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Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans

Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans






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    Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans Presentation Transcript

    • Moving SustainablyGuide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • AcknowledgementsThe Moving Sustainably – Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans has been written by Sakari Saarinen and Anna Granberg at Union of the Baltic Cities Commissionon Environment, Michael Koucky at Union of the Baltic Cities Commission on Transport, Sönke Behrends at Chalmers University of Technology and Allen Creedy atethics etc..., BUSTRIP city cases are written by Virpi Kaukavuori and Sakari Saarinen.Thanks to the BUSTRIP city coordinators and their colleagues, Alicja Pawlowska - city of Gdynia, Gunilla Fransson - city of Göteborg, James McGeever - city of Kaunas,Hannu Koverola - Kouvola Region, Dace Liepniece and Mara Zeltina - city of Liepaja, Karri Tiigisoon and Grete Kukk - city of Pärnu, Christer Tarberg - city of Sundsvall,Marek Muiste - city of Tartu, Mikko Laaksonen - city of Turku, Danguole Vaitkiene and Aurelija Babiliute - city of Vilnius, Per Elvingson - city of Örebro, MichaelFrömming and Michael Glotz-Richter - city of Bremen, for providing us with your experiences and for great cooperation.Thanks to the BUSTRIP Project Steering Group; Magnus Blinge, Maria Lindholm and Sönke Behrends - Chalmers University of Technology, Sofie Vennersten, LisaSundell and Michael Koucky - UBC Commission on Transport, Allen Creedy - ethics etc..., Anna Granberg, Sakari Saarinen and Björn Grönholm - UBC Commission onEnvironment.Thanks to Per Elvingson, Maria Lindholm, James McGeever, Sofie Vennersten, Heidi Tuhkanen, Virpi Kaukavuori, Kyösti Lempa, Eija Eloranta and Stella Aaltonen forvaluable comments and to Paul W Harrison for proof-reading.Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport PlansMoving Sustainably is the final product of the BUSTRIP project part-financed by European Union (European Regional Development Fund) within the BSR INTERREG IIIB Neighbourhoodprogramme, the Finnish Ministry of Environment and the partner cities. The guide book reflects the authors’ views and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of theEuropean Commission.The BUSTRIP project is part of the UBC Agenda 21 Programme 2004-2009 – Roadmap for Sustainable Baltic Cities.© Union of the Baltic Cities Commission on EnvironmentMore copies of the guide book can be ordered at www.movingsustainably.netPrinted on 100 % recycled paper at Painoprisma Oy, a Nordic Swan environmentally certified printing house.This document may only be copied in its entirety and without any kind of alteration. It may be quoted from provided that the Moving Sustainably - Guide toSustainable Urban Transport Plans is stated as the source.Photographs: see page 75Layout design by Sari BowieISBN 978-952-5725-17-9
    • Moving SustainablyGuide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans “We are not only doing this for traffic. We are doing this for creating a more liveable city.”
    • CONTENTS 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 5 2. Planning process............................................................................................................................. 10 2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 2.2. Players of the game – Responsibility and organisation ...................................................................................................................... 11 2.3. Work together – Policy coordination through actor cooperation ...................................................................................................... 13 2.4. Involve and engage – Stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation ........................................................................................... 16 2.5. Respect all – Equality and gender equity .......................................................................................................................................... 21 2.6. Keep on learning – Capacity building .............................................................................................................................................. 24 2.7. The name of the game – Scope and definition .................................................................................................................................. 27 2.8. Starting position – Baseline review ................................................................................................................................................... 30 2.9. Guiding star – Vision ....................................................................................................................................................................... 35 2.10. Find the resources – Identifying finances .......................................................................................................................................... 38 3. Implementation .............................................................................................................................. 40 3.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 40 3.2. Make it SMART – Objectives and targets ........................................................................................................................................ 41 3.3. Earmark the resources – Allocating finances ..................................................................................................................................... 444 3.4. Take the positions – Assignment of responsibilities........................................................................................................................... 46 3.5. Make it for real – Adoption and approval ......................................................................................................................................... 48 3.6. Keep the right track – Monitoring and assessment ........................................................................................................................... 50 4. Striving for better urban living and mobility ........................................................................................ 54 4.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 4.2. Close and easy – Reduced need for transport .................................................................................................................................... 55 4.3. Efficient travelling – Strengthening sustainable transport modes....................................................................................................... 58 4.4. Healthy and pleasant – Clean and silent transport system ................................................................................................................ 62 4.5. Rethinking goods transport – Efficient urban logistics .................................................................................................................... 64 Appendix 1 – EU SUTP qualities ............................................................................................................ 68 Appendix 2 - Policy documents ............................................................................................................ 70 Appendix 3 - Good practice databases ................................................................................................... 70 Appendix 4 – Glossary ........................................................................................................................ 71 Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 1. INTRODUCTIONAs people travel to buy goods and use services, they generate traffic. It is encompass visioning, partnerships, involvement, policy and finance op-the ordinary day-to-day activities of urban residents – going to the shops, tion appraisal and a review of existing implementation programmes andvisiting the dentist or attending school – that generate traffic. Your city, mechanisms. The process of SUT planning is at least as important as theas many cities today, face a multitude of challenges related to these activi- completed SUT planties, congestion, noise, air quality issues, health, safety, quality of life and The process of preparing the plan should be carefully considered andthe problem with a multitude of diverting policies in the field of urban agreed with all relevant stakeholders. Human and financial resources willtransport. On the global level, the challenge of climate change and its be required to manage the SUT planning process. New institutional, or-environmental, health and economic impacts are strongly connected to ganisational and communication arrangements may be required. Existingtransport and unsustainable mobility behaviour. arrangements should be reviewed with stakeholders as part of the processThese challenges are the driving forces behind the recent calls for powerful of agreeing on the new arrangements. An essential element of the SUTmeasures on the local transport arena. Urban mobility issues are complex planning is the free and unhindered exchange of information, knowledgeand cannot be successfully solved by simple transport plans. They require and views. The process and the supporting resources should support theradical new policy instruments together with an integrated approach to open and transparent process of SUT planning.mobility and the design of our cities. Sustainable Urban Transport Plans SUT plan(SUTP) have been strongly recommended by the European Union asthe foundation upon which a new approach to transport can be built. The SUT plan is a tool to provide more sustainable ways of meeting theEmbracing radical new policies and facilitating the necessary integration mobility and transport needs for people and goods in urban areas. It com- 5of transport, urban and economic planning. prehensively addresses public and private transport, motorised and non- motorised transport, moving and parked vehicles as well as freight trans-The preparation and adoption of a Sustainable Urban Transport Plan is port and logistics. These transport categories are dealt with in an integrateda process that often requires new ways of thinking, cross departmental way. The SUT plan should become a guiding document for all sectors ofcooperation and integration of different policy areas. Comprehensive new planning that involve, affect or are affected by transport. The SUT plantools together with guidance on their use are required to help the cities to should express a shared vision on the development of transport in the cityboth understand and get started with the SUTP process. This SUTP guide in the framework of sustainability and provide a strategy to systematically‘Moving Sustainably’ is based on the Baltic Sea Region INTERREG III work towards this goal.B project BUSTRIP (Baltic Urban Sustainable Transport Implementationand Planning, www.bustrip-project.net). BUSTRIP has supported twelve In short the SUT plan is the working document developed by the city toNorthern European cities in their groundbreaking efforts to be the first address the challenge of achieving sustainable urban transport.cities in Europe to prepare and implement SUTPs. The objective of thisguide is to provide tools and guidance for transport and urban plannersand decision-makers on how to plan and implement sustainable urbantransport.A Sustainable Urban Transport Plan has two basic components:SUT planning IntroductionThe process of preparing an SUTP – SUT planning – requires ongo-ing and effective local and regional cooperation and collaboration. Thisjoint effort between administrations, agencies and stakeholders needs to Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Process cycle Transforming urban mobility and urban planning practice into sustainable SUTP calls for an extensive involvement of stakeholders from outside the practice is a long process. Our unsustainable transport patterns and infra- city administration; NGOs, citizens and business representatives. It re- structure have emerged over the course of decades. Our infrastructure, our quires close cooperation with national and regional governments to ensure cities and the expectations we have for mobility and transport cannot be compliance with their strategic plans, recognising that in order to make changed overnight. The starting point is different for each city; political progress towards the sustainable development there is a need to consider situation, national and regional characteristics and the resources available. the transport and mobility of the whole of a functional urban area – since Therefore every city has to find its own, workable solution for the SUTP mobility does not recognise administrative boundaries. The SUTP requires process. an inclusive approach that acknowledges the equality of all individuals and groups and their rights to participate in decision making. The figure on page 7 visualises the general process of the SUTP. The outer circle and the block arrow on the right hand show the SUT planning part One fundamental ingredient of an SUTP is the utilisation of a ‘sustainable and the inner circle shows the SUT plan process. The model illustrates the city vision’ as a starting point for the SUTP work. This vision demonstrates need for regular update and feedback to the organisation on the progress of how long term hopes and aspirations of the plan can serve as the ‘guiding the plan. Policy coordination, stakeholder cooperation, equity and gender stars’ for the whole process, how they can be used to stimulate interest equality and capacity building continuously inform the development and and involvement and how useful they can be used in the marketing of the 6 implementation of the Sustainable Urban Transport Plan and its actions. work. For a successful SUTP the setting of measurable and time-limited targets is crucial; in fact, without these it is not even possible to evaluate City experiences as basis for the guidance the plan. To measure and follow-up on the impact of the actions is another crucial aspect of the plan. The concept of SUTP used in this guide is directed towards small- and medium-sized cities. These cities are taking their first steps in the process that is aimed at improving the city transport – by making it more sustain- able, co-operative and integrated. It can also be used by cities that already have elements of a SUTP that would like to further integrate, upgrade and extend their efforts. By ‘cities’ in this guidebook we refer local authorities of all sizes. The guidance is based on findings, experiences and good practices of the BUSTRIP partner cities. The experiences show that SUTP process must build on the existing strengths and opportunities of a city. Above all, in- tegration is the key to SUTP. The integration of different policy areas can lead to beneficial consequences on the environment; lowered air quality emissions and lower noise levels for example. It can also support improve- ments in personal health and in more sustainable lifestyle patterns.Introduction Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Reduced need for Enchanced Clean and silent Efficient urban transport modal shift transport system logistics ACTION Scope and definition PolicyResponsibility and coordination organisation Baseline Review Allocating finances Stakeholder 7 cooperation Objectives and Adoption and Assignment of Equity and targets approval responsibilities gender equality Monitoring and assessment Capacity building Identifying finances Vision SUT plan SUT planning SUTP Process cycle Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • User introduction The ‘Moving Sustainably’ guidance consists of the guidebook and the web- The Moving Sustainably website www.movingsustainably.net includes not site for Sustainable Urban Transport Plans. only all the guidebook information but also all the templates and forms for the SUTP work that have been developed and used in the BUSTRIP The guidebook is divided into three parts; the first focuses on the process project. The website will be continuously updated with the information of preparing the SUT plan; the second concentrates on the effective im- and links to new policy and good practice documents. plementation of the plan and the third considers the measures that should be carried out as a result of the plan. The chapters within the main parts are the ‘concrete’ steps in the process. Each stage is interlinked and all users are recommended to consider and assess all the steps of the process. Enjoy the journey through the process of Sustainable Urban For some local administrations the implementation of some of the steps Transport Plans! is self-evident and will be normal practice. The guidebook can be used in different ways; either as a ‘step-by-step’ guide in preparing an SUTP ‘from scratch’, or it can serve as the basis for carrying out a gap analysis between Authors the already existing transport planning processes in the city and an SUTP. 8 Each chapter/step of the process includes a why and a how section. This provides the rationale and practical guidance to complete the work in- volved in each step. Each chapter concludes with a checklist that provides a view on what are the most important issues to be ‘checked off’ and considered for each step of the SUTP for the city. The twelve city cases (contained within different chapters) present a selection of ‘hands-on’ ex- periences taken from the twelve BUSTRIP project cities. Each case study focuses on different steps in the SUTP processes. The BUSTRIP cities experiences provide practical illustration of how the different steps of the SUTP process have been carried out by different cities. The four appendixes of the guidebook include additional information and links to other information sources. The first appendix introduces the European Union definition and qualities for SUTP in brief. The second appendix introduces selected information and links to EU and other poli- cy documents that are related to sustainable urban transport and to the dif- ferent steps of the SUTP. The third appendix provides the users with links to Good Practice databases that include practical examples of sustainable urban transport systems and actions from other cities around the world.Introduction The fourth appendix is the glossary of the guidebook, including words and terms used in the world of sustainable urban transport. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 9Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2. PLANNING PROCESS 2.1 Introduction The following chapters describe the essential steps required for a sustainable urban transport planning process. The first chapter ‘responsibil- ity and organisation’ explains how the process can only be successful if there is political com- mitment and support together with clear alloca- tion of responsibilities and definition of working methods. The next four chapters examine ‘policy coordi- nation through actor cooperation’, ‘stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation’, ‘equality and gender equity’ and ‘capacity building’ and how as planning principles they are essential pre-requisites for all aspects of SUT planning and SUTP implementation.10 The latter four chapters about ‘scope and defini- tion’, ‘baseline review’, ‘vision’ and ‘identifying finances’ are the other fundamental elements of the actual planning process. These elements lay the ground for the successful SUTP process, and without these the process and implementation of SUTP will fail.Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.2 Players of the game – Responsibility and organisation How Why Start the SUTP work by appointing a ‘coordina- A work plan is the key document for the whole Transforming the transport system of a tor’. S/he must have sufficient time, authority SUTP process. It should include as a minimum, city into a sustainable transport system is and control over resources to direct and manage the SUTP process budget, a stakeholder involve- a challenging and time-demanding process the inter-sectoral working group through the ment plan, communication plan, how research that is worth being systematically planned SUTP process. The inter-sectoral SUTP work- and information will be collected in relation to and continuously managed. It requires col- ing group should involve representatives from the baseline review, key milestone dates, a sched- laboration and coordination between those the key departments/authorities of the munici- ule for the meetings, and an outline of roles and departments in the city administration pal administration: transport planning, spatial responsibilities specific to the SUTP planning that either affect or are affected by trans- planning, real estate, social affairs, education, process. port developments – not only the obvious economical affairs, environmental protection, transport planning and urban planning sustainability departments/units etc. Key exter- departments but also the environmental nal stakeholders such as regional authorities and protection, economics and social integra- neighbouring municipality representatives may tion departments must be involved. A clear be invited to special meetings with the working organisational structure and the assignment group. It is also advisable to assign a senior lead 11 of responsibilities are prerequisites for the officer to be accountable to the political leader- successful and sustainable transformation ship for the administrative, financial and techni- of urban transport. cal aspects of the SUTP work. It is essential that the SUTP work has political support. The ideal situation is that the SUTP process is initiated by the political leadership. To appoint one political representative who has the responsibility and is accountable for the SUTP work is advisable. This politician‘s role is to par- ticipate in the management of the SUTP, moni- tor the achievement of targets, ensure that mile- stones are achieved and closely follow the work of the inter-sectoral SUTP working group. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Improving the collaboration and cooperation between departments is a pre-requisite both for the successful planning of the SUTP and the implementation of its actions. The inter-secto- ral SUTP working group is not only the starting point for this improvement but also one of the mechanisms necessary for ensuring that it con- tinues.12 Checklist The basic elements to start the process and inter-sectoral working group: There is a political mandate and support for SUTP work There is a political representative for the SUTP work who is actively involved in the process There is a coordinator with responsibility and the resources for organising the SUTP work Representatives from key stakeholder departments regularly participate in the working group meetings and activities and have thePlanning process authority to take decisions The inter-sectoral group work plan includes details of budgets, actions, goals and responsibilities Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.3 Work together – Policy coordination through actor cooperation How Why Policy coordination ensures that the various by traffic within the geographical coverage of Sustainable urban transport is more than the policy documents and strategies on the city, re- the planning area. This includes national and management of urban transport carried out gional and national levels are coordinated and regional plans, other relevant citywide plans, according to sustainability principles – it re- coherent. This demands a system of cooperation transport companies and provider’s plans/strate- quires coordinated actions across a diversity between different departments within the mu- gies and, last but not least, neighbouring munic- of policy themes so that land use and spatial nicipality and with other relevant actors. Ideally, ipalities. The SUTP should ensure that transport planning support and facilitate an efficient the city’s policies from one field to another are and mobility goals are integrated with corporate urban transport system; there is effective fully compatible and accordant with the goals comprehensive planning and those of other sec- control over the environmental, economi- for sustainable urban transport. Policies that tors — in particular, land use and spatial plans cal and social impacts of transport; shared contradict or hinder the achievement of SUTP but also environmental protection, social in- knowledge exists regarding the health and goals need to be identified, discussed and even clusion, economic development, safety, health, safety impacts of various transport modes; changed. education and information technologies. integration takes place with sustainable de- velopment strategies; and education and The SUTP should link all transport modes and policy sectors that influence or are influenced awareness-raising occurs with a transparent 13 exchange of information facilitated through the use of real-time information technology support. A lack of coordination between the various policies, city departments and external or- ganisations has been a considerable short- coming in the urban transport planning of many cities. A major challenge for the SUTP process is to address this deficit. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Within a municipally controlled organisation, point towards better policy integration. It is im- All the plans that have been produced by NGOs, departments sometimes have policies and pro- portant to point out the conflicts in the plans schools, local community groups and businesses cedures that are in conflict with goals in other and policies to the responsible departments and should be included in the mapping process. departments or with the goals of sustainable ur- authorities. Similarly, city-based policies require Detailed discussion and research are needed ban transport. A first step in policy coordination coordination with regional and national goals with relevant regional or national stakeholders is to identify the existing municipal, regional and policies. A system is needed which checks to include their policies, plans and procedures and national policies, goals, procedures and ‘how’ and ‘whether’ forward-planning and other in the mapping process. regulations in various departments that affect policy decisions will conflict with each other. The next step is to go through and check the ob- or are affected by urban transport. The map- jectives and goals (e.g., travel demand reduction, ping and analysis of existing transport-related support of non-motorised modes of transport, sup- plans (policies, etc.) represent a good starting port for energy-efficient transport, low emissions, a fair transport system with good accessibility for all citizen groups, clean and efficient freight transport) in the identified documents against the goals for sustainable urban transport. Check whether14 Checklist they are supporting or conflicting with the local SUTP goals. Then decide which actions need Policies and rules that affect transport are identified and listed to be taken to change or influence each of the Policies and rules are checked for contradictions and support for sustainable urban conflicting goals: bring this list of actions to- transport gether in an action plan that also describes how the SUTP is related to the other policy docu- Policies and rules that conflict with the goals of sustainable urban transport are listed ments. Invite all relevant actors and stakeholders A clear hierarchy of policies has been defined to discuss the conflicts identified in the action plan. Try to agree on the changes that will be Conflicting goals are pointed out to responsible decision-makers made to the plans and policies, who will make Conflicting rules and policies are changed the changes and when. Regional and national goals that are affected by the cities transport are identified These changes will move the existing polices and plans from being in conflict to supporting the Regional and national rules that affect the cities transport issues are identified goals of sustainable urban transport. The chang- Regional and national rules that conflict with goals of sustainable urban transport are es may take time to take effect, but should be listed endorsed by the political leadership.Planning process There is transparency in the area of what other policies and plans are part of or linked to the SUTP Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Kouvola Region works for policy matchIn Kouvola Region, the SUTP was connected After the SUTP process started, the workingalso to the regional, state level and EU policies. group was extended to include regional public“We need to look at policies all the way from health services and regional public environ-top to down, making the whole process more ment center, as well as citizens and other rel-coherent and influence policies and processes evant stakeholders. “The group bases its workmade by regional and national actors”, says on an agreement, a letter of intent signed byHannu Koverola, Planning Manager for the all relevant parties to implement traffic policyKouvola Region Federation of Municipalities. in harmony with the Kouvola region transport system plan” Koverola says.“Sustainable urban transport is one of our pri-orities. Authorities and organizations which The challenge is to get all parties to stick to thisdecide on funding also play a key role also in agreement. Until now, policy coordination hasimplementing policies. The federation of mu- been useful in planning land use. The target 15nicipalities is present in regional projects in a is to promote sustainable modes of transportway or another, either being experts, financer by making it real all the way from cooperatingor coordinators.” on policies to implementing joint actions with sufficient resources.In Kouvola, an inter-sectoral working groupwas created as a result of the regional trans-port plan. The working group has representa-tives from Regional Council, Finnish RoadAdministration, Finnish Rail Administration,State provincial Office and all seven munici-palities. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.4 Involve and engage – Stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation Why How Stakeholder cooperation is the involvement Stakeholder involvement is the start- Stakeholders and citizens should be involved and of and cooperation with citizens and other ing point for stimulating the behavioural be able to participate early in the SUTP process. stakeholders like NGOs, businesses and changes that are needed to complement the Stakeholders should be offered opportunities to other actors in a planning process. The UN/ technical actions necessary for the imple- influence the key stages of the planning process: Habitat defines stakeholders as those mentation of a sustainable urban transport building the vision, defining objectives and tar- system. By involving sustainable transport gets, measuring development, setting priorities • whose interests are affected by the issue opponents – like passionate car users – in and undertaking evaluation. The views of stake- or those whose activities strongly affect stakeholder decision-making processes they holders and citizens are needed before plans are the issue are often converted into sustainable mov- developed. • who possess information, resources ers! and expertise needed for strategy formulation and implementation, and • who control relevant implementation or instruments16 Stakeholder participation has a series of advantages: • Participatory policy making is more transparent and democratic • A decision made together with many stakeholders is based on more knowledge • Broad consensus is essential to improve the quality, acceptance, effectiveness and legitimacy of any plan • Stakeholder involvement improves the broader support of measures • Broad consensus and sense of participation in planning ensures thePlanning process long-term acceptance and viability of strategies and measures. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • There are various degrees of involvement.‘Informing’ is at one extreme whilst ‘delegatingpower’ or ‘empowering’ is at the other. To makea successful SUTP, it is highly recommendedand entirely necessary to involve, collaboratewith and form partnerships with stakehold-ers in the process. Depending on the degree ofinvolvement and the nature of the stakeholder,various methods can be used that will encourageparticipation in the SUTP process.Inform – One-way dissemination of informa-tion. Informing is needed as a part of the processof passing information to stakeholders about theprogress of the SUTP work. Informing does notallow stakeholders to participate in the planningprocess for SUTP. 17Consult – Two-way communication involve-ment; the receiving of information and input,through listening and reading, and then the ex-change of views regarding draft, early or outlineideas and suggestions for the SUTP.Involve – Interactive discussion and dialoguethat serves as a supplement to an existing citydecision-making process. Collaborate – Stakeholder representatives at the Partnership – Form of joint decision-making by same table with the planners acting as active a shared agreement. Partnership is cooperation team members in formulating and recommend- where both sides hold veto power over decisions. ing alternatives. The final decision is made by It is mainly used when cooperating with equal the city representatives. partners like NGOs and private enterprises. ”Participation is a precondition for best quality in planning process.” Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Empower - Decisions are made by a group or Another way of looking at local stakeholders organization with specific delegation of power is to see them as experts in local circumstances from the authorities: for example, youth parlia- and in their specific area of expertise. For exam- ments and local boards. ple, the local residents of a street know exactly where street crossing is dangerous. Moreover, an If a city has a little experience of working with organisation serving handicapped people will stakeholder participation, it is wise to start at a have a profound practical knowledge of the dif- smaller scale. To build capacity, the stakeholder ficulties with shopping in a wheelchair and what cooperation should start on a limited scale and needs to be improved. be based on the learning experiences from stake- holder cooperation. With this learning, pilot projects can become mainstream procedures. Another way of attaining experience is to start on a lower level of participation with for exam- ple ‘involvement’ and grow more ambitious us- ing ‘partnerships’ as the organisation gains more18 capacity. It is beneficial to involve a facilitator with mediation skills. The facilitator will inter- pret, arbitrate and mediate between the politi- Stakeholder involvement Matrix cians/officers/planners and the stakeholders. Stakeholder cooperation can be seen by politi- cians and professionals as a challenge to their credibility and reputation in the organisation. It In need of Potential for is extremely important to be receptive and be Highly affected by transport empowerment! change! aware that planning and decision-making need to be shared with people from a diverse range of backgrounds – both political and professional. Communication is crucial for a successful stake- Least important Critical group - potential holder process. Communicate successes, set for behavioural change Not affected group backs, delays and reasons why a certain decision by transport has been made.Planning process Not affecting Highly affecting transport transport Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • It is advisable to start a citizen and stakeholder 3. Create a table describing how variouscooperation scheme in a city using careful plan- stakeholders groups will be involved atning. First, decide on the goals of the stake- separate stages of the SUTP process and toholder cooperation. Below is one example of the what degree. Select the means of commu-step-by-step process for a stakeholder coopera- nication between the working group andtion plan for the whole SUTP process, enabling the stakeholders and the methods thatstrategic stakeholder cooperation. should be used. 1. Define an objective for your stakeholder 4. Implement stakeholder participation co-operation; is it to enable more transpar- using these steps in the various stages ent decision-making, to gain more knowl- of the SUTP process. It is better to edge or something else with a specific goal. start with a less ambitious, but well planned and well-implemented stake 2. Perform a stakeholder analysis to identify holder process than with a very ambitious the stakeholder groups. Carry out a involvement process that may bring about brainstorm within the inter-sectoral work disappointment. ing group to identify who are the relevant stakeholders. Define stakeholders within 19 the public, as well as private and com- munity sector. Place them in a Stakeholder involvement Matrix. Checklist Relevant citizen/private stakeholder groups are identified Is there a strategy for the involvement of the stakeholders It is defined how they affect or are affected by municipal transport issues Are relevant stakeholders involved in the SUTP work Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • “Give people a chance to be part of the process!” The city of Tartu has carried out stakeholder It is important to be clear on why the city cooperation seminars and working groups in should involve stakeholders. In Tartu, it has preparing their SUTP. The city already had not been only about getting more support on two existing transport related working groups. the issue, but also building visions and set- “We had an easy start, something to base our ting targets. “Participation creates pressure on work on. In SUTP, our job was to expand politicians. Issues related to the quality of life these groups and generate a new cooperation or health don’t always seem to be important model”, Marek Muiste, International Project for decision-makers.” Coordinator, tells. During the SUTP process, the city of Tartu has Stakeholders include NGOs and private en- also been discussing overall sustainability and terprises, and the seminars were open to the knowledge campaigns. It is worthwhile being general public. The participation of stake- optimistic, since raising the overall awareness20 holders has given the process real added value. is about expanding the knowledge from core The baseline review and SWOT analysis for stakeholder groups to the general public. the SUTP were also carried out with the help “During the SUTP process, our stakeholders of stakeholder groups, as it was the case with have had good access to relevant information. the peer review report. “In SUTP, the stake- The SUTP team and the stakeholders have be- holders have in fact had very much power”, come more aware of sustainable transport.” Muiste says. Addressing the stakeholder groups needs careful planning. The more challenging part is changing the overall behaviour of the citi- zens: their participation is also a crucial ele- ment. Unawareness and ignorance can create an increasing number of cars. “And the bigger the car the better! These are the kind of at- titudes we need to battle against.”Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.5 Respect all – Equality and gender equity How Why In the SUT planning process ensure that there between the genders. In the inter-sectoral work- Gender equality means giving both genders is a gender balance in the inter-sectoral working ing group, consider gender participation in each equal access to services and equal oppor- group and all other groups involved. In stake- of the stages of the planning process: tunity to influence the transport system. holder consultations ensure that all relevant Use of transport differs between men and • Decision-making groups of interest are equally represented. women. Although the gap has been clos- • Involvement procedures ing during the last couple of years, men in One easy method to use is the 3R -method, • Employment in the agencies involved general still exhibit more non-sustainable where the organisation’s gender status is evalu- • Design of policies and measures travel behaviour than women. Although ated. This method helps to respond to the ques- • Implementation many studies have explored the reasons, no tion “who gets what, and under which circum- • Collection and use of gender-disaggregated comprehensive explanation has been found stances”: in other words, how men and women data in the monitoring and evaluation as to why women use sustainable modes to are represented in the SUTP work and imple- of plans and strategies a greater extent than men. mentation and how the resources are distributed 21 Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Furthermore, analyse the following questions: Representation – How many men, how many women? The response to this question gives a Checklist view of the representation in political bodies, working groups, stakeholder groups and so on. Gender equality is taken into account in the SUT planning process and within the SUT plan itself Resources – How are resources divided between men and women? Who gets the resources: mon- There is a balanced gender representation amongst decision-makers concerning transport ey, time, information and space? issues Reality – Under this heading the facts gathered There is equal accessibility for all groups considered in planning and decision-making in representation as well as the resources should (equity, e.g., for the handicapped, elderly or parents) be analysed to decide on the values and norms that guide the planning process and the munici- pal organisation to be visualised. The questions that will be answered are: Why is the representa-22 tion as it is? Who sets the norms in the organisa- tion and who gets the resources? On the basis of the 3R analyses, it can be con- cluded if the SUT planning process promotes equality and whether the organisation is carry- ing out the SUTP in a way that promotes equal- ity. It also offers a view on what can be changed in the planning process and how the organisa- tion can better promote equality. The results have links to the whole value base of the entire organisation. (3R method is developed by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, http://www.skl.se/).Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Equality is about seeing things from different angles How to make sure there are equal opportu- high technology, or buying cars. It seems to be nities for all members of the society to have a goal for the younger generations.” influence over public transport? The balance Children form the majority of bicycle users between professional groups, different age in Lithuania. So far, cycling has not been a groups, gender and accessibility has been kept major mode of transport in the cities. “There in mind in the SUTP process in Vilnius. are problems related to safety, and not enough Aurelija Babiliute, Chief Specialist in Vilnius parking lots for bicycles near the school yards. Healthy Cities Bureau, thinks it is important We need to take that into account in planning, to count every possible opinion. Balance – re- and encourage children by already starting the gardless of whether this is about the balance education in kindergartens and schools.” between men and women, children and adults In Vilnius, the disabled have also been heard 23 or the healthy and the disabled – means seeing in public meetings. Their special needs are al- transport issues from each and every angle. ways kept in mind when planning new things. Gender is one of the most complicated “It is sometimes difficult in older parts of the questions. “On a professional level, gender city because of lack of space. For example, we shouldn’t be an issue”, Babiliute says. “There can’t really change much at the Unesco World are certain professional fields that are male- Heritage site.” dominated. But if the person is open-mind- ed, it shouldn’t make a difference.” And why not test bus stops, sidewalks, parking areas and safety with mothers – or fathers – tak- ing young children to day-care or the grocery store! In Lithuania, there is a special difference be- tween the older and younger generations. Many users of public transport had a habit ofPlanning process using such services during the Soviet period. “It is sometimes difficult for them to see why younger generations are so enthusiastic about Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.6 Keep on learning – Capacity building How Why Assess the capacity of the staff and the organi- 2. Study visit - visit the city that has succeeded An SUTP requires a new way of thinking. sation when conducting the baseline review. in meeting the challenge. Try to learn from Instead of expressions like ‘road capacity’, Sufficient allocation of resources will be dealt the city’s experience and consider how to use ‘road standards’ and ‘bottle necks’, the vo- with in the chapter dealing with assignment of its experiences in the implementation practice cabulary should change to more sustain- responsibilities. A city administration that does in your own city, in a targeted manner. able terms that are less orientated towards have an existing system for mapping capacity 3. Transfer the practice – carry out a feasibility mechanical and engineering terms such as should use it. Otherwise the following steps are study. What are the differences in the cities, ‘intermodality’, ‘modal shift’ and ‘mobility helpful: what are the similarities, how can their prac- management’. SUTP is also so much more 1. Assess the capacity under the different tice be transferred to your city’s setting? than only transport planning. It involves sta- keholder cooperation, inter-sectoral work- headlines of the SUTP process 4. Implement – adjust the practice to your ing methods, gender equality issues and 2. Analyse the weaknesses of the organisation, local situation and start with a pilot action in accessibility issues – ‘unpaved ground’ for the leadership and the staff your city to see if it will have a desired effect in many ‘transport planners’. The process of 3. Prepare a simple action plan on how to the city. ‘Upscale’ the pilot action to the whole24 stakeholder cooperation will provide op- overcome the weaknesses or part of the city. portunities for officers and politicians Study visits and pilot actions are two useful Learning through pilot actions to learn new skills, become aware of new models for attaining capacity in the field of im- concepts and deepen their appreciation of plementing good and effective measures in the 1. Decide on the actions to be taken, and SUTP. Open-minded approaches will foster SUTP: ensure they are ‘fit for purpose’ – they will individual and organisational learning and achieve the targets in the SUTP. Does the build capacity for the SUTP. Targeted practise transfer through city need ‘mobility management’, ‘Local study visits Environmental Zone’ or ‘traffic calming plan’ Although the SUTP process itself is a capac- or something similar to fulfil the targets? ity building process, it is advisable to map 1. Benchmarking – compare the city’s chal- the capacity that already exists within the 2. Small is beautiful - start in a smaller area of lenges with those of other cities. Base some organisations working with SUTP. This can the city or in one theme of action. Carry out questions on your own targets asking the fol- be done as part of the baseline review. The a baseline review (if the SUTP baseline review lowing: How can we reach our targets? What weaknesses within the capacity of the or- is not sufficiently detailed), collect relevant other cities have struggled with the same chal- ganisation can be addressed in a periodically data about the area or theme that needs to be lenges or had the same targets? How have they updated action plan for capacity building. changed and then prepare a plan to manage acted? What results have they achieved? And the implementation of the pilot action. most importantly – what can we learn fromPlanning process them? How can we make use of their experi- 3. Implement the pilot action - monitor the ences in our city? progress carefully: did it have a desired effect according to the baseline review? Take notes of the side effects, synergies and unexpected outcomes. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 254. Evaluating the pilot action – What are theunderlying reasons for the outcomes?5. Based on this learning experience, make adecision on whether and how to upscale it tothe whole city. Checklist Sufficient human resources to work with SUTP issues exists Sufficient know-how to work with SUTP issues exists Opportunities to learn and to exchange experiences are offered to staff Politicians are involved in capacity building on SUTP issues There is a systematic approach to increase knowledge and experience on sustainable transport issues within the organisation exists (e.g., by pilot projects that can be scaled up) Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Promoting a new way of thinking in Örebro The common view on sustainable transport respect, the SUTP template has been a very was not so strong in Örebro when the SUTP good tool.” process started. To change the situation, the Meanwhile, it is important to look around at city has used different measures. A capac- what others are doing beyond the municipal ity-building assessment was carried out in a borders. “It is very important to provide our working group as part of the self-assessment, decision-makers with very practical, good ex- identifying the knowledge gaps among the amples that have already been tested.” employees. The finding was that the munici- pality has a good knowledge of transport-re- International cooperation has become more lated issues in detail but on various narrow important in this process. During the past fields. few years, Örebro has focused on exchang-26 ing experiences. Study visits are an important “For many professionals a more holistic way part of that work. “On a national level, we of thinking can be a bit of a revolution”, says are trying to build up an informal network for Per Elvingson, who started as a process man- sustainable transport among cities of our own ager for sustainable transport soon after the size in the region,” Elvingson says. assessment. To facilitate the implementation of Sustainable Urban Transport, a special unit – also respon- sible for raising the awareness among employ- ees and politicians – has been set up. The unit has, among other things, planned seminars focusing on the reduced need for cars through spatial planning. In general, a new way of thinking is the key. “It must be established, especially among key persons, to make the process more powerful.Planning process An important part of capacity-building has been getting all key staff to agree on a com- mon analysis of the current situation. In this Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.7 The name of the game – Scope and definition How Why The scope of the SUTP must be carefully con- key stakeholders with whom agreement will be The scope and definition of the SUTP will sidered against existing plans, policies and strat- necessary to achieve many of the sustainability vary depending on the local spatial, demo- egies to ensure that any duplication or overlap is objectives in the SUTP. graphic, economic, transport, mobility and avoided. It may be appropriate to carry out a gap Municipalities should consider the environ- social characteristics. It will also vary with analysis between existing plans etc so that the mental and other impacts of the transport that the guidance given by each national govern- SUTP processes and principles can be adopted arise from their procurement policies: deliveries; ment, the competencies given to the mu- and integrated during the revision of existing travel to work by pupils, patients, staff and poli- nicipalities and the legal role of national plans and strategies. This gap analysis will advise ticians; fleets, contract and subcontractors’ vehi- transport agencies etc. The scope and defi- the changes that are required (new polices, new cles, etc. As a major employer and the political nition of the SUTP is a function of the local actions etc) and ensure a smooth transparent leadership for the municipality, the municipality decisions that are taken on future visions, transformation from the existing strategies to as an organisation has an obligation to have a objectives and targets. the SUTP. The relationships between the SUTP comprehensive understanding of the impact of and other corporate strategies and plans should The scope of the SUTP is central to the its policies and practice on the transport of the be explicitly recorded and agreed by the political process that has to be put in place to deliver city. the plan. Since the urban transport system leadership. 27 does not end at the municipality borders it The SUTP is a strategic document with a long is crucial to keep the whole functional ur- term perspective. It is also a working document, ban area in mind when identifying both the where the continuing relevance of the policies scope and definition of the SUTP. Clearly and the successes of actions is monitored and defined geographical, organisational and evaluated -through annual or biannual reports. technical boundaries to the SUTP are re- The work with SUTP is a dynamic process grad- quired if it is to be effective. ually developing a sustainable transport system over time; it is not a static master plan. The scope of the SUTP must include consid- eration of the transport movements going into and out of the administrative boundary of the municipality. The geographical boundary of the SUTP should include the ‘functional urban area’ so that commuting and other transport flows travelling into and out of the urban area are included in the SUTP. Consequently an SUTP can only be prepared with the active par- ticipation of the neighbouring municipalities, regional bodies and national bodies. These are Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • There is also an obligation to manage the sig- nificant aspects. Environmental Management Systems (EMS), e.g., ISO14001 or Eco Mana- gement and Audit Scheme (EMAS), provide a tool for organisations to understand and man- age the significant direct and indirect environ- mental aspects of their activities and polices. The benefits of using an EMS should be explored as part of their SUTP management system. Those cities that have overall sustainable de- velopment strategy with a long-term perspec- tive can embed the SUTP within this strategy. In such cases, SUTP can be integrated into a city’s overall management system such as the Integrated Management System (as devel-28 oped in Managing Urban Europe-25 project, www.mue25.net) or Environmental Manage- ment System (such as EMAS, ISO14001, ecoBUDGET© or similar). Checklist The area that the SUTP covers is clearly defined The scope of the SUTP is clearly defined Topics and development areas for the SUTP are clearly definedPlanning process Other policies and plans that are part of or are linked with the SUTP are transparent Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Similar challenges, different scale 29The small resort city of Pärnu initiated their As a result of the process, not only the scope and Pärnu has taken the most important first stepsSUTP process from scratch in 2006. “Pärnu’s definition of Pärnu SUTP has been set but also to get started with the development of a sus-challenge has been to define and scope the a common vision for the whole functional city tainable urban transport. It has been possibleconcept of SUTP to meet the needs of a region has been derived. “Making the quality of by agreeing on the SUTP scope and defini-small town that has some of the same chal- urban environment and living better is the key tion in cooperation with the cross-sectorallenges as bigger cities but on a different scale”, for Pärnu in the future”, Kukk says. stakeholders and together with a transnationalsays Grete Kukk, Senior Specialist for Urban experience exchange. Although there is still a The SUTP scope and definition are set to theDevelopment in Pärnu. long way to go, the most important thing is same targets. Therefore, the scope is to diminish to get started.Transnational cooperation on SUTP develop- the use of cars by developing a fair, accessiblement has made the city realize the need for and attractive public transport system, by de-a cross-sectoral approach in transport plan- veloping concrete bicycle policy for the city andning, especially the need to integrate land-use by handling the seasonal transport problems ac-and transport planning. On the local level, a companied by tourists.number of specialists and stakeholders fromvarious fields have been involved in the coop-eration to make the definition and scope forthe Pärnu SUTP. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.8 Starting position – Baseline review Why To be able to reach your goals, you first need to know your starting position. A starting point for successful SUTP work is a baseline review, an honest description of the city’s current transport situation. A baseline review will give the city a clear picture of the current transport situation and how sustainable it is. It will provide a review of effectiveness of existing processes to man- age the transport; it will identify the drivers that influence traffic development and the impacts of traffic. A baseline review is the starting point for the SUTP process from30 which it is possible to move to the target- How setting, action plan and monitoring, etc. The baseline review needs to be based on exist- The basic self-assessment for making the base- ing data, and as all cities already have some data line review has four elements; sets this activity can be carried out quickly and 1. Municipality profile early. It is important to understand the different functions and characteristics of data sets, how 2. Drivers particular data sets are used to measure pres- 3. Impacts sures/drivers; the state of the mobility/transport: 4. SUTP benchmark (plans, policies and how some data sets are used to deduce trends actions) and are used for modelling and forecasting. Completing a baseline review requires the nec- essary resources to be in place that allow the data The baseline review identifies successes and the sets to be collated, reviewed and decisions to be potential for improvement in the SUT planning taken on how they are used to inform policy se- process and transport system. It also helps the lection/refinement and adoption. The selection city to identify the ‘drivers’ and ‘impacts’ of the of data sets needs to be based on criteria that mobility and transport system and its develop- are agreed on with stakeholders, who are then ment. The baseline review identifies those geo-Planning process actively involved in contributing data. graphical areas and transport modes where tar- gets for sustainable urban transport should be agreed. It also sets the baseline for continuous Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • monitoring of the city’s urban transport with scription is contrast against the ‘ideal’ character-clear indicators and targets. The baseline review istics of the SUTP benchmark.can be carried out internally within the city by Through the internal self-assessment process, aself-assessment process, but combining the self- city will complete an initial analysis of the gapassessment with external peer review can add between its existing plans and policies and theadditional value to the process. The baseline re- SUTP benchmark. To continue the self-assess-view allows actions to be prioritised and to then ment process with an external peer review willmonitor the effects on relevant indicators. enable the city to have more revealing and valu-The most demanding element is to compare the able gap analysis of their performance and thepresent situation with the one described in the benchmark.benchmark. The purpose is to describe the exist-ing collected plans, strategies, actions, and tar-gets of the city and the gap between them andthe SUTP benchmark. The description in thebenchmark is called a ‘gap analyses’. It explainsthe differences between the current practise in 31the city and the SUTP benchmark. The bench-mark describes the characteristics that should beevident within a SUTP. It is an ideal that thecities are moving towards and can compare theirperformance with. It is important to recognisethe benchmark as aspirational, representing anentirely new way of thinking and working to ad-dress sustainable urban transport. There are fewmunicipalities in Europe that can evidence allthe characteristics within the benchmark.The first part of the benchmark invites the cityto describe the processes that have been used inpreparing their plans, strategies, actions, and tar-gets. This description is made against the ‘ideal’characteristics of the benchmark for preparingSUT planning.The second part of this benchmark invites thecity to describe the cumulative content of theirplans, strategies, actions, and targets. This de- Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Self-assessment process Peer review 1. Select the review team – preferably the in- There are many different definitions and models tions for actions in order to help the city to ac- ter-sectoral working group for a peer review. Here, peer review is understood celerate their progress towards sustainable urban 2. Assign tasks to team members – divide the as a method where ‘critical friends provide in- transport systems. municipality profile, drivers, impacts and the dependent assessment of city’s progress towards The peer review system provides an independ- SUTP benchmark in the self-assessment tem- benchmark(s)’. Thus peer review is a ‘perform- ent review of the progress being made in the plate among the team members ance assessment’. It is the ‘considered judge- cities towards sustainable urban transport. Peer ment’ (assessment) of experts on the ‘progress reviews on sustainable urban transport should 3. Establish review schedule being made’ (performance) by cities towards be carried out by external experts who work 4. Collect the baseline data through the help a benchmark (or ‘ideal’). Peer review offers an of the self-assessment template in other cities or organisations in similar fields honest third-party review of achievements and of expertise. The peer review can only be done 5. Analyse the data and the gaps in the team future prospects of the reviewed city. It is cost against a benchmark (in this case SUTP bench- 6. Write the self-assessment report – be honest effective method and often a more politically ac- mark). A self-assessment process and report is a and truthful, as an unfair report does not serve ceptable alternative to consultants. prerequisite that provides the peers the informa- any purpose. The work of the peer review in baseline review tion they need to conduct the review.32 The self-assessment report is the starting point process is to carry out an external gap analysis – of the city’s continued work with the SUTP and to assess the difference or gap that exists between the monitoring of its success. If the self-assess- the actual performance of the city partner and ment process is continued and combined with a the benchmark. The actual performance of the peer review, the report serves also as the first step city will be determined by the peers from their of the peer review process. consideration of the self-assessment report, to- gether with the answers given to their questions during the peer review visit. The peer review team will carry out their performance assess- ment and draw conclusions about the progress that the municipality is making towards sustain- able urban transport. Peer reviews can be conducted in various fields, but a particular peer review model for sustain- able urban transport has been developed for this guidance in BUSTRIP –project. The peer reviewPlanning process conducted by this model can provide construc- tive criticism on a city’s current progress towards sustainable urban transport systems, and iden- tify the key issues as well as make recommenda- Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 33Checklist Drivers for transport development in the city are identified What and who influences the drivers is identified Development trends for each driver are listed Positive drivers are listed, analysis of possible supporting actions performed Negative drivers are listed, analysis of possible actions to influence drivers performed A set of measurable indicators that can be used to describe the traffic situation and traffic impacts in the city has been developed Reliable measurement values available for all indicators Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Turku navigates with the baseline review “Self-assessment took more time and effort ning that favours hypermarkets, urban sprawl than we expected, but it certainly was one of and the lack of regional cooperation, due to the most fruitful parts of the SUTP process”, the competing neighbouring municipalities. says Mikko Laaksonen who edited the report A positive finding was the fact that Turku has in Turku. He works as a promoter of walking a relatively compact structure and every pos- and cycling in the city planning office. The sibility to further develop sustainable urban team collected, combined and made con- transport. At the time of the report, about clusions about basic data under each SUTP 50 percent of the trips are made by sustain- benchmark from sources that were already able modes. “The city needs to realize these available: the city’s own files, that from the strengths. If Turku followed its strategies, it Regional Council of Southwest Finland, re- would be a model city of sustainable trans-34 search by the Turku School of Economics and port. Implementation should be as ambitious the University of Turku. as the strategies”, he says. Laaksonen says the results in the self-assess- The self-assessment and the peer review both ment report weren’t unexpected. “We found helped to understand the state of the art in the a lot of gaps, as we had expected. But it was city and the challenges lying ahead. surprising that the situation was moving in a more non-sustainable direction than we thought. Almost all the drivers were showing that the city, in sailing terms, may soon hit the rocks if we stay on this track.” The self-assessment report of 108 pages was condensed in a summary of 17 pages for the use of internal communication and dissemina- tion of the results to stakeholders and media. The larger report was sent to the peer review team, which carried on building the picturePlanning process of the state of sustainable transport. The peer- review finally crystallized the challenges: plan- Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.9 Guiding star – Vision How Why The vision should be the guiding star of the achieve for the city. A city needs to consider its The vision for sustainable urban transport whole process; it should be realistic but still pro- starting position when defining a vision. When in the future is the guiding star of the city’s vide something new, add real value and break the city has created a vision that is focused, spe- SUTP work. It points out the direction in some old boundaries that do not have real justi- cific and easy to understand then it will be easier which the city wants to head. A comparison fication anymore. The vision should describe the to define the SMART targets and objectives for between the vision and the city’s current desired future of the city and if possible, visual- the SUTP process. The monitoring of the proc- situation is the basis for identifying what ise it. The vision can even be used as a marketing ess will also follow more easily when the vision action and development is needed to reach tool to clearly communicate the city’s aspiration. is specific. the desired. The SUTP work is a systematic A vision needs to be ambitious but possible to approach to gradually get closer to the vi- sion. The vision has to be interrelated to and reached through SMART targets and objectives. Otherwise the vision is never achieved. 35 The vision serves as the uniting component that all stakeholders can refer to; meaning everyone from leading politicians to citizens and interest groups. The vision can also be used for marketing the city to the rest of the world. People want to be part of something great and new – inspire your community! Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • The city may choose to involve stakeholders in the process to get more new and bold ideas and also to use the stakeholder process as the start- Checklist ing point of behavioural change in the city. To The city has a defined vision of how transport/traffic in the city should develop break the boundaries of peoples’ minds a future scenario vision from different perspectives is a The vision is compatible with other outspoken development visions and objectives in useful and educational working method. Create the city scenarios like “the car-free city”, “the industrial The vision is such that concrete objectives and targets can be described on its basis city” and “the healthy city”. Describe how the city would look like in each and every scenario. Gather a group of people for a brainstorm ses- sion involving all relevant stakeholders.36Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • SUTP works towards the vision in GöteborgCity of Göteborg has a long-term vision for the work of the administrations should worksustainable urban transport. In brief the vi- towards sustainable development in all threesion is ‘Efficient, safe and sustainable trans- perspective, social, economic and ecologic.port for everyone’. Since Göteborg has for In Göteborg city administration the Trafficlong had several documents closely connected and Public Transport Authority is the respon-to Sustainable Urban Transport Plan, the lo- sible body for the integrative SUTP process.cal SUTP process has its starting point in the In practice, the process has been all aboutneed of a connecting approach, an easy over- combining, updating and clarifying the workview and content management on existing that had already been done. “To be success-programmes, plans and policies. “Although ful we have to work on several fields and withthe vision is clear, the challenge was to see several plans, but towards the same goal, thewhat really has been decided, if some of the 37 vision, in all sectors of the city administra-objectives and targets to reach the vision were tion”, says Fransson.no longer valid, if new ones should have beenadded, and find out if there was overlapping Göteborg is carrying out SUTP related imageobjectives and targets”, says Gunilla Fransson, campaigns such as New travel habits and Safea Project Manager in Mobility Management. and beautiful city which are examples of suc- cessful cooperation between different admin-The vision for sustainable urban transport and istrations. “Collaboration between the differ-the SUTP process need to be connected to ent administrations and other stakeholdersthe overall views on how to develop the city. and actors of urban transport is extremelyHowever, in Göteborg, like in many other cit- important for reaching the vision”, Franssonies, the yearly budget prioritises the objectives concludes.in short term. The plans and policies have tobe well prepared to give the politicians thepossibility to make good decisions. Activecommunication with and involvement ofinternal and external stakeholders is also im-portant. In Göteborg, since some years, it wasclearly stated in the city council budget that Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 2.10 Find the resources – Identifying finances How Why Ensuring that sufficient resources are available Part of the least-cost approach involves identi- The successful implementation of an SUTP for SUT planning and implementation is an fying new sources of capital and revenue fund- requires that sufficient resources are always ongoing process that must be carried out in ing for investment and maintenance. New in- available for the planning process and im- partnership with the key transport and mobility vestments in housing, shopping, and industry plementation. The municipality should allo- stakeholders. An open dialogue is needed that is require parallel investments in new transport cate the necessary resources in the annual informed by the assessment of costs and benefits infrastructure, etc. Innovative planning agree- budget and make the commitment in the of the SUTP actions. ments and conditions on the granting of build- forward (3-5 year) planning budget. As ing permits can require the investors and de- The ways in which the human and financial municipality resources are scarce, there will velopers to share the capital and revenue costs resources available from the municipality and always be competition for available human associated with making the transport and mo- stakeholders are being used for the SUTP need and financial resources. Therefore, efforts bility of these areas sustainable – a new cycling to be checked in order to confirm that the re- should be continuously made to find alter- lane, extending a rapid transit route, etc. Where sources are being efficiently and effectively used. native sources of human and financial re- the municipality is selling land for development, Do we have the right people with the right skills sources. The SUTP is a corporate priority: these can be clauses in the contracts. doing the right tasks at the right time, and do38 ‘searching for’ and ‘allocating’ the necessary they have the right support? If the answer to resources for planning and implementation any of these questions is ‘no’, the human re- must be one of the political priorities in the sources of the municipality and stakeholder will municipality. have to be managed in a different way – perhaps SUTP offers a new, functional approach to through new job descriptions, decision-making traffic and transport challenges. This pro- structures, companies and people. vides the opportunity to re-allocate finances ‘Least-cost planning’ provides a cost/benefit ana- and resources previously used only to invest lysis for a variety of potential solutions to a given in and maintain the transport infrastruc- transport problem. An example is a commuter ture. Successful SUTP actions will reduce road heavily congested during peak hours. Tra- the long-term direct and indirect costs as- ditionally, road capacity would be extended sociated with transport. In considering the to solve the problem. In least-cost planning, costs of an SUTP, municipalities need to however, this option would be compared with place value on SUTP actions – the benefits other measures to reduce congestion, e.g., pric- to health, quality of life and attractiveness ing, mobility management measures, improved of the city. public transport, etc. The most cost-efficientPlanning process measure to solve the problem is then chosen and – depending on who benefits – the costs of the measures can be shared between stakeholders. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • The principles of ‘polluter pays’ and of charg- Securing grant aid and loans towards planned tached to any loan or grant may help achieve theing an ‘economic rent’ should be used in decid- investments as well as participating in pilot objectives of the SUTP.ing the charges that are made for parking and projects can provide the necessary resources to Use city networks, contact twinned cities and/orcausing congestion. These charges will be of par- overcome funding gaps. National, European use other international channels to find partnersticular interest to businesses, as they affect their and International sources of grant aid and loans, that are already planning to implement suitabledirect and indirect costs. not just from the obvious transport sector sourc- projects. If no suitable projects exist and you es like CIVITAS, Intelligent Energy, MarcoThe liberalisation of the public transport mar- have the capacity, develop your own project idea Polo, but also from the relevant regional, social,ket provides the opportunity for municipalities and seek partners. A variety of project databases health, educational and environmental fundingto review the responsibilities for providing the are available where project consortia are looking sources (LIFE+, INTERREG, Framework pro-capital investment for the fleets, signalling, in- for partners. grammes) can be utilised. It is important to befrastructure, and soft measures, etc. It also pro- disciplined in searching for such financial assist-vides the opportunity to decide how subsidies ance – do not be distracted from the plannedare provided and how profits are shared. Public SUTP actions, timetable and objectives. Do notprivate partnerships (PPP) are opportunities forsharing the costs and the risks associated with be tempted to participate in what seems an in- 39 teresting project but is, in fact, a distraction andimplementing almost any of the SUTP actions. diversion of resources – carefully consider howPPP can even sell or market the attractiveness of participating in a project and the conditions at-development sites to inward investors. Checklist Innovative approaches are used to generate the capital and revenue finance necessary for the SUTP The least-cost approach is used There is an understanding of who bears the costs and who benefits from the SUTP actions The opportunities for grant aid, loans and pilot projects are thoroughly explored PPP are used to share the costs and to generate additional financial resources Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 3. IMPLEMENTATION 3.1 Introduction The following chapters describe the essential steps in the implementation of a Sustainable Urban Transport Plan. Following on from the planning process these five implementation steps ensure the successful adoption, approval and implementation of the SUTP. The first three chapters on ‘objectives and tar- gets’, ‘allocating finances’ and ‘assignment of responsibilities’ parallel the similar and related steps in planning process. Each step helps to move the city towards a more sustainable trans- port system and ‘making a difference’. The latter two chapters on ‘adoption and ap- proval’ and ‘monitoring and assessment’ are cen- tral to the success of the SUTP. They provide the40 political and technical foundation for the SUTP and can deliver a ‘step change’ in the policy and practice of urban transport. They can guarantee that the SUTP is a ‘living document’. Su s Tr tain an ab sp le Ou ort Urb r c Pla an ity nImplementation Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 3.2 Make it SMART – Objectives and targets Why Targets are the ‘stepping stones’ on the path to • ‘Quick wins’ are actions that help to build reaching a city’s objectives and visions. confidence, support and momentum and reach A vision will remain nothing more than the targets – they achieve the greatest and a dream unless it is accompanied by clear • Targets help to meet challenges and to quickest change with the fewest resources. Use objectives and relevant targets which, when achieve change - the ‘drivers’ and the ‘impacts’ the baseline review as the starting point. achieved, will make that dream a reality. analysis in the ‘self assessment report’ help to Appropriately defined objectives and targets understand the greatest challenges facing a city provide the basis for monitoring the SUTP. and those areas in which changes can have the greatest impact. SUTP targets and objectives should be in- tegrated with those in the relevant regional, national and EU strategies and action plans. Targets and objectives alike should include details of the key dates when progress to- wards them will be monitored in addition to when ‘interim’ and final achievement is 41 expected.HowObjectives should be expressed in general terms,so that the range of options to meet them canbe considered. The objectives must contributeto the vision. Objectives are preferably expressedin terms of the desired outcomes and related topeople’s daily life. The objectives need to have atime frame of 5-10 years. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • • Targets have to be SMART: When defining targets that affect or demand targets and objectives. Short-term measures hap- actions by various stakeholders, involving the pen now, this year and next year. They deliver Specific – precisely described using quantitative concerned stakeholders is crucial. For example, ‘quick wins’ and build a sound foundation for and/or qualitative terms that are understood by large employers in the city should be involved in the success of the medium-term measures that all stakeholders. influencing work travel. Involving citizens and deliver the planned changes over the next 2-5 Measurable – the current ‘situation’ or ‘state’ is NGOs in target-setting can form the basis for years. The long term measures are made up of known and has been measured. Resources are behavioural change. annual/short-term measures implemented ‘bit also in place to measure the changes (qualitative by bit’ that together deliver the vision: such ac- Measures are actions that, when carried out, and quantitative) that occur. tions as constructing new rapid transit systems, will achieve a planned change. Actions, when providing cycle safety training for all children, Achievable – based on the technical, operational completed, achieve a target. The SUTP should etc. Without these, the SUTP will never be and financial competencies available and stake- include measures that are expressed as actions to achieved. holder agreements/commitments that have been be carried out in the ‘short’, ‘medium’ and ‘long’ made term. The SUTP involves monitoring the suc- cess of these measures in achieving the SUTP Realistic –based on the risks that are known and managed as well as the resources available.42 Timed –‘interim’ progress (qualitative and quan- titative) is defined with key dates for the achieve- ment (of targets or objectives) As an example, an SUTP target might be: “The Lundby Partnership will increase the propor- tion of total travel to work trips made by cycle from 10% (2007) to 12% in 2008, 14% in 2009 and 20% by 2010. The partners have committed the financial and human resources to carry out a timed and planned programme of capital investment (new infrastructure) and soft measures (education and incentives). Progress towards the targets will be monitored annually as well as the revisions to the targets agreed by the partnership in consultationImplementation with stakeholders.” Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • To form feasible strategies, the measures definedshould be ranked according to their feasibility.Actions that are easy to implement should betaken first (quick wins). The selected actionsshould be checked for their potential for furtherprogress later on, they should be ‘flexible plat-forms’ to implement visionary actions and notlead to lock-ins in the wrong directions. 43 Checklist Objectives, targets and measures with the SUTP have been clearly defined There are specific objectives for personal transport There are specific objectives for freight transport Target values have been defined for the city’s transport indicators Time plan has been decided on when the target values should be reached List of planned SUTP actions has been defined The expected effect of the planned actions have been assessed The actions are sufficient to reach the cities targets There is no SUTP targets that lack defined actions to reach them Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 3.3 Earmark the resources – Allocating finances Each action must have an ‘implementation plan’ only an aspiration – the necessary resources are Why that provides the details of “who does what, not yet available. The SUTP must differentiate where, when and how, what are the monitor- and distinguish any actions for which resources Sufficient and appropriately allocated fi- ing and reporting arrangements, and who pays are not yet available. nances are a prerequisite for the successful for what and when”. The implementation plan implementation of the SUTP. The finance Each SUTP action must be implemented ac- for some of the SUTP ‘medium term’ and ‘long must be available to implement the ac- cording to a schedule. This schedule is prepared term’ actions may include ‘preparatory actions’ : tions identified in the SUTP and within as based on the availability of the resources and making applications for grant or loan funding, the planned timeframe. Planned actions the priority of each action. ‘Quick win’ actions persuading stakeholders to contribute required without the necessary human and financial are a priority, for the reasons outlined above. human and operational resources, purchasing resources are nothing but aspirations that land, or making changes to the legislation, etc. cannot be implemented and are bound to These preparatory actions must be completed fail. before the necessary resources are in place to im- plement the SUTP actions. Until these prepara- tory actions are completed, the SUTP action is44 How Actions to implement SUTP policies and plans can only be carried out if there are sufficient resources available – people with the necessary time and competencies, money to pay for infra- structure investments, and to pay for printing, consultancy, specialist, information technology, stakeholder involvement etc. The ‘financing Checklist plan’ for each action must be explicit in describ- ing all the costs associated with the successful There is a finance plan for each action implementation of the action within the agreed There is an implementation plan for each action timeframe. Contingency resources finance and time should be included to allow for unmanaged There is a time plan for the suggested actionsImplementation risks. Some actions will require indemnification Sufficient funds have been allocated for the suggested actions against delays or unexpected costs. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • The right actions and finance allocation for SUTPThe city of Gdynia has been successful in In Gdynia one of the biggest recent transportdefining the SUTP actions and in identify- investments has been the implementation ofing and allocating finances for the SUTP re- Intelligent Transport System (ITS) on onelated investment and development needs in of the main communication arteries in thethe city. Alicja Pawlowska, Coordinator in whole urban region. It allows public trans-Traffic Engineering Department, tells that the port to have priority in traffic lights on thecity has implemented several urban transport intersections. According to Pawlowska it alsoprojects co-funded by European Union, in- reduces traffic and makes the traffic in the citycluding Intelligent Management Systems, safe more efficient.crossroads and biking paths. In another example the local authorities want-To facilitate and secure the financial basis for ed to improve the safety of pedestrians in the 45the urban development Gdynia follows and city. “Then we successfully applied Europeantakes actively part in international funding Funds for a financial support for rebuildingprogrammes. In addition to the European three dangerous crossroads”, says Pawlowska.Cohesion Funds, the city has participated in From these and many other cases Gdynia hasEuropean Framework Programmes and in learnt that good and realistic project ideas andBaltic Sea Region INTERREG Programmes. action plans and well-defined financial alloca- tion plans are also preconditions for positiveThe experiences from Gdynia confirm that funding decisions.realistic and properly allocated finances areprerequisites for successful implementation ofthe SUTP. The actions defined in the SUTPmust be realistic and a way of checking thatis to investigate if it exist proper finances toimplement them. “It is to identify the actionsthat fulfill the targets in a sufficient way andit is to find and allocate adequate financesto the actions planned in the SUTP”, saysPawlowska. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 3.4 Take the positions – Assignment of responsibilities How Why A municipal unit/department and a named per- The coordinator with the overall responsibility All too often the responsibility for imple- son/position (e.g., head of department) should for the implementation of the SUTP should en- menting plans is not agreed to or is unclear. be assigned overall responsibility for the imple- sure that progress is monitored and milestones This is usually a contributing factor to the mentation of the SUTP. This unit should be reported. implementation failure of plans and the lat- given a clear mandate to coordinate SUTP work ter doing little more than gather dust on the If the city has some kind of performance-related within the municipality. Because of the inter- shelves. remuneration/benefit system – for example, per- sectoral nature of SUTP work, responsibility for formance-based salary increments – this could specific areas or fields of SUTP work can how- If people are given responsibility, encour- be used as an incentive for active participation ever be distributed to different municipal de- agement, resources and are motivated, and achievement of the goals defined in the partments. For each area and task, a responsible things happen! When actions result in suc- SUTP. person, goals and milestones should be defined. cess, changes happen! Without all of these characteristics, the same people will see barriers and problems rather than solutions and opportunities. The SUTP needs to be46 managed by an organisation that supports people in their work, where there is an at- titude of ongoing learning, and where mis- takes and failures are opportunities for the organisation and individuals to learn - not the chance to blame someone! And all suc- cesses should be celebrated – if you want more of them!Implementation Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Ensure that each planned action has been as-signed sufficient funding in the budget and thatone person/position is responsible for imple-mentation.Many actions may need to be implementedthrough inter-sectoral cooperation or in partner-ship with stakeholders. Nevertheless, one personwithin the municipality should be assigned asresponsible and the progress should be moni-tored. Again it is of importance to stress that theactions should be on the right ambition level,in accordance with the amount of funding as-signed and the responsibility of the person. Forexample, an action that requires high-level sup- 47port in city and council decision-making shouldnot be assigned to a junior officer.The level of ambition of each task and actionshould match the assigned and available resourc-es in addition to the capacity of the responsibledepartment. Checklist Responsibilities clearly assigned in the SUTP work Each proposed measure has been assigned to a responsible unit/person Each unit/person has sufficient resources to realise the measures planned Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 3.5 Make it for real – Adoption and approval How Why The SUTP must be ‘owned’ by the stakeholders, Discussions will be needed at the highest level to A less ambitious and politically approved who will carry out the implementation and pro- agree on the way in which political groups and SUTP is more powerful than a highly am- vide the human and financial resources. It must parties are involved in the SUTP. bitious and politically unsupported plan. be owned by the political leadership that will The purpose is to allow all political parties and It is extremely important for the successful formally and legally adopt and approve the plan. representatives to ‘own’ the plan – to do so it implementation of the SUTP that it is po- It is never too early in the SUTP preparation must reflect as many perspectives and views as litically accepted, the progress is monitored, phase to involve the political representatives. possible. This will then increase the chances of and that its progress is reported to the po- Local, regional and national politicians can all political and stakeholder support and adoption. litical leadership. make a contribution through the stakeholder Each city will need to decide what is the appro- participation events and in the visioning, setting It is equally important that the principles priate political committee/council/board/body of objectives and targets. The responsible officers and reasons for an SUTP are understood that will adopt and approve the SUTP. It will should not only try to involve politicians from and supported by the political leaders of the also decide if the same body will be responsible the boards dealing with public transportation municipality and the whole organisation. for monitoring, evaluating and reviewing the and transport but also from the environmental/ Only then will the SUTP become a power- progress of the SUTP – these regular progress48 ful tool to achieve a more sustainable trans- sustainability, social, educational and planning reports provide the intelligence needed to learn boards. port system. Local politicians and impor- from mistakes and failures as well as celebrate tant actors in the city should therefore be Because the actions in the SUTP require the and reinforce successes – this will ensure that informed and involved from the very begin- commitment of resources beyond the mandate politicians keep the SUTP as relevant and valid ning of the SUTP discussions. Preferably, of a single administration it is desirable to create in its contribution to the sustainability of the local politicians are actively involved in the a broad political consensus for the plan in or- transport system as possible. process of developing a transport vision der to ensure its long-term support and stability, and the development of an SUTP. Active regardless of changes in the political leadership. involvement of politicians from the outset will also facilitate the future approval and adoption of the plan. Checklist The SUTP has been presented to and discussed by different political partiesImplementation It is clearly defined on what level/by whom the SUTP needs to be adopted and approved to be valid (e.g., the city council) Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Sundsvall bases plans on wide consensusBefore the 1990s, Sundsvall had a severe im- Two major problems in Sundsvall regardingage problem. “With all its industry and traffic transport were the railroad crossing the cityproblems, a usual question was ‘how can you centre and the passing European Road 4 (E4),live in Sundsvall?’”, says Christer Tarberg, looking rather cheerless, bare surfaces of as-Head of Public Transport. phalt leading through the city. “Our vision and plans include building the railroad un-The city, with the support of its politicians, derground and a travel centre above it, andstarted a project aiming at reducing the emis- developing the E4 into more of a boulevard-sions from energy production and industries and – city-type style, with lots of trees and aby the year 2000. “The results were rather new bridge.”good. But by 2000 we still had one problem,traffic. Back then 72 percent of the trips were The plan also included building houses closer 49made by private cars.” to the city centre and supporting the use of public transport, walking and cycling. “WeBy the time Sundsvall started its SUT plan will proceed step by step; hopefully the situa-along with the BUSTRIP project, the city had tion is better by the year 2010”, Tarberg says,already started creating a town vision with the and adds this advice: “Rely on other stake-support of the vice-mayor, other politicians, holders and institutions before solving prob-various municipal departments and stakehold- lems”.ers. The final decision on the vision was madein consensus in the city council in 2007.“The timing for SUTP was right. But we didn’tjust look at the traffic plan. Transport strategywas a continuation to the town vision whichhas a lot of political acceptance from politicalparties, ordinary citizens and stakeholder. Allopinions were collected. After doing all thatwork it would be difficult to disagree on it.” Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 3.6 Keep the right track – Monitoring and assessment Evaluation produces lessons learned – the un- cal changes over time and can be either objective Why derstanding and meaning of the intelligence and or subjective. Monitoring gathers the measure- information gathered in monitoring. This means ments of the changes in the data for each indica- Monitoring and evaluation are essential assessing, interpreting and judging this informa- tor. Objectives and targets have to be expressed management tools that provide intelligence tion and making recommendations about what in terms of the planned or desired changes to to inform SUTP decision-taking. This in- changes to make to SUTP policies, plans and indicators within a given time period. telligence provides information on the programmes. It promotes change, efficiency and progress of policies, plans and programmes, improvement. on whether targets are achieved on time and actions achieve their planned outcomes, on Indicators can be measurements of pressures, costs, and with regard to changes in data features or the effectiveness of plans and pro- sets, etc. This intelligence allows decision- grammes. They can be based on physical, eco- makers to manage the SUTP to deliver nomic, environmental, social, technical or politi- objectives and meet targets efficiently and within budget. This intelligence helps the municipality, politicians and technical of-50 ficers to understand how small scale initia- tives can contribute to meeting objectives and targets. When this intelligence is shared with stakeholders, it can help to build part- nerships. How Monitoring means; collecting the data that is re- quired to examine whether an SUTP target is achieved. Monitoring provides the indicatorsImplementation of performance, and the data that describes the changes that are taking place. Monitoring pro- vides the intelligence necessary for evaluation. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Embrace monitoring and evaluationAll SUTP plans, policies and programmes ofaction within municipalities are the result ofevaluating a problem and agreeing on a solution.Implicit to this process are the changes that themunicipality wishes to achieve, as representedby an indicator or performance (air quality/cy-cling, children walking to school, etc.)Select measurable indicatorsWhile the overall ‘vision’ (see section 2.9.) andthe ‘objectives and targets’ (see section 3.2.) canbe more general (such as “excellent air qual-ity”), indicators should be focused, measurableand realistic, e.g., ‘number of days with PMbelow limit value’. Only measurable indicators 51allow performance monitoring, evaluation, pro-gramme adjustment and reporting. Resources for monitoring and evaluation EvaluationIntegrating monitoring and evaluation The choice of targets and indicators should The evaluation should include both “soft” andThere should be an explicit timetable for the include an assessment of the costs associated “hard” findings and recommendations. Hardmonitoring and evaluation of progress towards with collecting the data necessary to monitor findings refer to the progress towards measur-each SMART target – which must be based on progress. It should also include an assessment able objectives and indicators. This informationmeasurable and measured indicators. The time- of the costs of evaluation being carried out by can be used to derive key changes, such as in-table for monitoring and evaluation should be a competent and/or independent organisation. creasing the target for the number of days withdesigned to collect data at relevant times, also to These assessments should include a calculation PM below limit value. Soft findings should in-allow for the recommendations from the evalu- of the human resources, time and costs required. clude implementation experiences, fulfilment ofation to be available to decision-makers. This There is a need for the roles, responsibilities and overall goals, levels of awareness, impact on gen-allows plans, policies and programmes to be re- accountability for monitoring and evaluation to der equality and accessibility, etc. The MOST-vised as based on the lessons learned. be clearly allocated as part of the SUTP work MET monitoring & evaluation toolkit, a guide plan. Consideration should be given to the ben- for the Assessment of Mobility Management efits of external independent objective monitor- approaches, can be used when evaluating the ing and evaluation with unedited public report- soft measures. MOST-MET method is devel- ing to provide transparent accountability. oped by the European project MOST (Mobility Management Strategies development for the next Decades, http://mo.st). Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Evaluation reporting Evaluation should be reported to assist staff to learn and decision-makers to improve perform- ance. It should also reference the evidence of the findings for future use. Evaluation that is publicly reported offers local stakeholders op- portunities to contribute to the debate over the choice of programmes and how resources should be allocated. Acknowledge the achievements The achievements of the process should be com- municated to the public openly, the successes as well as the possible shortcomings and failures. The recognitions of good SUTP process should52 go to those who have done the work. The ac- knowledgement of the achievements has signifi- cant influence to the continuous interest and follow-up of the process. Checklist It is defined how progress towards SUTP goals will be monitored There are set dates for the evaluation of the progress of the SUTP work There is a clearly defined unit/person responsible for evaluating the progress of SUTP work against the defined goals and targets The unit/person has the necessary competence, tools and resources allocated for the evaluation of the progress towards SUTP targets There is a time plan for evaluation of SUTP progress It is defined to whom the evaluators will report their resultsImplementation Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Air quality monitoring part of integrated planning in LiepajaMonitoring air quality is done in almost all “Air quality management is particularly cru-the cities of Europe. However, to use it in an cial in cities like Liepaja with irregular loca-integrated way with transport and urban plan- tion of industrial, green and residential areasning is a step towards understanding the nega- for securing sustainable development.”tive impacts and the complex relation between The pilot action included results, modellinghealth, transport and urbanisation. and proposals for the city administration,For years, the city of Liepaja was lacking data pointing out where the hot spots are. In theabout the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions implementation of SUTP, actions should bein the city centre. One monitoring station was targeted to these particular areas.not enough for building the picture on how “It is very important to prepare this kind oftraffic influences air quality. process well in advance – and then take it to 53During the SUTP process, the city decided the general public and politicians for furtherto do a pilot action in air quality monitoring decision-making ”, Liepniece concludes.and assessment and feed the information into Presenting the result to the media increasesthe new plans. Samples were collected from the understanding of the direct health impactfive different places in the hearth of the city of traffic and makes it easier to implement un-centre. It also included modelling the meas- popular traffic measures.ures with the traffic flows during the summermonths. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) dispersionwas also monitored.“We wanted to take this particular topic intoaccount in planning streets and areas withcleaner air with the measures we already used”,says Dace Liepniece, Head of EnvironmentalDepartment. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 4. STRIVING FOR BETTER URBAN LIVING AND MOBILITY 4.1 Introduction The challenge of cities today is how to reduce unsustainable transport. Efficient urban logistics the need for transport, while at the same time represents an additional cornerstone towards maintain and, where possible, increase the lo- sustainable transport. cal economic prosperity and quality of life. The In order to achieve the targets set out in the increases in the oil prices, together with shortage SUTP and to move the cities’ transport system of supply reinforces the SUTP principle of the towards a sustainable one, all actions and meas- need to reduce transport. ures need to reflect these principles. Planning new developments in a way that forces people to travel long distances and that increases the use of motorised transport counteracts sus- tainable transport. Reducing travel distances and travel demand is therefore an important cornerstone for sustain- able urban transport. This does not imply that the city’s inhabitants should not travel, but that54 they should not be forced to travel far to fulfil basic needs. Distances should ideally be kept so short that walking or cycling is the attractive/ likely mode of transport. Short distances also improve the possibilitiesStriving for better urban living and mobility for an enhanced modal shift. This is important to achieve a fair transport system that gives all groups in society equal or high accessibility to important services, independent of car owner- ship. When people and goods require travel vehi- cles are often used. A clean and silent transport system that supports a wider use of energy ef- ficient vehicles and alternative fuels reduces the disturbing impacts of noise, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Freight transport issues are often not taken into account in urban transport planning, although they significantly contribute to the impacts of Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 4.2 Close and easy – Reduced need for transport SUTP requires spatial planning to be based on greenfield development promotes an increase in Why the principle of the need to reduce transport – the demand for transport. Greenfield develop- and demands that spatial planning is integrated ment sites must be mixed-use and integrated Low density development, sub-urbanisa- with transport and mobility planning. with existing public transport infrastructure. A tion, out-of-town shopping centres, glo- culture of cycling and walking must be central balisation and increasing affluence are all Traffic Impact Assessments (TIA) help to indi- to their development if transport demand is to contributing to the increased demand for cate the likely traffic impacts of proposed devel- be reduced. more transport. These social and economic opments (shopping centres/housing) and new pressures are given effect in the patterns of plans (employment centres/ tourism initiatives spatial development in urban areas and in etc). TIAs are carried out to inform the changes the quality and nature of the urban trans- to the proposal that are necessary to provide sus- port systems. tainable urban transport – TIAs must be carried out early in the process of designing the plan Measuring, understanding and managing or development. The TIA must lead to changes these ‘drivers’ is an important aspect of to the development – changes to location, ori- achieving sustainable transport. Plans, po- entation or density or changes to the mobility lices and programmes that manage transport infrastructure or public transport facilities. TIAs 55 demand require a long-term perspective. help us to understand how to deliver local serv- Reducing the need for transport; requires ices more efficiently and sustainably and how plans, policies and programmes that are es- to reduce the need for transport: essential local sentially preventative. services such as hospitals, medical centres, li- braries, schools all need to be sited in places that are accessible by walking, cycling or by public transport. In this way, TIAs help local decision- makers to reduce the need for transport. Compact mixed-use urban areas support sus- tainable urban transport and reduce the need forHow transport. Where this takes place as part of theA reduction in the need for transport is achieved redevelopment of ‘brownfields’, it can further re-through the application of sustainable spatial duce the need for transport. On the other hand,planning polices that support and encouragemixed-use developments. These developmentsmeet the housing, shopping, commercial andemployment needs of residents within walkingand cycling distance or are accessible by publictransport. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Checklist The city’s spatial plan and policies support the principle of reducing the need for personal transport and the transport of goods The location of shops, schools and other local services help to reduce the demand for transport A selection of soft measures are used by the city authorities to reduce the need for transport, both for passengers and goods SUTP includes objectives and targets to reduce the need for personal transport SUTP includes objectives and targets to reduce the need for goods transport56Striving for better urban living and mobility Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • School children in the forefront in Kaunas”The school pupils have been fantastic!” James “School children raised the challenge almostMcGeever, International Project Coordinator without any real management from the projectin Kaunas says without hesitation. team. I think they were genuinely interested and have shown an interest in continuing toIn December 2006, Kaunas municipality in be involved”, McGeever says.Lithuania started working with two schools inouter suburbs of the city to help improve the “School travel plans are important in Kaunasstudents’ journey to school. The schools were because we have not yet proved effectivelychosen after taking part in SUTP peer review that we can engage with communities in aexercise. The initiative came jointly from the way that provides long term, equal, two wayinitial peer review recommendation. relationships.”The aim was to improve the journey and jour- It was also important to ensure that the re-ney environment for school children in two sults of the school travel plan were effectively 57suburban schools through the provision of a promoted to as wide an audience as possible.set of practical and achievable recommenda- “This pilot project will help towards actionstions. The materials were based on “Safe route and profile raising of the whole SUTP by em-to school”, provided by Sustrans, a British or- powering school pupils to understand issuesganisation. that affect them, as well as knowing how to present these issues in a way that produces theThe pupils prepared their own versions of desired results and improvements”, he con-qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, cludes.distributed them amongst their fellow pu-pils and prepared the results into a series ofcharts and tables and summary information.They also took photographic evidence of theproblems in their surrounding environmentand added that to their school travel plan finalreport. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 4.3 Efficient travelling – Strengthening sustainable transport modes How Why Increasing the modal share for walking, cycling The choice of transport mode is influenced by a Walking and cycling are the most sustain- and public transport requires an integrated pro- variety of factors e.g., convenience, travel time, able modes of personal transport, providing gramme of plans, polices and programmes across (perceived) cost, flexibility, comfort, safety, social positive health benefits whilst reducing con- the urban area that acceptance etc. The first two categories of meas- gestion and averting the need for vehicles ures aim at making alternative travel solutions • increase the attractiveness of walking, cycling at the same time. In the hierarchy of sus- more attractive relative to the car. Measures in and public transport tainable transport modes, public transport the field of information and marketing are im- • discourage personal use of cars, and follows close behind. Increasing the propor- portant to raise knowledge and the acceptance • provide information and incentives to tion of personal trips made by walking, cy- of alternatives to the use of cars – people need to encourage walking, cycling and the use of cling and public transport helps to improve know about their transport alternatives and, fur- public transport. the quality of the urban environment by thermore, they must be perceived as attractive. reducing noise, emissions, pollution and congestion, whilst improving public health. Reducing the need for personal motorised58 travel is central to sustainable urban trans- port.Striving for better urban living and mobility Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Increasing the attractiveness of‘alternative’ transport modesIncreasing the modal share for walking, cyclingand public transport can be achieved through awide variety of plans, policies and programmes.WalkingIncreasing the modal share for walking requiresa dense network of well-maintained routes thatare both safe to use and perceived by the publicas safe to use. The network should be attractiveand accessible for all communities of interest –including visitors, tourists, the elderly and thosewith physical mobility problems. Spatial plan-ning should reserve the space that is necessary 59for the ‘walking infrastructure’ and ensure thatlocal services are sited within walking distance Cyclingfrom residential areas. Infrastructure designshould ensure that routes are safe, attractive, Increasing the modal share for cycling requires Many cities have produced design manuals thatwell-lit, signposted, maintained year around and a dense network of well-maintained routes provide the detailed specifications for the practi-accessible to all as well as integrated with green that are both safe to use and perceived by the cal tools and techniques that deliver high-qualityspace, roads and the buildings of urban areas. public as such. Spatial and transport planning cycle-friendly urban environments: reducing the should treat cycling as an equal mode of trans- speed limits of motorised vehicles on importantMany urban areas have produced design manu- port with cars and public transport: reserving shared cycle routes and opening up ‘one-way’als that provide the detailed specifications for the space that is necessary for the ‘cycling in- streets for two- way use by cyclists. Making bikesthe practical tools and techniques that deliver frastructure’ direct connections and continuity more available through subsidised hire and freehigh-quality, walking friendly urban environ- with attractive and secure cycle parking facili- schemes is particularly successful in increasingments. Examples of such environments are “pe- ties at transport hubs (train and bus station) and the modal share for cycling – particularly wheredestrian only zones” and “home or low speed workplaces. Infrastructure design should ensure this is associated with an attractive infrastructurezones” with lower vehicle speed limits that allow that there is a hierarchy of routes that are safe, and good marketing. (e.g., Paris/Göteborg).pedestrians and cars safely share the same space. attractive, well-lit, signposted, maintained yearOn these areas pedestrians always have priority around and integrated with green space, roadsto the cars. and the buildings of urban areas. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Public transport Make travel by car less attractive Increasing the modal share for public transport Walking, cycling and public transport can be- requires a dense network of routes that meets the come more attractive alternatives if car travel be- mobility needs of people. Ticketing, marketing comes more difficult or expensive. Disincentives and service information availability should be include: integrated across public transport modes within Pricing ‘travel to work’ urban areas. Services need to be reliable, frequent, cost- and time-competitive, By making car drivers pay a fee for driving in the safe to use and perceived by the public as such. city (centre), drivers can be charged some of the Information about services needs to be ‘real- societal cost of urban driving, thus also making time’, widely available and include predicted the car a less attractive option. Experience from arrival times. The network should be attractive cities that implemented congestion charging can and accessible for all communities of interest reduce car traffic considerably and boost the use – including visitors, tourists, the elderly and of other transport modes. Pricing can be an ef- those with physical mobility problems. Spatial fective instrument to reduce congestion and in-60 planning should reserve the space necessary for crease accessibility for important transports. the ‘transport infrastructure’ (dedicated routes, Parking management stopping places, information displays) and en- sure that stops are sited within walking distance Parking management is a powerful tool for cit- from key residential, commercial and tourist ies to manage car use and, especially, commut- centres. Spatial planning should deliver the re- ing by car. Cities have several tools to manageStriving for better urban living and mobility quired loading factors to allow public transport parking, e.g., pricing, time restrictions and con- to compete with car transport. “Public transport trolling the number of available parking spaces. only” and priority routes will be essential poli- Parking time restrictions for non-residents, e.g., cies. to two hours, are a proven tool to reduce com- muting by car without affecting accessibility to urban shops. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • The number of parking spaces is often regulated Information & marketingby the local building act, demanding a certain Buying and using cars is a global business re-number of parking spaces for new develop- inforced by massive commercial advertisingments. By reducing the minimum demand and and promotion budgets that refer not only tointroducing a maximum level of parking spaces mobility issues but provide emotional life styleper living unit or shop area, the city can control and image appeal. Similar local marketing cam-the number of parking spaces available. Some paigns that provide personally tailored informa-cities have building regulations where location tion about public transport, walking and cyclingand accessibility by public transport influence alternatives have been successful in reducingthe number of parking spaces allowed. Adequate car use and increasing levels of public transportpricing of urban parking lots is another impor- use. These campaigns should also use the emo-tant tool with similar potential to influence ur- tional and intellectual appeal of the health andban driving as congestion charging. environmental benefits that walking cycling and public transport provide. 61 Checklist The objectives, targets and measures in the SUTP strengthen sustainable transport modes SUTP includes objectives, targets and measures that make unsustainable transport modes less attractive Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 4.4 Healthy and pleasant – Clean and silent transport system Why Fossil-fuelled motorised transport produces noise and air pollutants and contributes to global warming by generating greenhouse gases. The damage to eco-systems, human health and the fabric of urban areas is con- siderable. Urban transport accounts for 40% of total CO2 emissions and up to 70% of other pollutants from transport.62 How A reduction of the noise, air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved by aStriving for better urban living and mobility wide variety of programmes including road sur- face design, noise attenuation barriers, landscap- ing, air quality mapping and air quality zones, and the use of more energy-efficient vehicles and alternative fuels. Road design - noise The choice of surfacing materials and orienta- tive times, and by zoning land uses, segregating Restrictions in the use of fossil-fuelled vehicles tion of roads, together with adjacent landscap- vehicles and residential areas and by insulating should be imposed to deliver these standards. ing, planned speed, and vehicle characteristics, buildings. Support, encouragement and incentives should will dictate the noise generated by road users. be given to the use of vehicles that produce zero Emissions Exposure to excessive road noise can also be or lower emissions as part of the programme of controlled by restricting access to noise-sensi- Air quality mapping should be used to en- reducing emissions and pollution levels within tive routes to low noise vehicles or at non-sensi- sure that air quality meets the legal standards. legal standards. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Municipalities have a role in:• Investing in their own zero/low emission municipality fleets (commercial/car sharing/ administrative)• Investing in zero/low emission car-sharing fleets• Establishing partnerships to provide the infrastructure for alternative fuels• Requiring contractors/partners to operate zero/low emission fleets• Supporting low zero/low emission public transport fleets• Providing incentives for zero/low emission and alternative-fuelled vehicles (tax discounts parking discounts, priority access, etc)• Providing disincentives for use of old/ 63 polluting vehicles (restricted access/ premium parking rates/etc.) Checklist Exposure to excessive noise from vehicles is minimised in the city Detailed restrictions are in place for motorised vehicles to deliver the required air quality within legal standards Objectives, targets and measures are included in the SUTP to strengthen clean and silent transport system Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 4.5 Rethinking goods transport – Efficient urban logistics How Why The transport of goods and products represents use these partnerships to ‘forward plan’ logistics The efficient transport of goods and prod- an essential aspect of sustainable urban trans- capacity. This allows them to quantify and share ucts between and within urban areas is an port. However, both a knowledge and partner- the costs and benefits associated with new in- aspect of modern society that is little un- ship deficit (or gap) exists in most urban areas: vestments in urban logistics. In this manner, a derstood and is rarely actively managed in few administrations have the technical capacity, balance can be achieved between meeting the urban areas. Globalisation means that many data or effective processes of working in part- needs of businesses and conserving the environ- businesses are highly mobile and are moving nership that allow businesses and companies to ment. their factories and distribution centres to share their needs and aspirations for urban logis- locations where the logistics infrastructure tics. Progressive-thinking urban areas have and and costs meet their needs. The economic vitality of urban areas depends on the exist- ence of logistics infrastructure that is cost- effectiveness in meeting these needs, whilst conserving the environment.64 Outsourcing, globalisation, internet shop- ping and rapidly evolving communication, technology are influencing the economic health and transport needs of urban areas. Competition between urban areas for eco- nomic investment often involves sacrificialStriving for better urban living and mobility investment by city administrations in new urban logistics infrastructure and high ca- pacity without a full understanding of its contribution to congestion, economic pros- perity, and both noise and air pollution. Congestion places a significant cost on local business and the environment. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • The necessary plans, policies and programmes toachieve this balance will involve:Capacity and infrastructure; e.g. • Freight transfer and consolidation terminals, etc. Checklist • Modal shift (from vehicles to rail, etc.) Freight transport industry and freight transport customers are involved in the SUTP • New routes and facilitiesLand use management All planned new logistics developments in the city are based on the results of TIAs • Mixed use/single use zoning Detailed incentives are used to encourage more efficient urban logistics • Storage, parking and loading zoning • Building regulations Disincentives are used to improve the efficiency of urban logisticsRegulations and enforcement Objectives and targets to improve the efficiency of urban logistics are defined in the SUTP • Route regulations (route, weight, volume, road pricing, etc.) • Time regulations (night deliveries, etc.) 65 • Disincentives/fines/taxes for non-sustainable logistics operationsPromotion • Information (real-time traffic information, route/storage capacity, load zone reservation, etc.) • Cooperation (between neighbouring municipalities and freight carriers, joint deliveries, shared marketing, driver training, etc.) • Incentives/discounts for non-sustainable logistics operations Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Efficiency and cleaner air through freight pilot In Bremen, the city staff works together with a The environmental loading point is now locat- delivery company on how to give operational ed near the Bremen pedestrian area. It allows incentives for clean vehicles. This cooperation Courier, Express and Parcel services to have resulted in an idea to implement an environ- access to the city centre during the daytime mentally friendly loading point adjacent to for delivery and pickup services. However, the pedestrian area. the access is exclusive if the service is operated with cleaner Euro V/EEV vehicles. A high Loading activities at pedestrian areas are al- emission standard is the requirement to get lowed until 11 a.m. The fleet of delivery vehi- to this loading point. This puts pressure on cles is relatively old and polluting. “There has the companies to improve their vehicle fleet. been an increasing demand for delivering and Cleaner vehicles also represent an advantage66 picking up parcels and goods at other times in the competition between delivery compa- as well”, says Michael Glotz-Richter, Project nies. Manager for Sustainable Mobility in the city of Bremen. The Chamber of Commerce has been sup- portive and actively involved in this public/ As a result, the city started to organise the private partnership cooperation. “We expect planning and coordination with the various this to accelerate the renewal of the deliveryStriving for better urban living and mobility organisations. “At the time we started, the vehicle fleet. It may also optimise the route German Traffic Regulation wasn’t familiar management for delivery services to the city with environmental loading zones. We needed centre”, says Glotz-Richter. to create a special solution for this pilot ac- tion.” Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • 67Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Appendix 1 – EU SUTP qualities EU Expert Working Group’s common understanding and definition of SUTP The EU Expert Working Group on Sustainable Urban Transport (The Final Report of EU Expert Working Group on Sustainable Urban Transport Plans (2004), http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/pdf/final_report050128.pdf ) established a common understanding of European SUTP and how it should relate to current practises. The EU definition of SUTP and its basic qualities are: A start from collective visions An innovation of existing practices An SUTP has to be based on the real needs of society and aim to cre- SUTP is not meant to be an additional layer of transport planning activi- ate sustainable, attractive and vibrant communities. It looks beyond the ties. It is a new way of tacking transport-related problems more efficiently transport sector and imagines how transport and mobility should support and with improved governance and legitimacy. However, it must evolve urban life in the future. SUTP must therefore continuously involve citi- over time from within present practice and regulatory frameworks and zens and stakeholders from the start as well as throughout the planning cannot be imposed. and implementation process. A review of transport costs and benefits A balance of sustainability dimensions SUTP assesses transport costs and benefits across the economic, social,68 Social, economic, and environmental objectives should be balanced in an and environmental sectors. By “internalising” the external costs of trans- SUTP. It must not be seen as a threat or obstacle to the achievement of port, the SUTP aims to provide a market mechanism that will regulate the economic development or social equity, but rather a complementary tool transport sector. for delivering these objectives. A feasible and flexible approach A fully integrated planning approach SUTP is a pragmatic approach that delivers ‘concrete’ results, managing SUTP is essentially about integration. Without full integration with other risks, including a sequence of milestones, monitoring the implementation plans, it is incomplete, if not fundamentally undermined. and achievement or objectives. An SUTP package of measures must be realistic and fully achievable within accepted levels of variations. Whilst - Horizontal integration – between transport/mobility plans and considering the long terms vision, the SUTP includes short-term targets the other municipality plans and programmes; e.g., spatial plan- and achieves successful steps in the right direction. ning - Vertical integration – between municipality plans and regional, national and EU plans; - Spatial integration – between related policies of neighbouring administrations/municipalities Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • A focus on target achievementsSetting the concrete and realistic targets and achieving them step-by-step isthe implementation approach of SUTP. This will require the different useof monetary resources, as the budget allocation must become conditionalon target achievement. SUTP is not a master plan.A level playing field for citiesThe SUTP should establish the minimum basis and scope for the imple-mentation of environmental legislation. This will remove the competitiveadvantages of some urban areas by requiring compliance rather that thepresent sacrifices of environmental quality and environmental capital inproviding unsustainable transport. 69 Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Appendix 2 - Policy documents Voluntary agreements Aalborg Commitments, http://www.aalborgplus10.dk/ EU Policy documents The Green Paper on urban mobility (2007), http://ec.europa.eu/transport/clean/green_paper_urban_transport/preparation_en.htm Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment (2005), http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/thematic_strategy.htm Renewed Sustainable Development Strategy (2006), http://ec.europa.eu/sustainable/welcome/index_en.htm 6th Environmental Action Programme (2002-2012), http://ec.europa.eu/environment/newprg/index.htm Leipzig charter on sustainable European cities (2007), http://www.eu2007.de/en/News/download_docs/Mai/0524-AN/075DokumentLeipzigCharta.pdf Renewed Lisbon Strategy – Working together for growth and jobs (2005), http://ec.europa.eu/growthandjobs/pdf/COM2005_024_en.pdf White Paper: European transport policy for 2010: time to decide (2001, reviewed 2006), http://ec.europa.eu/transport/white_paper/index_en.htm Aarhus convention - Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, (UN convention, EC Regulation, N° 1367/2006), http://ec.europa.eu/environment/aarhus/70 Unit Equal Opportunities for Women and Men: Strategy and Programme, http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/gender_equality/index_en.html Appendix 3 - Good practice databases http://www.eltis.org/, European Local Transport Information Service http://www.epomm.org, European Platform of Mobility Management http://www.civitas-initiative.org/, cleaner and better transport in cities http://www.smile-europe.org, 170 successful and replicable practices for sustainable transport http://www.localcapacity21.org/ Governing sustainable cities http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/index.php Transport Demand Management Encyclopedia, Victoria Transport Institute Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Appendix 4 – GlossaryAccessibility Accessibility refers to the ease with which people can access The redevelopment of these brownfield sites is an important or participate in employment, shopping, education, health, part of the new urbanism. entertainment, social and other activities available in an area. http://en.wikipedia.org The word ‘accessible’ is often more narrowly used to describe improvements to transport for people with physical and Bus lanes Bus lanes are traffic lanes on a roadway that are for the use other disabilities. of buses. Bus lanes can be exclusively for buses and or shared http://www.actpla.act.gov.au/transportplan/8_Glossary/ with taxis and high occupancy vehicles. http://www.actpla.act.gov.au/transportplan/8_Glossary/Benchmarking Benchmarking (also “best practice benchmarking” or “process benchmarking”) is a process used in management Car-sharing Car-sharing is a system in which a fleet of cars (or other – particularly strategic management – in which vehicles) is owned by a company or cooperative and available organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in for use by members of the car share. Typically, the relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. This participants in such a program are city dwellers whose then allows organizations to develop plans on how to adopt transportation needs are largely met by public transit, such ‘best practice’, usually with the aim of increasing some walking or cycling. Some households use a car share as an aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a single event, alternative to the has sles of owning (and parking) a second but is often treated as a continuous process in which car. organizations continually seek to challenge their practices. http://en.wikipedia.org http://en.wikipedia.org EU-funding schemes for EU funding schemes targeted towards urban transport; Civitas, other FP7 calls, Intelligent Energy (renewable fuels/ 71Best Practice A technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result. In urban transport energy efficient transport), Marco Polo. More general government, there is special interest in best practice exchange funding instruments Interreg (different strands, A, B and C as – unlike commercial enterprises – there is no competitive and geographical coverage), LIFE+, Urbact. Structural and incentive to keep best practices secret. cohesion funds in general. http://cordis.europa.eu/, http:// http://en.wikipedia.org www.civitas-initiative.eu/, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/ intelligent/index_en.html, http://ec.europa.eu/transport/Brownfield land A tract of land that has been developed for industrial marcopolo/2/index_en.htm, http://ec.europa.eu/ purposes, polluted, and then abandoned environment/life/ http://europa.eu.int/eurodicautom/Controller External costs An external cost is a cost not included in the market price of In town planning, brownfield land is an area of the goods and services being produced, i.e., a cost not borne land previously used or built upon, as opposed to greenfield by those who create it. land which has never been built upon. In some cases, it may http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ be land previously used by industry or commercial uses such as fuelling stations or mining, and therefore may be Freight transport Transportation of goods by ship, aircraft or other vehicles. contaminated by hazardous waste or pollution. Generally, http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ brownfield sites exist in a town’s industrial section, in abandoned factories or other previously high-polluting buildings. Small brownfields may also be found in many older residential neighbourhoods. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Gender equality Concept meaning that all human beings are free to develop Least-cost Least-Cost Planning is an approach to resource planning their personal abilities and make choices without the planning that: limitations set by strict gender roles; that the different Considers demand management solutions equally with behaviour, aspirations and needs of women and men are strategies to increase capacity. considered, valued and favoured equally. Considers all significant impacts (costs and benefits), http://europa.eu.int/eurodicautom/Controller including non-market impacts. Involves the public in developing and evaluating alternatives. Gender equity Fairness of treatment by gender, which may be equal http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm21.htm treatment or treatment which is different but which is considered equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations Logistics Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling and opportunities. the flow of goods, energy, information and other resources http://europa.eu.int/eurodicautom/Controller from the source of production to the marketplace. The convergence of economic, political and technological forces Indicator see sustainable development indicator in the mid-1990s dramatically increased the importance of logistics. The delivery of goods overtook production as Intelligent Intelligent Transportation Systems include the application the most critical factor in business success. Almost overnight, Transport Systems of advanced information processing (computers), the responsibility of logistics grew from simply getting (ITS) communications, technologies and management strategies in a product out the door to the science of controlling the an integrated manner in order to improve the safety, capacity optimal flow of goods, energy, and information through the purchasing, planning and transportation management. In72 and efficiency of the transportation system. http://www.trans.gov.ab.ca/ the wake of this change, the role of logistics went from local to global, tactical to strategic, and from the backroom to the Intermodal A movement of goods using more than one means boardroom. transport of transportation. The most common intermodal http://www.logisticsinstitute.com/about_us/what_is_logis arrangement is for goods to be moved by truck at their tics.php origin, transferred to rail for the long haul between regions, and transferred again to truck near their destination. Mobility The ability of groups or individuals to relocate/change jobs www.epa.gov/smartway/glossary.htm or to physically move from one place to another. http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ Internalisation The incorporation of an externality into the market decision- of external costs making process through pricing or regulatory interventions. In the narrow sense, internalisation is achieved by charging polluters (for example) with the damage costs of the pollution generated by them, in accordance with ‘the polluter pays’ principle. http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Mobility Mobility Management is primarily a demand-oriented Public transport The act or the means of conveying people in mass as opposedmanagement approach to passenger and freight transport that involves to conveyance in private vehicles. new partnerships and new tools. The aim is to support http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ and encourage a change of attitude and behaviour towards sustainable modes of transport. The tools of mobility Public transport comprises all transport systems in which management are based on information, communication, the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. It is also organization and co-ordination. These tools require called ‘public transit’ or ‘mass transit’. While it is generally promotion. Mobility Management, which is both a novel taken to mean rail and bus services, wider definitions would and promising concept to promote sustainable transport, include scheduled airline services, ferries, taxicab services, varies from country-to-country both in terms of scope and etc., i.e., any system that transports members of the general level of implementation. public. www.epomm.org (European platform on Mobility Manage- http://en.wikipedia.org ment) Public Transport Altering the sequence or timing of traffic signal phases usingModal split The proportion of total person-trips assigned to each Priority Schemes special detection in order to provide preferential treatment. available transport mode http://managed-lanes.tamu.edu/products/glossary.stm http://europa.eu.int/eurodicautom/Controller Renewable energy Energy sources that do not rely on fuels of which there areParking Strategies aimed at making better use of the available only finite stocks. The most widely-used renewable source ismanagement parking supply. Parking management strategies include preferential parking or price discounts for carpools and/or hydroelectric power. Other renewable sources are biomass energy, solar energy, tidal energy, wave energy and wind 73 short-term parkers, and disincentives for those contributing energy. more to congestion. http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ http://managed-lanes.tamu.edu/products/glossary.stm Social inclusion Positive action taken to include all sectors of society inParticipatory Participatory planning - is involving the entire community in planning and other decision-making.planning the strategic and management processes of urban planning. http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/england/government/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ en/1115310689529.htmlPassenger transport The conveyance of people over land, water or through air by Spatial planning Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the public automobile, bus, train, airplane or some other means of sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in travel. spaces of various scales. This includes urban (urban http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ planning), regional (regional planning), national and international levels.Public-Private Public Private Partnership - cooperative venture between the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_PagePartnership public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner that best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards. Canadian council for public-private partnership http://www. pppcouncil.ca/ Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Stakeholder In the last decades of the 20th century, the word “stake- Transport Transportation Demand Management (TDM) (also known holder” has evolved to mean a person or organisation that Demand as Mobility Management) is a general term for various has a legitimate interest in a project or entity. In discussing Management strategies that increase transportation system efficiency. the decision-making process for institutions -- including TDM treats mobility as a means to an end, rather than an large business corporations, government agencies and non- end in itself. It emphasizes the movement of people and profit organizations – the concept has been broadened to goods, rather than motor vehicles, and so gives priority to include everyone with an interest (or “stake”) in what the more efficient modes (such as walking, cycling, ridesharing, entity does. That includes not only its vendors, employees, public transit and telework), particularly under congested and customers, but even members of a community where its conditions. It prioritizes travel based on the value and costs offices or factory may affect the local economy or of each trip, giving higher value trips and lower cost modes environment. priority over lower value, higher cost travel, when doing so http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page increases overall system efficiency. http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm51.htm Sustainable Sustainable development indicators are indicators that Development measure progress made in sustainable growth and Urban Sprawl Pejorative term for low-density development in suburban Indicators development. They can provide an early warning, and the fringe of urban areas. Characteristics include sounding the alarm in time to prevent economic, social and distance from employment and commercial centres, environmental damage. They are also important tools dependence on automobile travel, extended public to communicate ideas of sustainable development. Indicators infrastructure and little in-fill development. Answers.com. Dictionary of Real Estate Terms, Barron’s74 for monitoring progress towards sustainable development are Educational Series, Inc, 2004. needed in order to assist decision-makers and policy-makers at all levels and to in crease focus on sustainable http://www.answers.com/topic/urban-sprawl development. Beyond the commonly used economic indicators of well-being, however, social, environmental and institutional indicators have to be taken into account as well to arrive at a broader, more complete picture of societal development. http://glossary.eea.eu.int/EEAGlossary/ Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • “The process of developing the SUTP has been more important for the future than the document itself.” 75Photos: Anna Granberg (pages 9, 11, 12, 15, 21, 27, 28, 32, 33, 36, 40, 43, 47, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 63, 64, 67), Sakari Saarinen (pages 13, 22),Marek Muiste (page 20), Mikko Laaksonen (page 23), city of Gdynia (pages 25, 31, 45, 46, 51, 52), city of Örebro (pages 26), city of Kaunas (page30, 42), city of Sundsvall/Åsa Grip (page 49), city of Turku/Stillkuvastudio/Mika Okko (page 34), city of Göteborg (pages 35, 36, 62, 66), Sari Sariola(pages 1 & 76 collages, 38), city of Tartu (pages 41, 50), city of Liepaja (page 53), city of Bremen (pages 30, 57), Pasi Pirinen/Tarsiger.com (page 61),Ants Liigus (page 29), Rex Features/Lehtikuva (page 10), Lehtikuva/Heikki Saukkomaa (page 76). Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
    • Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport PlansISBN 978-952-5725-17-9www.movingsustainably.net