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Moving SustainablyGuide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
AcknowledgementsThe Moving Sustainably – Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans has been written by Sakari Saarinen an...
Moving SustainablyGuide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans                                     “We are not only doing th...
CONTENTS      1. Introduction ...............................................................................................
1. INTRODUCTIONAs people travel to buy goods and use services, they generate traffic. It is         encompass visioning, par...
Process cycle               Transforming urban mobility and urban planning practice into sustainable        SUTP calls for...
Reduced need for               Enchanced               Clean and silent       Efficient urban                        transp...
User introduction               The ‘Moving Sustainably’ guidance consists of the guidebook and the web-         The Movin...
9Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
2. PLANNING PROCESS                     2.1 Introduction                     The following chapters describe the essential...
2.2 Players of the game – Responsibility and organisation                                                 How Why         ...
Improving the collaboration and cooperation                   between departments is a pre-requisite both for             ...
2.3 Work together – Policy coordination through actor cooperation                                                   How Wh...
Within a municipally controlled organisation,       point towards better policy integration. It is im-    All the plans th...
Kouvola Region works for                                          policy matchIn Kouvola Region, the SUTP was connected   ...
2.4 Involve and engage – Stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation                     Why                        ...
There are various degrees of involvement.‘Informing’ is at one extreme whilst ‘delegatingpower’ or ‘empowering’ is at the ...
Empower - Decisions are made by a group or            Another way of looking at local stakeholders                   organ...
It is advisable to start a citizen and stakeholder     3. Create a table describing how variouscooperation scheme in a cit...
“Give people a chance to be part                                              of the process!”                     The cit...
2.5 Respect all – Equality and gender equity                                               How Why                        ...
Furthermore, analyse the following questions:                   Representation – How many men, how many                   ...
Equality is about seeing things                                          from different angles                   How to ma...
2.6 Keep on learning – Capacity building                                                                      How         ...
254. Evaluating the pilot action – What are theunderlying reasons for the outcomes?5. Based on this learning experience, m...
Promoting a new way of                                                                                                    ...
2.7 The name of the game – Scope and definition                                                  How Why                   ...
There is also an obligation to manage the sig-                   nificant aspects. Environmental Management                ...
Similar challenges, different scale                                                           29The small resort city of P...
2.8 Starting position – Baseline review                    Why                    To be able to reach your goals, you first...
monitoring of the city’s urban transport with          scription is contrast against the ‘ideal’ character-clear indicator...
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
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  1. 1. Moving SustainablyGuide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  2. 2. AcknowledgementsThe Moving Sustainably – Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans has been written by Sakari Saarinen and Anna Granberg at Union of the Baltic Cities Commissionon Environment, Michael Koucky at Union of the Baltic Cities Commission on Transport, Sönke Behrends at Chalmers University of Technology and Allen Creedy atethics etc..., BUSTRIP city cases are written by Virpi Kaukavuori and Sakari Saarinen.Thanks to the BUSTRIP city coordinators and their colleagues, Alicja Pawlowska - city of Gdynia, Gunilla Fransson - city of Göteborg, James McGeever - city of Kaunas,Hannu Koverola - Kouvola Region, Dace Liepniece and Mara Zeltina - city of Liepaja, Karri Tiigisoon and Grete Kukk - city of Pärnu, Christer Tarberg - city of Sundsvall,Marek Muiste - city of Tartu, Mikko Laaksonen - city of Turku, Danguole Vaitkiene and Aurelija Babiliute - city of Vilnius, Per Elvingson - city of Örebro, MichaelFrömming and Michael Glotz-Richter - city of Bremen, for providing us with your experiences and for great cooperation.Thanks to the BUSTRIP Project Steering Group; Magnus Blinge, Maria Lindholm and Sönke Behrends - Chalmers University of Technology, Sofie Vennersten, LisaSundell and Michael Koucky - UBC Commission on Transport, Allen Creedy - ethics etc..., Anna Granberg, Sakari Saarinen and Björn Grönholm - UBC Commission onEnvironment.Thanks to Per Elvingson, Maria Lindholm, James McGeever, Sofie Vennersten, Heidi Tuhkanen, Virpi Kaukavuori, Kyösti Lempa, Eija Eloranta and Stella Aaltonen forvaluable comments and to Paul W Harrison for proof-reading.Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport PlansMoving Sustainably is the final product of the BUSTRIP project part-financed by European Union (European Regional Development Fund) within the BSR INTERREG IIIB Neighbourhoodprogramme, the Finnish Ministry of Environment and the partner cities. The guide book reflects the authors’ views and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of theEuropean Commission.The BUSTRIP project is part of the UBC Agenda 21 Programme 2004-2009 – Roadmap for Sustainable Baltic Cities.© Union of the Baltic Cities Commission on EnvironmentMore copies of the guide book can be ordered at www.movingsustainably.netPrinted on 100 % recycled paper at Painoprisma Oy, a Nordic Swan environmentally certified printing house.This document may only be copied in its entirety and without any kind of alteration. It may be quoted from provided that the Moving Sustainably - Guide toSustainable Urban Transport Plans is stated as the source.Photographs: see page 75Layout design by Sari BowieISBN 978-952-5725-17-9
  3. 3. Moving SustainablyGuide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans “We are not only doing this for traffic. We are doing this for creating a more liveable city.”
  4. 4. CONTENTS 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 5 2. Planning process............................................................................................................................. 10 2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 2.2. Players of the game – Responsibility and organisation ...................................................................................................................... 11 2.3. Work together – Policy coordination through actor cooperation ...................................................................................................... 13 2.4. Involve and engage – Stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation ........................................................................................... 16 2.5. Respect all – Equality and gender equity .......................................................................................................................................... 21 2.6. Keep on learning – Capacity building .............................................................................................................................................. 24 2.7. The name of the game – Scope and definition .................................................................................................................................. 27 2.8. Starting position – Baseline review ................................................................................................................................................... 30 2.9. Guiding star – Vision ....................................................................................................................................................................... 35 2.10. Find the resources – Identifying finances .......................................................................................................................................... 38 3. Implementation .............................................................................................................................. 40 3.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 40 3.2. Make it SMART – Objectives and targets ........................................................................................................................................ 41 3.3. Earmark the resources – Allocating finances ..................................................................................................................................... 444 3.4. Take the positions – Assignment of responsibilities........................................................................................................................... 46 3.5. Make it for real – Adoption and approval ......................................................................................................................................... 48 3.6. Keep the right track – Monitoring and assessment ........................................................................................................................... 50 4. Striving for better urban living and mobility ........................................................................................ 54 4.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 4.2. Close and easy – Reduced need for transport .................................................................................................................................... 55 4.3. Efficient travelling – Strengthening sustainable transport modes....................................................................................................... 58 4.4. Healthy and pleasant – Clean and silent transport system ................................................................................................................ 62 4.5. Rethinking goods transport – Efficient urban logistics .................................................................................................................... 64 Appendix 1 – EU SUTP qualities ............................................................................................................ 68 Appendix 2 - Policy documents ............................................................................................................ 70 Appendix 3 - Good practice databases ................................................................................................... 70 Appendix 4 – Glossary ........................................................................................................................ 71 Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  5. 5. 1. INTRODUCTIONAs people travel to buy goods and use services, they generate traffic. It is encompass visioning, partnerships, involvement, policy and finance op-the ordinary day-to-day activities of urban residents – going to the shops, tion appraisal and a review of existing implementation programmes andvisiting the dentist or attending school – that generate traffic. Your city, mechanisms. The process of SUT planning is at least as important as theas many cities today, face a multitude of challenges related to these activi- completed SUT planties, congestion, noise, air quality issues, health, safety, quality of life and The process of preparing the plan should be carefully considered andthe problem with a multitude of diverting policies in the field of urban agreed with all relevant stakeholders. Human and financial resources willtransport. On the global level, the challenge of climate change and its be required to manage the SUT planning process. New institutional, or-environmental, health and economic impacts are strongly connected to ganisational and communication arrangements may be required. Existingtransport and unsustainable mobility behaviour. arrangements should be reviewed with stakeholders as part of the processThese challenges are the driving forces behind the recent calls for powerful of agreeing on the new arrangements. An essential element of the SUTmeasures on the local transport arena. Urban mobility issues are complex planning is the free and unhindered exchange of information, knowledgeand cannot be successfully solved by simple transport plans. They require and views. The process and the supporting resources should support theradical new policy instruments together with an integrated approach to open and transparent process of SUT planning.mobility and the design of our cities. Sustainable Urban Transport Plans SUT plan(SUTP) have been strongly recommended by the European Union asthe foundation upon which a new approach to transport can be built. The SUT plan is a tool to provide more sustainable ways of meeting theEmbracing radical new policies and facilitating the necessary integration mobility and transport needs for people and goods in urban areas. It com- 5of transport, urban and economic planning. prehensively addresses public and private transport, motorised and non- motorised transport, moving and parked vehicles as well as freight trans-The preparation and adoption of a Sustainable Urban Transport Plan is port and logistics. These transport categories are dealt with in an integrateda process that often requires new ways of thinking, cross departmental way. The SUT plan should become a guiding document for all sectors ofcooperation and integration of different policy areas. Comprehensive new planning that involve, affect or are affected by transport. The SUT plantools together with guidance on their use are required to help the cities to should express a shared vision on the development of transport in the cityboth understand and get started with the SUTP process. This SUTP guide in the framework of sustainability and provide a strategy to systematically‘Moving Sustainably’ is based on the Baltic Sea Region INTERREG III work towards this goal.B project BUSTRIP (Baltic Urban Sustainable Transport Implementationand Planning, www.bustrip-project.net). BUSTRIP has supported twelve In short the SUT plan is the working document developed by the city toNorthern European cities in their groundbreaking efforts to be the first address the challenge of achieving sustainable urban transport.cities in Europe to prepare and implement SUTPs. The objective of thisguide is to provide tools and guidance for transport and urban plannersand decision-makers on how to plan and implement sustainable urbantransport.A Sustainable Urban Transport Plan has two basic components:SUT planning IntroductionThe process of preparing an SUTP – SUT planning – requires ongo-ing and effective local and regional cooperation and collaboration. Thisjoint effort between administrations, agencies and stakeholders needs to Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  6. 6. Process cycle Transforming urban mobility and urban planning practice into sustainable SUTP calls for an extensive involvement of stakeholders from outside the practice is a long process. Our unsustainable transport patterns and infra- city administration; NGOs, citizens and business representatives. It re- structure have emerged over the course of decades. Our infrastructure, our quires close cooperation with national and regional governments to ensure cities and the expectations we have for mobility and transport cannot be compliance with their strategic plans, recognising that in order to make changed overnight. The starting point is different for each city; political progress towards the sustainable development there is a need to consider situation, national and regional characteristics and the resources available. the transport and mobility of the whole of a functional urban area – since Therefore every city has to find its own, workable solution for the SUTP mobility does not recognise administrative boundaries. The SUTP requires process. an inclusive approach that acknowledges the equality of all individuals and groups and their rights to participate in decision making. The figure on page 7 visualises the general process of the SUTP. The outer circle and the block arrow on the right hand show the SUT planning part One fundamental ingredient of an SUTP is the utilisation of a ‘sustainable and the inner circle shows the SUT plan process. The model illustrates the city vision’ as a starting point for the SUTP work. This vision demonstrates need for regular update and feedback to the organisation on the progress of how long term hopes and aspirations of the plan can serve as the ‘guiding the plan. Policy coordination, stakeholder cooperation, equity and gender stars’ for the whole process, how they can be used to stimulate interest equality and capacity building continuously inform the development and and involvement and how useful they can be used in the marketing of the 6 implementation of the Sustainable Urban Transport Plan and its actions. work. For a successful SUTP the setting of measurable and time-limited targets is crucial; in fact, without these it is not even possible to evaluate City experiences as basis for the guidance the plan. To measure and follow-up on the impact of the actions is another crucial aspect of the plan. The concept of SUTP used in this guide is directed towards small- and medium-sized cities. These cities are taking their first steps in the process that is aimed at improving the city transport – by making it more sustain- able, co-operative and integrated. It can also be used by cities that already have elements of a SUTP that would like to further integrate, upgrade and extend their efforts. By ‘cities’ in this guidebook we refer local authorities of all sizes. The guidance is based on findings, experiences and good practices of the BUSTRIP partner cities. The experiences show that SUTP process must build on the existing strengths and opportunities of a city. Above all, in- tegration is the key to SUTP. The integration of different policy areas can lead to beneficial consequences on the environment; lowered air quality emissions and lower noise levels for example. It can also support improve- ments in personal health and in more sustainable lifestyle patterns.Introduction Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  7. 7. Reduced need for Enchanced Clean and silent Efficient urban transport modal shift transport system logistics ACTION Scope and definition PolicyResponsibility and coordination organisation Baseline Review Allocating finances Stakeholder 7 cooperation Objectives and Adoption and Assignment of Equity and targets approval responsibilities gender equality Monitoring and assessment Capacity building Identifying finances Vision SUT plan SUT planning SUTP Process cycle Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  8. 8. User introduction The ‘Moving Sustainably’ guidance consists of the guidebook and the web- The Moving Sustainably website www.movingsustainably.net includes not site for Sustainable Urban Transport Plans. only all the guidebook information but also all the templates and forms for the SUTP work that have been developed and used in the BUSTRIP The guidebook is divided into three parts; the first focuses on the process project. The website will be continuously updated with the information of preparing the SUT plan; the second concentrates on the effective im- and links to new policy and good practice documents. plementation of the plan and the third considers the measures that should be carried out as a result of the plan. The chapters within the main parts are the ‘concrete’ steps in the process. Each stage is interlinked and all users are recommended to consider and assess all the steps of the process. Enjoy the journey through the process of Sustainable Urban For some local administrations the implementation of some of the steps Transport Plans! is self-evident and will be normal practice. The guidebook can be used in different ways; either as a ‘step-by-step’ guide in preparing an SUTP ‘from scratch’, or it can serve as the basis for carrying out a gap analysis between Authors the already existing transport planning processes in the city and an SUTP. 8 Each chapter/step of the process includes a why and a how section. This provides the rationale and practical guidance to complete the work in- volved in each step. Each chapter concludes with a checklist that provides a view on what are the most important issues to be ‘checked off’ and considered for each step of the SUTP for the city. The twelve city cases (contained within different chapters) present a selection of ‘hands-on’ ex- periences taken from the twelve BUSTRIP project cities. Each case study focuses on different steps in the SUTP processes. The BUSTRIP cities experiences provide practical illustration of how the different steps of the SUTP process have been carried out by different cities. The four appendixes of the guidebook include additional information and links to other information sources. The first appendix introduces the European Union definition and qualities for SUTP in brief. The second appendix introduces selected information and links to EU and other poli- cy documents that are related to sustainable urban transport and to the dif- ferent steps of the SUTP. The third appendix provides the users with links to Good Practice databases that include practical examples of sustainable urban transport systems and actions from other cities around the world.Introduction The fourth appendix is the glossary of the guidebook, including words and terms used in the world of sustainable urban transport. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  9. 9. 9Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  10. 10. 2. PLANNING PROCESS 2.1 Introduction The following chapters describe the essential steps required for a sustainable urban transport planning process. The first chapter ‘responsibil- ity and organisation’ explains how the process can only be successful if there is political com- mitment and support together with clear alloca- tion of responsibilities and definition of working methods. The next four chapters examine ‘policy coordi- nation through actor cooperation’, ‘stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation’, ‘equality and gender equity’ and ‘capacity building’ and how as planning principles they are essential pre-requisites for all aspects of SUT planning and SUTP implementation.10 The latter four chapters about ‘scope and defini- tion’, ‘baseline review’, ‘vision’ and ‘identifying finances’ are the other fundamental elements of the actual planning process. These elements lay the ground for the successful SUTP process, and without these the process and implementation of SUTP will fail.Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  11. 11. 2.2 Players of the game – Responsibility and organisation How Why Start the SUTP work by appointing a ‘coordina- A work plan is the key document for the whole Transforming the transport system of a tor’. S/he must have sufficient time, authority SUTP process. It should include as a minimum, city into a sustainable transport system is and control over resources to direct and manage the SUTP process budget, a stakeholder involve- a challenging and time-demanding process the inter-sectoral working group through the ment plan, communication plan, how research that is worth being systematically planned SUTP process. The inter-sectoral SUTP work- and information will be collected in relation to and continuously managed. It requires col- ing group should involve representatives from the baseline review, key milestone dates, a sched- laboration and coordination between those the key departments/authorities of the munici- ule for the meetings, and an outline of roles and departments in the city administration pal administration: transport planning, spatial responsibilities specific to the SUTP planning that either affect or are affected by trans- planning, real estate, social affairs, education, process. port developments – not only the obvious economical affairs, environmental protection, transport planning and urban planning sustainability departments/units etc. Key exter- departments but also the environmental nal stakeholders such as regional authorities and protection, economics and social integra- neighbouring municipality representatives may tion departments must be involved. A clear be invited to special meetings with the working organisational structure and the assignment group. It is also advisable to assign a senior lead 11 of responsibilities are prerequisites for the officer to be accountable to the political leader- successful and sustainable transformation ship for the administrative, financial and techni- of urban transport. cal aspects of the SUTP work. It is essential that the SUTP work has political support. The ideal situation is that the SUTP process is initiated by the political leadership. To appoint one political representative who has the responsibility and is accountable for the SUTP work is advisable. This politician‘s role is to par- ticipate in the management of the SUTP, moni- tor the achievement of targets, ensure that mile- stones are achieved and closely follow the work of the inter-sectoral SUTP working group. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  12. 12. Improving the collaboration and cooperation between departments is a pre-requisite both for the successful planning of the SUTP and the implementation of its actions. The inter-secto- ral SUTP working group is not only the starting point for this improvement but also one of the mechanisms necessary for ensuring that it con- tinues.12 Checklist The basic elements to start the process and inter-sectoral working group: There is a political mandate and support for SUTP work There is a political representative for the SUTP work who is actively involved in the process There is a coordinator with responsibility and the resources for organising the SUTP work Representatives from key stakeholder departments regularly participate in the working group meetings and activities and have thePlanning process authority to take decisions The inter-sectoral group work plan includes details of budgets, actions, goals and responsibilities Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  13. 13. 2.3 Work together – Policy coordination through actor cooperation How Why Policy coordination ensures that the various by traffic within the geographical coverage of Sustainable urban transport is more than the policy documents and strategies on the city, re- the planning area. This includes national and management of urban transport carried out gional and national levels are coordinated and regional plans, other relevant citywide plans, according to sustainability principles – it re- coherent. This demands a system of cooperation transport companies and provider’s plans/strate- quires coordinated actions across a diversity between different departments within the mu- gies and, last but not least, neighbouring munic- of policy themes so that land use and spatial nicipality and with other relevant actors. Ideally, ipalities. The SUTP should ensure that transport planning support and facilitate an efficient the city’s policies from one field to another are and mobility goals are integrated with corporate urban transport system; there is effective fully compatible and accordant with the goals comprehensive planning and those of other sec- control over the environmental, economi- for sustainable urban transport. Policies that tors — in particular, land use and spatial plans cal and social impacts of transport; shared contradict or hinder the achievement of SUTP but also environmental protection, social in- knowledge exists regarding the health and goals need to be identified, discussed and even clusion, economic development, safety, health, safety impacts of various transport modes; changed. education and information technologies. integration takes place with sustainable de- velopment strategies; and education and The SUTP should link all transport modes and policy sectors that influence or are influenced awareness-raising occurs with a transparent 13 exchange of information facilitated through the use of real-time information technology support. A lack of coordination between the various policies, city departments and external or- ganisations has been a considerable short- coming in the urban transport planning of many cities. A major challenge for the SUTP process is to address this deficit. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  14. 14. Within a municipally controlled organisation, point towards better policy integration. It is im- All the plans that have been produced by NGOs, departments sometimes have policies and pro- portant to point out the conflicts in the plans schools, local community groups and businesses cedures that are in conflict with goals in other and policies to the responsible departments and should be included in the mapping process. departments or with the goals of sustainable ur- authorities. Similarly, city-based policies require Detailed discussion and research are needed ban transport. A first step in policy coordination coordination with regional and national goals with relevant regional or national stakeholders is to identify the existing municipal, regional and policies. A system is needed which checks to include their policies, plans and procedures and national policies, goals, procedures and ‘how’ and ‘whether’ forward-planning and other in the mapping process. regulations in various departments that affect policy decisions will conflict with each other. The next step is to go through and check the ob- or are affected by urban transport. The map- jectives and goals (e.g., travel demand reduction, ping and analysis of existing transport-related support of non-motorised modes of transport, sup- plans (policies, etc.) represent a good starting port for energy-efficient transport, low emissions, a fair transport system with good accessibility for all citizen groups, clean and efficient freight transport) in the identified documents against the goals for sustainable urban transport. Check whether14 Checklist they are supporting or conflicting with the local SUTP goals. Then decide which actions need Policies and rules that affect transport are identified and listed to be taken to change or influence each of the Policies and rules are checked for contradictions and support for sustainable urban conflicting goals: bring this list of actions to- transport gether in an action plan that also describes how the SUTP is related to the other policy docu- Policies and rules that conflict with the goals of sustainable urban transport are listed ments. Invite all relevant actors and stakeholders A clear hierarchy of policies has been defined to discuss the conflicts identified in the action plan. Try to agree on the changes that will be Conflicting goals are pointed out to responsible decision-makers made to the plans and policies, who will make Conflicting rules and policies are changed the changes and when. Regional and national goals that are affected by the cities transport are identified These changes will move the existing polices and plans from being in conflict to supporting the Regional and national rules that affect the cities transport issues are identified goals of sustainable urban transport. The chang- Regional and national rules that conflict with goals of sustainable urban transport are es may take time to take effect, but should be listed endorsed by the political leadership.Planning process There is transparency in the area of what other policies and plans are part of or linked to the SUTP Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  15. 15. Kouvola Region works for policy matchIn Kouvola Region, the SUTP was connected After the SUTP process started, the workingalso to the regional, state level and EU policies. group was extended to include regional public“We need to look at policies all the way from health services and regional public environ-top to down, making the whole process more ment center, as well as citizens and other rel-coherent and influence policies and processes evant stakeholders. “The group bases its workmade by regional and national actors”, says on an agreement, a letter of intent signed byHannu Koverola, Planning Manager for the all relevant parties to implement traffic policyKouvola Region Federation of Municipalities. in harmony with the Kouvola region transport system plan” Koverola says.“Sustainable urban transport is one of our pri-orities. Authorities and organizations which The challenge is to get all parties to stick to thisdecide on funding also play a key role also in agreement. Until now, policy coordination hasimplementing policies. The federation of mu- been useful in planning land use. The target 15nicipalities is present in regional projects in a is to promote sustainable modes of transportway or another, either being experts, financer by making it real all the way from cooperatingor coordinators.” on policies to implementing joint actions with sufficient resources.In Kouvola, an inter-sectoral working groupwas created as a result of the regional trans-port plan. The working group has representa-tives from Regional Council, Finnish RoadAdministration, Finnish Rail Administration,State provincial Office and all seven munici-palities. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  16. 16. 2.4 Involve and engage – Stakeholder cooperation and citizen participation Why How Stakeholder cooperation is the involvement Stakeholder involvement is the start- Stakeholders and citizens should be involved and of and cooperation with citizens and other ing point for stimulating the behavioural be able to participate early in the SUTP process. stakeholders like NGOs, businesses and changes that are needed to complement the Stakeholders should be offered opportunities to other actors in a planning process. The UN/ technical actions necessary for the imple- influence the key stages of the planning process: Habitat defines stakeholders as those mentation of a sustainable urban transport building the vision, defining objectives and tar- system. By involving sustainable transport gets, measuring development, setting priorities • whose interests are affected by the issue opponents – like passionate car users – in and undertaking evaluation. The views of stake- or those whose activities strongly affect stakeholder decision-making processes they holders and citizens are needed before plans are the issue are often converted into sustainable mov- developed. • who possess information, resources ers! and expertise needed for strategy formulation and implementation, and • who control relevant implementation or instruments16 Stakeholder participation has a series of advantages: • Participatory policy making is more transparent and democratic • A decision made together with many stakeholders is based on more knowledge • Broad consensus is essential to improve the quality, acceptance, effectiveness and legitimacy of any plan • Stakeholder involvement improves the broader support of measures • Broad consensus and sense of participation in planning ensures thePlanning process long-term acceptance and viability of strategies and measures. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  17. 17. There are various degrees of involvement.‘Informing’ is at one extreme whilst ‘delegatingpower’ or ‘empowering’ is at the other. To makea successful SUTP, it is highly recommendedand entirely necessary to involve, collaboratewith and form partnerships with stakehold-ers in the process. Depending on the degree ofinvolvement and the nature of the stakeholder,various methods can be used that will encourageparticipation in the SUTP process.Inform – One-way dissemination of informa-tion. Informing is needed as a part of the processof passing information to stakeholders about theprogress of the SUTP work. Informing does notallow stakeholders to participate in the planningprocess for SUTP. 17Consult – Two-way communication involve-ment; the receiving of information and input,through listening and reading, and then the ex-change of views regarding draft, early or outlineideas and suggestions for the SUTP.Involve – Interactive discussion and dialoguethat serves as a supplement to an existing citydecision-making process. Collaborate – Stakeholder representatives at the Partnership – Form of joint decision-making by same table with the planners acting as active a shared agreement. Partnership is cooperation team members in formulating and recommend- where both sides hold veto power over decisions. ing alternatives. The final decision is made by It is mainly used when cooperating with equal the city representatives. partners like NGOs and private enterprises. ”Participation is a precondition for best quality in planning process.” Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  18. 18. Empower - Decisions are made by a group or Another way of looking at local stakeholders organization with specific delegation of power is to see them as experts in local circumstances from the authorities: for example, youth parlia- and in their specific area of expertise. For exam- ments and local boards. ple, the local residents of a street know exactly where street crossing is dangerous. Moreover, an If a city has a little experience of working with organisation serving handicapped people will stakeholder participation, it is wise to start at a have a profound practical knowledge of the dif- smaller scale. To build capacity, the stakeholder ficulties with shopping in a wheelchair and what cooperation should start on a limited scale and needs to be improved. be based on the learning experiences from stake- holder cooperation. With this learning, pilot projects can become mainstream procedures. Another way of attaining experience is to start on a lower level of participation with for exam- ple ‘involvement’ and grow more ambitious us- ing ‘partnerships’ as the organisation gains more18 capacity. It is beneficial to involve a facilitator with mediation skills. The facilitator will inter- pret, arbitrate and mediate between the politi- Stakeholder involvement Matrix cians/officers/planners and the stakeholders. Stakeholder cooperation can be seen by politi- cians and professionals as a challenge to their credibility and reputation in the organisation. It In need of Potential for is extremely important to be receptive and be Highly affected by transport empowerment! change! aware that planning and decision-making need to be shared with people from a diverse range of backgrounds – both political and professional. Communication is crucial for a successful stake- Least important Critical group - potential holder process. Communicate successes, set for behavioural change Not affected group backs, delays and reasons why a certain decision by transport has been made.Planning process Not affecting Highly affecting transport transport Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  19. 19. It is advisable to start a citizen and stakeholder 3. Create a table describing how variouscooperation scheme in a city using careful plan- stakeholders groups will be involved atning. First, decide on the goals of the stake- separate stages of the SUTP process and toholder cooperation. Below is one example of the what degree. Select the means of commu-step-by-step process for a stakeholder coopera- nication between the working group andtion plan for the whole SUTP process, enabling the stakeholders and the methods thatstrategic stakeholder cooperation. should be used. 1. Define an objective for your stakeholder 4. Implement stakeholder participation co-operation; is it to enable more transpar- using these steps in the various stages ent decision-making, to gain more knowl- of the SUTP process. It is better to edge or something else with a specific goal. start with a less ambitious, but well planned and well-implemented stake 2. Perform a stakeholder analysis to identify holder process than with a very ambitious the stakeholder groups. Carry out a involvement process that may bring about brainstorm within the inter-sectoral work disappointment. ing group to identify who are the relevant stakeholders. Define stakeholders within 19 the public, as well as private and com- munity sector. Place them in a Stakeholder involvement Matrix. Checklist Relevant citizen/private stakeholder groups are identified Is there a strategy for the involvement of the stakeholders It is defined how they affect or are affected by municipal transport issues Are relevant stakeholders involved in the SUTP work Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  20. 20. “Give people a chance to be part of the process!” The city of Tartu has carried out stakeholder It is important to be clear on why the city cooperation seminars and working groups in should involve stakeholders. In Tartu, it has preparing their SUTP. The city already had not been only about getting more support on two existing transport related working groups. the issue, but also building visions and set- “We had an easy start, something to base our ting targets. “Participation creates pressure on work on. In SUTP, our job was to expand politicians. Issues related to the quality of life these groups and generate a new cooperation or health don’t always seem to be important model”, Marek Muiste, International Project for decision-makers.” Coordinator, tells. During the SUTP process, the city of Tartu has Stakeholders include NGOs and private en- also been discussing overall sustainability and terprises, and the seminars were open to the knowledge campaigns. It is worthwhile being general public. The participation of stake- optimistic, since raising the overall awareness20 holders has given the process real added value. is about expanding the knowledge from core The baseline review and SWOT analysis for stakeholder groups to the general public. the SUTP were also carried out with the help “During the SUTP process, our stakeholders of stakeholder groups, as it was the case with have had good access to relevant information. the peer review report. “In SUTP, the stake- The SUTP team and the stakeholders have be- holders have in fact had very much power”, come more aware of sustainable transport.” Muiste says. Addressing the stakeholder groups needs careful planning. The more challenging part is changing the overall behaviour of the citi- zens: their participation is also a crucial ele- ment. Unawareness and ignorance can create an increasing number of cars. “And the bigger the car the better! These are the kind of at- titudes we need to battle against.”Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  21. 21. 2.5 Respect all – Equality and gender equity How Why In the SUT planning process ensure that there between the genders. In the inter-sectoral work- Gender equality means giving both genders is a gender balance in the inter-sectoral working ing group, consider gender participation in each equal access to services and equal oppor- group and all other groups involved. In stake- of the stages of the planning process: tunity to influence the transport system. holder consultations ensure that all relevant Use of transport differs between men and • Decision-making groups of interest are equally represented. women. Although the gap has been clos- • Involvement procedures ing during the last couple of years, men in One easy method to use is the 3R -method, • Employment in the agencies involved general still exhibit more non-sustainable where the organisation’s gender status is evalu- • Design of policies and measures travel behaviour than women. Although ated. This method helps to respond to the ques- • Implementation many studies have explored the reasons, no tion “who gets what, and under which circum- • Collection and use of gender-disaggregated comprehensive explanation has been found stances”: in other words, how men and women data in the monitoring and evaluation as to why women use sustainable modes to are represented in the SUTP work and imple- of plans and strategies a greater extent than men. mentation and how the resources are distributed 21 Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  22. 22. Furthermore, analyse the following questions: Representation – How many men, how many women? The response to this question gives a Checklist view of the representation in political bodies, working groups, stakeholder groups and so on. Gender equality is taken into account in the SUT planning process and within the SUT plan itself Resources – How are resources divided between men and women? Who gets the resources: mon- There is a balanced gender representation amongst decision-makers concerning transport ey, time, information and space? issues Reality – Under this heading the facts gathered There is equal accessibility for all groups considered in planning and decision-making in representation as well as the resources should (equity, e.g., for the handicapped, elderly or parents) be analysed to decide on the values and norms that guide the planning process and the munici- pal organisation to be visualised. The questions that will be answered are: Why is the representa-22 tion as it is? Who sets the norms in the organisa- tion and who gets the resources? On the basis of the 3R analyses, it can be con- cluded if the SUT planning process promotes equality and whether the organisation is carry- ing out the SUTP in a way that promotes equal- ity. It also offers a view on what can be changed in the planning process and how the organisa- tion can better promote equality. The results have links to the whole value base of the entire organisation. (3R method is developed by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, http://www.skl.se/).Planning process Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  23. 23. Equality is about seeing things from different angles How to make sure there are equal opportu- high technology, or buying cars. It seems to be nities for all members of the society to have a goal for the younger generations.” influence over public transport? The balance Children form the majority of bicycle users between professional groups, different age in Lithuania. So far, cycling has not been a groups, gender and accessibility has been kept major mode of transport in the cities. “There in mind in the SUTP process in Vilnius. are problems related to safety, and not enough Aurelija Babiliute, Chief Specialist in Vilnius parking lots for bicycles near the school yards. Healthy Cities Bureau, thinks it is important We need to take that into account in planning, to count every possible opinion. Balance – re- and encourage children by already starting the gardless of whether this is about the balance education in kindergartens and schools.” between men and women, children and adults In Vilnius, the disabled have also been heard 23 or the healthy and the disabled – means seeing in public meetings. Their special needs are al- transport issues from each and every angle. ways kept in mind when planning new things. Gender is one of the most complicated “It is sometimes difficult in older parts of the questions. “On a professional level, gender city because of lack of space. For example, we shouldn’t be an issue”, Babiliute says. “There can’t really change much at the Unesco World are certain professional fields that are male- Heritage site.” dominated. But if the person is open-mind- ed, it shouldn’t make a difference.” And why not test bus stops, sidewalks, parking areas and safety with mothers – or fathers – tak- ing young children to day-care or the grocery store! In Lithuania, there is a special difference be- tween the older and younger generations. Many users of public transport had a habit ofPlanning process using such services during the Soviet period. “It is sometimes difficult for them to see why younger generations are so enthusiastic about Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  24. 24. 2.6 Keep on learning – Capacity building How Why Assess the capacity of the staff and the organi- 2. Study visit - visit the city that has succeeded An SUTP requires a new way of thinking. sation when conducting the baseline review. in meeting the challenge. Try to learn from Instead of expressions like ‘road capacity’, Sufficient allocation of resources will be dealt the city’s experience and consider how to use ‘road standards’ and ‘bottle necks’, the vo- with in the chapter dealing with assignment of its experiences in the implementation practice cabulary should change to more sustain- responsibilities. A city administration that does in your own city, in a targeted manner. able terms that are less orientated towards have an existing system for mapping capacity 3. Transfer the practice – carry out a feasibility mechanical and engineering terms such as should use it. Otherwise the following steps are study. What are the differences in the cities, ‘intermodality’, ‘modal shift’ and ‘mobility helpful: what are the similarities, how can their prac- management’. SUTP is also so much more 1. Assess the capacity under the different tice be transferred to your city’s setting? than only transport planning. It involves sta- keholder cooperation, inter-sectoral work- headlines of the SUTP process 4. Implement – adjust the practice to your ing methods, gender equality issues and 2. Analyse the weaknesses of the organisation, local situation and start with a pilot action in accessibility issues – ‘unpaved ground’ for the leadership and the staff your city to see if it will have a desired effect in many ‘transport planners’. The process of 3. Prepare a simple action plan on how to the city. ‘Upscale’ the pilot action to the whole24 stakeholder cooperation will provide op- overcome the weaknesses or part of the city. portunities for officers and politicians Study visits and pilot actions are two useful Learning through pilot actions to learn new skills, become aware of new models for attaining capacity in the field of im- concepts and deepen their appreciation of plementing good and effective measures in the 1. Decide on the actions to be taken, and SUTP. Open-minded approaches will foster SUTP: ensure they are ‘fit for purpose’ – they will individual and organisational learning and achieve the targets in the SUTP. Does the build capacity for the SUTP. Targeted practise transfer through city need ‘mobility management’, ‘Local study visits Environmental Zone’ or ‘traffic calming plan’ Although the SUTP process itself is a capac- or something similar to fulfil the targets? ity building process, it is advisable to map 1. Benchmarking – compare the city’s chal- the capacity that already exists within the 2. Small is beautiful - start in a smaller area of lenges with those of other cities. Base some organisations working with SUTP. This can the city or in one theme of action. Carry out questions on your own targets asking the fol- be done as part of the baseline review. The a baseline review (if the SUTP baseline review lowing: How can we reach our targets? What weaknesses within the capacity of the or- is not sufficiently detailed), collect relevant other cities have struggled with the same chal- ganisation can be addressed in a periodically data about the area or theme that needs to be lenges or had the same targets? How have they updated action plan for capacity building. changed and then prepare a plan to manage acted? What results have they achieved? And the implementation of the pilot action. most importantly – what can we learn fromPlanning process them? How can we make use of their experi- 3. Implement the pilot action - monitor the ences in our city? progress carefully: did it have a desired effect according to the baseline review? Take notes of the side effects, synergies and unexpected outcomes. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  25. 25. 254. Evaluating the pilot action – What are theunderlying reasons for the outcomes?5. Based on this learning experience, make adecision on whether and how to upscale it tothe whole city. Checklist Sufficient human resources to work with SUTP issues exists Sufficient know-how to work with SUTP issues exists Opportunities to learn and to exchange experiences are offered to staff Politicians are involved in capacity building on SUTP issues There is a systematic approach to increase knowledge and experience on sustainable transport issues within the organisation exists (e.g., by pilot projects that can be scaled up) Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  26. 26. Promoting a new way of thinking in Örebro The common view on sustainable transport respect, the SUTP template has been a very was not so strong in Örebro when the SUTP good tool.” process started. To change the situation, the Meanwhile, it is important to look around at city has used different measures. A capac- what others are doing beyond the municipal ity-building assessment was carried out in a borders. “It is very important to provide our working group as part of the self-assessment, decision-makers with very practical, good ex- identifying the knowledge gaps among the amples that have already been tested.” employees. The finding was that the munici- pality has a good knowledge of transport-re- International cooperation has become more lated issues in detail but on various narrow important in this process. During the past fields. few years, Örebro has focused on exchang-26 ing experiences. Study visits are an important “For many professionals a more holistic way part of that work. “On a national level, we of thinking can be a bit of a revolution”, says are trying to build up an informal network for Per Elvingson, who started as a process man- sustainable transport among cities of our own ager for sustainable transport soon after the size in the region,” Elvingson says. assessment. To facilitate the implementation of Sustainable Urban Transport, a special unit – also respon- sible for raising the awareness among employ- ees and politicians – has been set up. The unit has, among other things, planned seminars focusing on the reduced need for cars through spatial planning. In general, a new way of thinking is the key. “It must be established, especially among key persons, to make the process more powerful.Planning process An important part of capacity-building has been getting all key staff to agree on a com- mon analysis of the current situation. In this Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  27. 27. 2.7 The name of the game – Scope and definition How Why The scope of the SUTP must be carefully con- key stakeholders with whom agreement will be The scope and definition of the SUTP will sidered against existing plans, policies and strat- necessary to achieve many of the sustainability vary depending on the local spatial, demo- egies to ensure that any duplication or overlap is objectives in the SUTP. graphic, economic, transport, mobility and avoided. It may be appropriate to carry out a gap Municipalities should consider the environ- social characteristics. It will also vary with analysis between existing plans etc so that the mental and other impacts of the transport that the guidance given by each national govern- SUTP processes and principles can be adopted arise from their procurement policies: deliveries; ment, the competencies given to the mu- and integrated during the revision of existing travel to work by pupils, patients, staff and poli- nicipalities and the legal role of national plans and strategies. This gap analysis will advise ticians; fleets, contract and subcontractors’ vehi- transport agencies etc. The scope and defi- the changes that are required (new polices, new cles, etc. As a major employer and the political nition of the SUTP is a function of the local actions etc) and ensure a smooth transparent leadership for the municipality, the municipality decisions that are taken on future visions, transformation from the existing strategies to as an organisation has an obligation to have a objectives and targets. the SUTP. The relationships between the SUTP comprehensive understanding of the impact of and other corporate strategies and plans should The scope of the SUTP is central to the its policies and practice on the transport of the be explicitly recorded and agreed by the political process that has to be put in place to deliver city. the plan. Since the urban transport system leadership. 27 does not end at the municipality borders it The SUTP is a strategic document with a long is crucial to keep the whole functional ur- term perspective. It is also a working document, ban area in mind when identifying both the where the continuing relevance of the policies scope and definition of the SUTP. Clearly and the successes of actions is monitored and defined geographical, organisational and evaluated -through annual or biannual reports. technical boundaries to the SUTP are re- The work with SUTP is a dynamic process grad- quired if it is to be effective. ually developing a sustainable transport system over time; it is not a static master plan. The scope of the SUTP must include consid- eration of the transport movements going into and out of the administrative boundary of the municipality. The geographical boundary of the SUTP should include the ‘functional urban area’ so that commuting and other transport flows travelling into and out of the urban area are included in the SUTP. Consequently an SUTP can only be prepared with the active par- ticipation of the neighbouring municipalities, regional bodies and national bodies. These are Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  28. 28. There is also an obligation to manage the sig- nificant aspects. Environmental Management Systems (EMS), e.g., ISO14001 or Eco Mana- gement and Audit Scheme (EMAS), provide a tool for organisations to understand and man- age the significant direct and indirect environ- mental aspects of their activities and polices. The benefits of using an EMS should be explored as part of their SUTP management system. Those cities that have overall sustainable de- velopment strategy with a long-term perspec- tive can embed the SUTP within this strategy. In such cases, SUTP can be integrated into a city’s overall management system such as the Integrated Management System (as devel-28 oped in Managing Urban Europe-25 project, www.mue25.net) or Environmental Manage- ment System (such as EMAS, ISO14001, ecoBUDGET© or similar). Checklist The area that the SUTP covers is clearly defined The scope of the SUTP is clearly defined Topics and development areas for the SUTP are clearly definedPlanning process Other policies and plans that are part of or are linked with the SUTP are transparent Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  29. 29. Similar challenges, different scale 29The small resort city of Pärnu initiated their As a result of the process, not only the scope and Pärnu has taken the most important first stepsSUTP process from scratch in 2006. “Pärnu’s definition of Pärnu SUTP has been set but also to get started with the development of a sus-challenge has been to define and scope the a common vision for the whole functional city tainable urban transport. It has been possibleconcept of SUTP to meet the needs of a region has been derived. “Making the quality of by agreeing on the SUTP scope and defini-small town that has some of the same chal- urban environment and living better is the key tion in cooperation with the cross-sectorallenges as bigger cities but on a different scale”, for Pärnu in the future”, Kukk says. stakeholders and together with a transnationalsays Grete Kukk, Senior Specialist for Urban experience exchange. Although there is still a The SUTP scope and definition are set to theDevelopment in Pärnu. long way to go, the most important thing is same targets. Therefore, the scope is to diminish to get started.Transnational cooperation on SUTP develop- the use of cars by developing a fair, accessiblement has made the city realize the need for and attractive public transport system, by de-a cross-sectoral approach in transport plan- veloping concrete bicycle policy for the city andning, especially the need to integrate land-use by handling the seasonal transport problems ac-and transport planning. On the local level, a companied by tourists.number of specialists and stakeholders fromvarious fields have been involved in the coop-eration to make the definition and scope forthe Pärnu SUTP. Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  30. 30. 2.8 Starting position – Baseline review Why To be able to reach your goals, you first need to know your starting position. A starting point for successful SUTP work is a baseline review, an honest description of the city’s current transport situation. A baseline review will give the city a clear picture of the current transport situation and how sustainable it is. It will provide a review of effectiveness of existing processes to man- age the transport; it will identify the drivers that influence traffic development and the impacts of traffic. A baseline review is the starting point for the SUTP process from30 which it is possible to move to the target- How setting, action plan and monitoring, etc. The baseline review needs to be based on exist- The basic self-assessment for making the base- ing data, and as all cities already have some data line review has four elements; sets this activity can be carried out quickly and 1. Municipality profile early. It is important to understand the different functions and characteristics of data sets, how 2. Drivers particular data sets are used to measure pres- 3. Impacts sures/drivers; the state of the mobility/transport: 4. SUTP benchmark (plans, policies and how some data sets are used to deduce trends actions) and are used for modelling and forecasting. Completing a baseline review requires the nec- essary resources to be in place that allow the data The baseline review identifies successes and the sets to be collated, reviewed and decisions to be potential for improvement in the SUT planning taken on how they are used to inform policy se- process and transport system. It also helps the lection/refinement and adoption. The selection city to identify the ‘drivers’ and ‘impacts’ of the of data sets needs to be based on criteria that mobility and transport system and its develop- are agreed on with stakeholders, who are then ment. The baseline review identifies those geo-Planning process actively involved in contributing data. graphical areas and transport modes where tar- gets for sustainable urban transport should be agreed. It also sets the baseline for continuous Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
  31. 31. monitoring of the city’s urban transport with scription is contrast against the ‘ideal’ character-clear indicators and targets. The baseline review istics of the SUTP benchmark.can be carried out internally within the city by Through the internal self-assessment process, aself-assessment process, but combining the self- city will complete an initial analysis of the gapassessment with external peer review can add between its existing plans and policies and theadditional value to the process. The baseline re- SUTP benchmark. To continue the self-assess-view allows actions to be prioritised and to then ment process with an external peer review willmonitor the effects on relevant indicators. enable the city to have more revealing and valu-The most demanding element is to compare the able gap analysis of their performance and thepresent situation with the one described in the benchmark.benchmark. The purpose is to describe the exist-ing collected plans, strategies, actions, and tar-gets of the city and the gap between them andthe SUTP benchmark. The description in thebenchmark is called a ‘gap analyses’. It explainsthe differences between the current practise in 31the city and the SUTP benchmark. The bench-mark describes the characteristics that should beevident within a SUTP. It is an ideal that thecities are moving towards and can compare theirperformance with. It is important to recognisethe benchmark as aspirational, representing anentirely new way of thinking and working to ad-dress sustainable urban transport. There are fewmunicipalities in Europe that can evidence allthe characteristics within the benchmark.The first part of the benchmark invites the cityto describe the processes that have been used inpreparing their plans, strategies, actions, and tar-gets. This description is made against the ‘ideal’characteristics of the benchmark for preparingSUT planning.The second part of this benchmark invites thecity to describe the cumulative content of theirplans, strategies, actions, and targets. This de- Moving Sustainably - Guide to Sustainable Urban Transport Plans
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