Wikipedia structure of collaboration
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Wikipedia structure of collaboration

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There is no wisdom of crowds on Wikipedia. After 500 edits articles become quite uneven, a tiny fraction of users become the ad hoc rulers of those articles....

There is no wisdom of crowds on Wikipedia. After 500 edits articles become quite uneven, a tiny fraction of users become the ad hoc rulers of those articles.

Preseented at Wikimania 2009
http://wikimania2009.wikimedia.org/wiki/Proceedings:132

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Wikipedia structure of collaboration Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The structure of social collaboration on Wikipedia
    Sorin Adam Matei, Associate Professor of Communication, Purdue U
    smatei@purdue.edu
    David Braun, Research Scientist, Envision Lab, Purdue U
    dbraun@purdue.edu
    HoriaPetrache, Assistant Professor of Physics, IUPUI
    hpetrach@iupui.edu
    Presented at Wikimania, 2009
    Buenos Aires, Argentina
    August 25-28 2009
    http://wikimania2009.wikimedia.org/wiki/Proceedings:132
  • 2. 2005: A Wikipedian explains Wikipedia as Wisdom of Crowds
    The basic premise [of Wisdom of Crowds] that crowds of relatively ignorant individuals make better decisions than small groups of experts. I'm sure everyone here agrees with this as Wikipedia is run this way...
    Wikipedia displays emergent properties because each article is better than the contribution of each individual. Similarly, ants display emergence because an ant colony can accomplish things that each individual ant cannot even conceive.
  • 3. Implied idea
    Fine grained, micro contributions, independent and decentralized and maybe equal lead to articles that are better than what each contributor can write
  • 4. As expressed in this Wikipedia-l post
    I imagine Wikipedia as a massive, active swarm intelligence, supplemented by small roving groups of active editors who admire consistency, elegance, and reasoned discourse. (not unlike certain models of how the brain works :) The swarm does the bulk of the writing, especially finding and providing current facts, starting new articles, and adding neglected POVs. The roving groups are sensitive to dozens of policy pages, and implement them as they rove... they also take on large projects, one at a time, and try to implement certain changes across thousands of pages at once.
  • 5. To which “Jimbo” (Wales) answers
    I should point out that I like Suroweicki'sthesis just fine, it's just that I'm not convinced that "swarm intelligence" is very helpful in understanding how Wikipedia works -- in fact, it might be an impediment, because it leads us away from thinking about how the community interacts in a process of reasoned discourse.
  • 6. Jimbo concludes
    My research (conducted in December) showed that half the edits by logged in users belong to just 2.5% of logged in users.
  • 7. Does the 80/20 applies?
    Power-law curves are all over the real world …
    Adar and Huberman (2000) found 50% of the content on Gnutella is provided by 1% of the users,
    O'Mahonyand Ferraro (2003) found the curve in the Debian dev key ring, Moon and Sproul (2002) on the Linux Kernel list, Briggs et al. (1997) in group support systems, Krogh, Spaeth and Lakhani (2003) in Freenet.
    (By another participant to the 2005 discussion)
  • 8. What would the 80/20 rule mean?
    Extreme inequality? Elitism?
    Structured collaboration?
    Interactive exchanges between groups of individuals?
  • 9. Previous research
    Wikipedia contributions, in all languages, have become more skewed in favor of a small group of editors and old time users (Ortega et al., 2005)
  • 10. Top contributors dominate edits and no words contributed
  • 11. Our approach
    Increase in inequality => higher level of structuration
    Increasing division of labor
    From diffuse collaboration to structured collaboration
    Emergence of bureaucracy
    Emergence of adhocracy
    Groups of individuals that become article stewards
  • 12. Social entropy and structuration
    Social Entropy
    As system become organized (biased) their entropy decreases
    Entropy is a measure of meaningful organization
  • 13. Entropy and organization
    Meaningful messages use words and letters in uneven manner
    Symbol distribution in meaningful messages is uneven
    Information (and social) entropy are measures of organization and meaning
    As collaboration becomes more biased, the group becomes more organized
  • 14. Shannon’s formula
    where the sum is over all users i, and is the fractional contribution of user i. We allow p and S and to be functions of time (t).
  • 15. Shannon’s forumal explained
    Social entropy reflects how uneven and lacking in diversity a group/system process is
    10 users and 100 contributions,
    each contributing 10 edits to a Wikipedia article => entropy reaches its highest level
    1 contributor contributes all, entropy at the lowest value
  • 16. Analytic strategy
    Downloaded latest available dump
    Trouble with unzipping (dump corrupted)
    Extracted
    792,654 registered users
    234,798 articles
    Calculated number of times individuals contributed to each article and how many words have they contributed (not completely finalized)
  • 17.
    • Red: observed entropy values
    • 18. Orange: fit curve (takes into account the spread of values
    • 19. Dotted: Maximum entropy, wisdom of crowds ceiling
    ln(x)
    Intervention entropy
    Basic plot: Entropy increases for the first @500 interventions, then levels off….
    Intervention number (events)
  • 20.
    • Red: observed entropy values
    • 21. Orange: fit curve (takes into account the spread of values
    • 22. Dotted: Maximum entropy, wisdom of crowds ceiling
    ln(x)
    Intervention entropy
    Intervention number (events)
    Logged plot: Average article entropy increasingly and monotonously diverges from the “wisdom of the crowds” ceiling. Wikipedia becomes “cooler” and more and more structured ….
  • 23. Standard deviation/ Int. Entropy
    After the 500th intervention the coefficient of variation (StDev/Mean) becomes constant; all articles tend to behave within the same limits of variability for the next 9,500 iterations
    n-1/2
    ratio
    Intervention number (events)
  • 24. What remains to be done
    Entropy decreases, Wikipedia “hardens”
    Does it become more structured? In what way?
    Will analyze degree of structuration measuring structure of coedits (network) analysis
    Expectation: as entropy decreases, network structures become more hierarchical can inflexible (less degrees of freedom)
    Will analyze distribution of collaboration across formal and informal roles
    Who are the nodes of collaboration
    What is their contribution to cooling and hardening Wikipedia