diesel DME
  5. 5. Gasification – Biomass => CO, CO2, H2, H2O – CO + H2 => liquid fuels and chemicals Pyrolysis – Biomass => organic liquids, gases, char – Organic liquids are refined to liquid fuels and chemicals
  6. 6. Gasification – Biomass => CO, CO2, H2, H2O – CO + H2 => liquid fuels and chemicals Pyrolysis – Biomass => organic liquids, gases, char – Organic liquids are refined to liquid fuels and chemicals
  7. 7. Choices – Gasification/pyrolysis feedstock can be biomass OR black liquor (OR both) – Products can be power OR both liquid fuels and power – Fuel products can be chosen independently – Ratio of fuel products to power is determined through process design and management of heat utilization Constraints – No change in pulp production rate and pulp quality – Steam production must meet pulp mill requirements
  8. 8. Black liquor concentration and combustion Biomass boiler Residual biomass Pulping operations Pulp HP steam From the EU BLGMF (Altener) report, Dec 2001 Import or export power Fiber Power and steam
  9. 9. Pulp HP steam Export power Liquid fuels or chemicals Steam turbine Biomass boiler Biomass fuel Pulping operations BL gasification and liquids synthesis plant From the EU BLGMF (Altener) report, Dec 2001 Pulp
  10. 10. 1. Produce dimethyl ether (DME) and power a. Maximize DME from BLG syngas (DMEa) i. Recycle unconverted syngas ii. Burn wood residues and unconverted syngas to generate process steam and power b. Increase power production (DMEb) i. Recycle unconverted syngas ii. Gasifiy wood residue to fire gas turbine for power iii. HRSG downstream of gas turbine generates power and process steam Based on Larson, Consonni, Katofsky, Iisa, Frederick, A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry v. 1-4, report to the USDOE and AF&PA, 2006.
  11. 11. 1. Produce dimethyl ether (DME) and power c. Single pass syngas for increased power (DMEc) i. Single pass for syngas through DME synthesis reactor ii. Burn wood residues and more unconverted syngas to generate process steam and power iii. HRSG downstream of gas turbine generates power and process steam
  12. 12. 2. Produce Fischer Tropsch diesel and power a. Maximize DME from BLG syngas (FTa) i. Syngas from black liquor gasification only ii. Syngas once-through the FT synthesis reactor iii. Power island includes a biomass gasifier, syngas cooler, and combined cycle power plant with process steam extraction iv. Unconverted syngas is burned in power island b. Maximize power generation (FTb) i. Similar to FTa but with a larger biomass gasifier and gas turbine for more power generation
  13. 13. 2. Produce Fischer Tropsch diesel and power c. Maximize FT diesel production (FTc) i. Syngas from both black liquor and biomass gasification ii. Syngas once-through the FT synthesis reactor iii. Power island burns only unconverted syngas; otherwise the same as in FTa and FTb ; combined cycle power plant with process steam extraction plus a condensing turbine to utilize excess steam
  14. 14. 1. Gasification of both black liquor and biomass to produce syngas for biofuels 2. Power and steam generation using combined unconverted syngas plus syngas from gasified biomass plus heat recovered from exothermic syngas processing steps
  15. 15. Fuel synthesis option Incremental biomass for fuel & energy, dry t/d Net incremental biomass to mill, % Syngas from biomass goes to: DMEa 700 5.4% None produced DMEb 1,326 24% Gas turbine DMEc 678 4.8% Gas turbine FTa 829 9.2% Gas turbine FTb 2,246 51% Gas turbine FTc 2,704 64% Synthesis Based on 1725 ADt/d unbl. pulp production and 2458 t/d dry BL solids.
  16. 16. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Steam,kg/s Liquid fuels processes Additional steam from CHP plant Net steam generated in fuel plant Steam generated from recovery and power boilers Pulp mill steam requirement
  17. 17. • Adequate biomass supply • Separation and recovery of S and Na – Temperature and pressure effects – H2S recombined with green liquor => lime required • Changes in equivalent capacity of some standard pulp mill operations? • Configure the integrated plant for excellent heat utilization
  18. 18. • On pulping: none • On brownstock washing: none • On black liquor evaporation: none • On recovery boiler throughput:  gasification of all black liquor means no demand for a recovery boiler
  19. 19. Sulfur separates from sodium during gasification (and pyrolysis) • Recapture of H2S, followed by causticizing: H2S + Na2CO3 => NaHS + NaHCO3 NaHCO3 + Ca(OH)2 => NaOH + H2O + CaCO3 • Causticizing of conventional green liquor: Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 => 2NaOH + CaCO3 2 CaO per 2 NaOH 1 CaO per 2 NaOH
  20. 20. Lime consumption and causticizer volume requirement and can be doubled when H2S has to be recaptured  55% release at 950oC, pressurized O2 (30 bar) gasificationa  15% release at 950oC, atmospheric pressure air gasificationa  100% release at 700oC, atmospheric pressure steam gasification a Lindblom, M. An Overview of the Chemrec Process Concepts (2003).
  21. 21. Oxidant T, C P, bar % of S to H2S Increase in lime and causticizer volume required O2 950C 30 bar 55% 55% Air 950C 1 bar 15% 15% Steam 700C 1 bar 100% 100%
  22. 22. Biomass FT crude Power t/d t/d MWe (net) a. burn biomass for 1,659 238 88 steam & power, OR b. gasify biomass for 4,493 238 230 steam & power, OR c. gasify biomass 5,374 783 78 for syngas Based on Larson et al., 2006 Gasify black liquor for syngas AND: Basis: 1327 ODt pulp/day and 212 MWth process steam produced
  23. 23. Impact (as % increase) Gasification Biomass required to 225% Evaporation load none Rcovery boiler throughput -100% Recaust operations 0% to +100% Process steam generationa none Power generation 100% – 170% Biofuels production, % input LHV 18% - 42% a steam to pulp mill only
  24. 24. • Biomass: – Much technology development under way – Commercial pyrolysis technology is available • Black liquor: – no technologies under development
  25. 25. • Mass distribution (nominal, on an ash-free basis): – Pyrolysis gas: 15% – Pyrolysis oil: 70% – Pyrolysis char: 15% • Energy retained in pyrolysis oil: 65-70% • Integration issues: – Energy to drive pyrolyze – Utilization of pyrolysis gas and char
  26. 26. Source: K Mäenpää, Metso, 2012
  27. 27. Gases: CO, CO2, H2, H2O(v), methane, other light hydrocarbons Liquids: CxHyOz liquids from benzene to C20 + Char: carbon and inorganic matter 60-65% crude oil yield
  28. 28. Biomass Crude pyrolysis oil Hydrotreated oil C, wt-% 51.9 33.7 25.2 H, wt-% 6.2 5.2 4.2 O, wt-% 41.8 31.2 Total 100.0 70.0 29.5 Energy content, MJ/kg biomass 19.6 17.5 Fuel value retained, % 58.2
  29. 29. • To Dr. Kristiina Iisa for her guidance on the pyrolysis section of this presentation

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