Food insecurity in a Kenyan Fishing Community
The enigma of protein deficiency among fishing families around Lake Victoria
Food Insecurity  ->  M alnutrition <ul><li>An interaction: politics, economics, geography, climate, culture, gender dispar...
<ul><li>Understand the nutrition and food security situation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify existing constrai...
Protein Availability Per Person Kenya 61 g/day
Lake Victoria, Kenya
Jaboya
Jaboya  –  “Fish for Sex” <ul><li>the trade of sex for the ability to obtain fish to sell </li></ul><ul><li>men catch fish...
Politics  – Kenyan gov’t’s desire for foreign exchange led to large scale commercial fisheries on Lake Victoria for export...
Economics  – people have few other ways to earn cash so they sell fish instead of eating it
HIV/AIDS and household food security   <ul><li>originated in Central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>decimates adults 15-45; loss...
Impact of HIV/AIDS on household food security <ul><li>large numbers of orphans </li></ul><ul><li>increase in household siz...
Climate and Geography   <ul><li>drought and flooding  </li></ul><ul><li>soil is poor/lack of arable land </li></ul><ul><li...
Other Agricultural Issues <ul><li>soil degradation </li></ul><ul><li>crop diseases </li></ul><ul><li>desertification/clima...
Economic Constraints <ul><li>lack of employment or income generating opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>lack of female educat...
<ul><ul><li>“ Give a woman a fish and you feed her for a day.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach a woman to fish and you fe...
<ul><li>Understand the nutrition and food security situation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify existing constrai...
Adrienne Barcket
Nutrition and Food Security Survey: 168 Luo women/Nov 2007 <ul><li>Purpose  – to establish baseline data on: </li></ul><ul...
Household Characteristics N Range Mean Age (yrs) 163 19-80 42.6 Number in Household 165 1-15 6.0 Years Attended School 164...
<ul><li>24 hour food diversity instrument </li></ul>Food Intake FOOD OR BEVERAGE CHILD MOTHER 1. Milk – fresh, tinned or p...
Available Foods  (% yes) <ul><li>Yellow sweet potatoes, ripe mangos, papayas, kale, ododo, cowpea leaves, spider flower, b...
Household Food Security <ul><li>3.  Did you or any household member eat just a few kinds of food day after day due to a la...
Traditional vs ‘Western’ Vegetables Characteristics Dodo Cabbage Iron (mg) 8.9 0.7 Beta-Carotene (µmol) 5716 100 Protein (...
“ The hyena cries and still leaves are untouched.” <ul><li>Some vegetables are considered food for the poor </li></ul>
Cultural Constraints <ul><li>Gender  - not acceptable for men to gather vegetables or prepare them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>m...
<ul><li>Menstruating women can’t enter gardens as the vegetables may whither </li></ul><ul><li>Men are given protein rich ...
Nutrition Knowledge <ul><li>Have you heard of anemia or iron deficiency?  </li></ul><ul><li>82% Yes </li></ul><ul><li>If y...
<ul><li>Do you know of any foods that are good sources of protein?  </li></ul><ul><li>58% yes </li></ul><ul><li>List those...
Constraints to Nutrition Knowledge
Constraints to Food Preparation  <ul><li>Firewood or coal </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
Lack of Health Care   <ul><li>infection/malnutrition cycle </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS, malaria, hookworms </li></ul><ul><l...
New Constraints – Security Risks
<ul><li>Understand the nutrition and food security situation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify existing constrai...
Prioritize existing problems  <ul><li>People are unable to grow, produce, preserve or purchase adequate amounts of cultura...
<ul><li>Purpose  - To develop a participatory, community based nutrition intervention program for the Kanyawegi region in ...
Possibilities <ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach to the most at risk (orphans, elderly, HIV/AIDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
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Food Security in Kenya

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Food Security in Kenya

  1. 1. Food insecurity in a Kenyan Fishing Community
  2. 2. The enigma of protein deficiency among fishing families around Lake Victoria
  3. 3. Food Insecurity -> M alnutrition <ul><li>An interaction: politics, economics, geography, climate, culture, gender disparity, disease, poor diet and physiology </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Understand the nutrition and food security situation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify existing constraints to food security </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize existing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Select and implement activities </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>Nutrition Intervention – the process
  5. 5. Protein Availability Per Person Kenya 61 g/day
  6. 6. Lake Victoria, Kenya
  7. 7. Jaboya
  8. 8. Jaboya – “Fish for Sex” <ul><li>the trade of sex for the ability to obtain fish to sell </li></ul><ul><li>men catch fish; women sell fish </li></ul><ul><li>multiple relationships </li></ul><ul><li>women widowed by HIV+ fisherman </li></ul>
  9. 9. Politics – Kenyan gov’t’s desire for foreign exchange led to large scale commercial fisheries on Lake Victoria for export (overfishing); introduction of Nile perch
  10. 10. Economics – people have few other ways to earn cash so they sell fish instead of eating it
  11. 11. HIV/AIDS and household food security <ul><li>originated in Central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>decimates adults 15-45; loss of working adults </li></ul><ul><li>cultural practices increase risk </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impact of HIV/AIDS on household food security <ul><li>large numbers of orphans </li></ul><ul><li>increase in household size </li></ul><ul><li>children caring for children </li></ul><ul><li>loss of traditional nutrition knowledge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Climate and Geography <ul><li>drought and flooding </li></ul><ul><li>soil is poor/lack of arable land </li></ul><ul><li>maize, millet and sorghum (~10% protein) do not grow well </li></ul><ul><li>cassava (1-2% protein) does </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Agricultural Issues <ul><li>soil degradation </li></ul><ul><li>crop diseases </li></ul><ul><li>desertification/climate change </li></ul>
  15. 15. Economic Constraints <ul><li>lack of employment or income generating opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>lack of female education or training programs </li></ul><ul><li>cultural restrictions on the type of work women can do </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>“ Give a woman a fish and you feed her for a day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach a woman to fish and you feed a woman for a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime.” Adapted from Chinese Proverb </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Understand the nutrition and food security situation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify existing constraints to food security </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize existing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Select and implement activities </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>Nutrition Intervention – the process
  18. 18. Adrienne Barcket
  19. 19. Nutrition and Food Security Survey: 168 Luo women/Nov 2007 <ul><li>Purpose – to establish baseline data on: </li></ul><ul><li>current food intake </li></ul><ul><li>nutrition knowledge (e.g. protein, iron, iodine, vitamin A) </li></ul><ul><li>infant, child and perinatal feeding practices </li></ul><ul><li>food habits/cultural beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>ht & wt (BMI) </li></ul><ul><li>food availability and costs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Household Characteristics N Range Mean Age (yrs) 163 19-80 42.6 Number in Household 165 1-15 6.0 Years Attended School 164 0-12 4.4 # of own children 165 0-11 4.0 # of orphan children 164 0-7 1.6
  21. 21. <ul><li>24 hour food diversity instrument </li></ul>Food Intake FOOD OR BEVERAGE CHILD MOTHER 1. Milk – fresh, tinned or powdered Y N Y N 2. Tea or coffee Y N Y N 3. Coke, Sprite, Fanta or other soft drink Y N Y N 4. Juice Y N Y N 5. Beer or other alcoholic beverages Y N Y N 6. Any other liquids (e.g. broth or soup) Y N Y N 7. Maize (ugali), rice, noodles, bread Y N Y N 8. Pumpkin, yellow sweet potatoes (yams), squash or carrots Y N Y N 9. White potatoes, cassava or white sweet potatoes (yams) Y N Y N 10. Any dark green leaves (e.g. sukuma wiki) Y N Y N 11. Ripe (orange) mangoes or papayas Y N Y N 12. Any other fruits or vegetables (e.g. tomatoes, onions, bananas, cabbages, pineapples, lychee) Y N Y N 13. Liver, kidney, heart, blood, intestine or other organs Y N Y N 14. Meat such as pork (pig), cow, chicken, goat or duck (other fowl) or other animal flesh Y N Y N 17. Eggs Y N Y N 18. Fresh or dried fish or shellfish Y N Y N 19. Beans or foods made from beans, lentils, other pulses or nuts (e.g. cashews or peanuts) Y N Y N 20. Any oil, fats, butter (including foods made with any of these) Y N Y N 21. Red palm oil, palm nut oil Y N Y N 21. Sugar or sugary foods such as sweets, candies, cakes, or biscuits Y N Y N 22. Any condiments (e.g. ketchup) Y N Y N 23. Any other solid or semi-solid food Y N Y N List other if yes to #23
  22. 22. Available Foods (% yes) <ul><li>Yellow sweet potatoes, ripe mangos, papayas, kale, ododo, cowpea leaves, spider flower, black night shade (87%) </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, rice, noodles, bread (91%) </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava, white potatoes (57%) </li></ul><ul><li>Intestine, blood, liver (35%) </li></ul><ul><li>Cow, goat, chicken, pork, duck (46%) </li></ul><ul><li>Bananas, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, oranges (81%) </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs (36%) </li></ul><ul><li>Fish - fresh and dried (62%) </li></ul><ul><li>Beans, lentils and groundnuts (57%) </li></ul><ul><li>Milk (in tea) (81%) </li></ul><ul><li>Oil (92%) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Household Food Security <ul><li>3. Did you or any household member eat just a few kinds of food day after day due to a lack of resources? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Did you or any household member eat fewer meals in a day because there was not enough food? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Was there ever no food at all in your household because there were not resources to get more? </li></ul><ul><li>9. Did you or any household member go a whole day without eating anything because there was not enough food? </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN </li></ul>
  24. 24. Traditional vs ‘Western’ Vegetables Characteristics Dodo Cabbage Iron (mg) 8.9 0.7 Beta-Carotene (µmol) 5716 100 Protein (g) 4.6 1.7
  25. 25. “ The hyena cries and still leaves are untouched.” <ul><li>Some vegetables are considered food for the poor </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cultural Constraints <ul><li>Gender - not acceptable for men to gather vegetables or prepare them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>men who cook are referred to as “half or lesser men” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food can’t be gathered from deserted homesteads due to the presence of malevolent spirits </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Menstruating women can’t enter gardens as the vegetables may whither </li></ul><ul><li>Men are given protein rich foods before women and children </li></ul><ul><li>Women should not eat organ meats </li></ul><ul><li>Children fed mainly on porridge </li></ul>
  28. 28. Nutrition Knowledge <ul><li>Have you heard of anemia or iron deficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>82% Yes </li></ul><ul><li>If yes, do you know what foods can help to prevent or treat iron deficiency? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood, liver, beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cabbage, oranges, papaya </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Do you know of any foods that are good sources of protein? </li></ul><ul><li>58% yes </li></ul><ul><li>List those foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meat, fish, chicken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grains and beans mixed (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cabbages, white potatoes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Constraints to Nutrition Knowledge
  31. 31. Constraints to Food Preparation <ul><li>Firewood or coal </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  32. 32. Lack of Health Care <ul><li>infection/malnutrition cycle </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS, malaria, hookworms </li></ul><ul><li>maternal/infant feeding practices </li></ul><ul><li>23% stunted (low ht for age) </li></ul><ul><li>kwashirokor and marasmus </li></ul>
  33. 33. New Constraints – Security Risks
  34. 34. <ul><li>Understand the nutrition and food security situation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify existing constraints to food security </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize existing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Select and implement activities </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>Nutrition Intervention – the process
  35. 35. Prioritize existing problems <ul><li>People are unable to grow, produce, preserve or purchase adequate amounts of culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate food </li></ul><ul><li>People lack sufficient knowledge of the nutritional qualities of the food that is available and who needs certain foods the most (e.g. iron rich foods) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture limits women’s ability to provide for their families </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Purpose - To develop a participatory, community based nutrition intervention program for the Kanyawegi region in Kenya to help reduce the high incidence of protein/energy and micronutrient malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: Recommendations must be culturally appropriate, nutritionally adequate, sustainable, affordable and agriculturally viable. </li></ul>Nutrition Intervention Project (GSI)
  37. 37. Possibilities <ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School feeding program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition/agriculture club </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Information, Assessment and Training Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute information, visual and audio aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropometry, dietary evaluation (refer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train community nutrition workers (level 1 & 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide supplements and other nutritional support (Sprinkles, RTUF ?) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach to the most at risk (orphans, elderly, HIV/AIDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstration garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition fair/days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale agriculture projects to increase yields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OTHER??? </li></ul></ul>

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