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Exploring Urban Agriculture Options for Fiji

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  • 1. Exploring Urban Agriculture Options for Fiji Carolyn A. Campbell Global Resource Systems Faculty of Land and Food Systems 2007
  • 2. Outline
    • Terminology
    • The Fijian Context
    • Research Questions & Methods
    • Results
    • Reflections
  • 3. Terminology
    • Food Security
      • Available, Affordable, Appropriate, Accessible, Safe, Sustainable
    • Sustainable Development
    • Urban agriculture/agroforestry
  • 4. Source : Google Earth (2007)
  • 5. Source : Google Earth (2007)
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Fijian Context
    • History
      • British Colonization
      • Market-orientated development
      • Labour and Land
      • Political instability
    • People
      • Indo-Fijian
      • Indian Fijian
      • Others
  • 8. The Fijian Context
    • Urbanization
    • Diet Colonization
    • Food Insecurity
    • Ecocultural change
  • 9. Research Questions
    • Is there a need to supply food grown in urban environments for urban consumption?
    • What urban agriculture strategies could be employed in urban Fiji?
  • 10. Methods
    • In determining a need for urban agriculture:
      • Basic trade statistics
      • Food Balance sheets
      • Health indicators
      • Government legislation, programs and policies
    • In suggesting strategies and forecasting drawbacks and benefits
      • Case studies
  • 11. Is there a need for UA in Suva?
    • Home Gardens widespread?
    • Gardening on 70% “unused” in 1993
    • So why look into urban agriculture?
    Source : Thaman (1993)
  • 12. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Trade Statistics Source : World Bank (Nov 2006) Year Year Year Year Year Year 2007/p 2006 /p 2005 /e 2004 2003 2002
  • 13. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Trade Statistics Source : World Bank (Nov 2006) Year Year Year Year Year Year 2007/p 2006 /p 2005 /e 2004 2003 2002
  • 14. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Current Events
    • Job loss
    • Floods - increase in market food prices
  • 15. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Current Events
  • 16. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Indicators of Health Source : Fiji Bureau of Statistics
  • 17. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Indicators of Health Source : Fiji Bureau of Statistics
  • 18. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Urbanization and Overweight Prevalences Source : WHO
  • 19. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Trends in Dietary Consumption Source : FAO STAT
  • 20. Is there a need for UA in Suva? What’s Changed? Source : WHO
  • 21. Where have all the roots gone? Source : WHO (2003)
  • 22. Is there a need for UA in Suva? Policy Change
    • Import Substitution
    • Sector-led
    • 2001 - Indigenous Fijian Village focus
    • No urban agriculture polices - part of the informal sector
  • 23. Reflection - Is Urban Agriculture Needed in Suva?
    • Not necessarily, but it could be a powerful tool
      • Government could promote increase in vegetable production in rural areas instead
      • Need to address health trends
  • 24. Reflection - Is Urban Agriculture Needed in Suva?
    • Benefits for Suva
      • Economic
        • Increase terms of trade
        • Potential support the informal sector
        • Employment
        • Income generation
    • Enhances food security
      • Access, availability, affordability, appropriate, safe, sustainable
  • 25. Reflection - Is Urban Agriculture Needed in Suva?
    • Health Benefits
      • Affordable healthy food
      • Lifestyle alteration
      • Increasing traditional foods - healthier
    • Social benefits
      • Cultural awareness and tolerance
      • Regain traditional knowledge
  • 26. What could UA look like in Suva? Models
    • How can UA fit into Suva?
      • Home Gardens
        • Demonstrations
        • Solomon Islands - Ministry of Health
      • Fruit Gleaning
      • Securing creation of community gardens
  • 27. What could UA look like in Suva? Models
    • Hotel Gardens
      • Showcasing traditional gardens
    • City farms supplying low income areas
      • Cuba
      • Latin America
  • 28. Closing Reflections
    • Opportunity to re-think how we use our urban space
    • Opportunity to use urban centres as places for re-valuing and regaining traditional knowledge
    • Opportunity to change urban dietary habits and lifestyles
  • 29. References
    • Earthtrends (2003): “Agriculture and Food - Fiji” Earthtrends Country Profile . Accessed from http://earthtrends.wri.org
    • FAO (2003). The WTO Agreement on Agriculture: The Implementation Experience - Developing Country Case Studies http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4632E/y4632e0d.htm
    • Sharma KL, (2006). “Food Security in the South Pacific Island Countries with Special Reference to the Fiji Islands.” World Institute for Development Economic Research. United Nations University.
    • Batibasaqa, K, Overton, J, Horsely, P, (1999). “Vanua: Land People and Culture in Fiji” ch 8 in, Strategies for Sustainable Development: Experiences form the Pacific . New York: Zed Books.
    • Kuhlken, R, (2002). “Intensive Agriculture Landscapes of Oceania.” Journal of Cultural Geography . 19(2):161-195.
    • Overton, J, Murray, W, Ali, I, (1999). “Commodity Production and Unsustainable Agriculture” ch 13 in, Strategies for Sustainable Development: Experiences form the Pacific . New York: Zed Books.
    • Schultz, JT, (2004). “Globalization, Urbanisation and nutrition transition in a developing island country: a case study in Fiji” in Globalization of Food Systems in Developing Countries: Impact on Food Security and Nutrition (pp.195-214). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
    • Sharma, KL, (2006). “Food Security in the South Pacific Island Countries with Special Reference to the Fiji Islands.” World Institute for Development Economic Research . United Nations University.
    • Thaman, RR, (1982). “Deterioration of traditional food systems, increasing malnutrition and food dependency in the Pacific Islands.” Journal of Food and Nutrition. 39(3):109-121.
    • Thaman, RR, (1993). “Pacific Island urban agroforestry” ch 7 in Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
    • World Health Organization (2003). “Diet, Food Supply and Obesity in the South Pacific.” Regional office for the Western Pacific. Accessed from: http://www.wpro.who.int/publications/pub_9260610441.htm
  • 30. Undergoing Undergrad Research - My MURC Experience
    • Understanding the contexts of the South Pacific before I travel
    • Getting lost in the data
    • Stress and Time