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  • 1. Information Literacy “ skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information.” (http://www.acrl.org) Boolean Operators AND, OR, NOT
  • 2.
    • In many information resources (catalogues, databases, bibliographies, the internet search engines) it is possible to combine search terms directly with logical operators, called Boolean Operators: AND, OR & NOT
    • The advantage of the use of Boolean Operators (Boolean searching) is that they allow the list of hits to be reduced to an acceptable and relevant number.
    • The results of searches in which search terms, or results of individual searches, are combined, can also be represented graphically.
    Search techniques Boolean operators: AND, OR, NOT AND NOT OR
  • 3. Suppose you are interested in literature on radioactive waste.
    • Possible search terms:
    radioactive waste nuclear
  • 4. radioactive waste = literature on ‘ waste’ ‘ radioactive’ ‘ radioactive waste’
  • 5. Search result can be narrowed down to ‘radioactive waste’ by using AND . radioactive waste AND
  • 6. Search terms or results of searches are combined with NOT if you want to exclude certain references. waste NOT spillage
  • 7. radioactive nuclear Suppose you want to collect all literature on ‘radioactive‘, you need to use also its synonyms, e.g. ‘nuclear'.
  • 8. Combining with OR , the resulting collection contains literature in which at least one of the search terms occurs. radioactive OR nuclear
  • 9. ( ) radioactive OR nuclear waste AND Example of creating a search query using Boolean Operators