Service Learning in Belize: ANRI Seedling House Andrea Love, Tandie Bailey, Jessica House, Douglas Wolf Capstone for Minor in Sustainability Department of Agriculture, Food and Life Sciences ANRI The New Seedling House Sustainability • The Agriculture Natural Resource Institute (ANRI) is a secondary • Nine students from the University of Arkansas with various backgrounds worked together to plan, design, and build the new seedling • Managed System: education institution specifically focused around agricultural house for ANRI. • This system concentrates on the life cycle assessment of raw education. It is located just outside Dangriga, Belize. • The location of the seedling house was determined by ANRI staff, which would be located behind their gardens and greenhouse. materials to finished products. • Four treated lumber posts were placed at the corners of the structure to ensure stability while additional posts and support beams were • Th h The house will enhance th plant production lif ill h the l t d ti lifecycle. Thi iis l This • The school rests on 240 acres, in the midst of citrus fields and placed in strategic places to keep the structure sound. obtained by allowing to seedlings to be grown in an jungle and is about a thirty-minute drive from Dangriga down a • PVC pipe was used to build the concave-shaped roof, which would support the netting that covered the seedling house. The structure was environment independent of pests and extreme weather. With bumpy, country road. They raise pigs, chickens, rabbits, and an fitted with the netting from roof to floor and secured in a manner so that it could be removed before severe weather, such as hurricanes. an enhanced chance of survival, the reproduction is possible for assortment of vegetable crops, including okra, sweet peppers, • Gravel was placed inside the structure to level the floor and also atop of the netting on the ground to keep it secure from the wind. many years, providing long term self sufficiency. hot peppers, tomatoes, and beans, all on just 30 acres of • A double door was constructed for further protection against insect infiltration. • The netting used on the house was also UV and pest resistant production. • Four tables were constructed to hold the seedlings off the ground. Each table holds ten seedling trays, totaling forty available trays for which will increase the health of the seedlings as well as plant production. The original seedling structure only supported eleven trays. eliminating negative externalities caused by the use of chemical • A functioning seedling house is important to ANRI because they pesticides. use much of what they grow for school lunch. They also send lunch some of the vegetables home with their students. • Built Systems: • involves the design and construction of buildings, including related infrastructure, in connection with the use of natural resources and environmental health. • The materials used were locally available, relevant goods. • The structure was designed to maximize seedling protection in The Old Seedling House several ways. For example, double door entrance and treated netting without the use of chemical pesticides. • The floor plan design maximizes usable space in the structure. p g p • The house was constructed in a way that the netting and the First day of work at ANRI constructing Completed table for the seedling seedling trays could be removed and kept from damage in Brady Long finishing up the severe weather conditions, thus preserving the usability of the the support posts. house seedling house structure for many years to come. Results • It took a week to complete the seedling house structure. It’s finished dimensions were fourteen feet wide by twenty-four feet long by eight feet high. The Original Seedling House at ANRI They will be able to hold forty seedling trays compared to the eleven from the previous seedling table use from 2008. Since 2008, the students had been using a temporary structure made of rough lumber supports and a thatched roof. Because there Reflections were no walls, their small tray of seedlings were covered loosely in • In no other study abroad program are you as a student able to netting, held up by an unsteady piece of PVC pipe. This seedling learn through service or asked to look a global issue in the face table was insufficient for the school’s needs in several ways: and have the opportunity to solve it. Students are given responsibility and asked to step up as leaders. • The table was small and only held a limited number of seedlings. • The netting was not attached tightly to the structure so the • Sustainability is difficult to fully achieve. Getting everybody to seedlings were still vulnerable to pests. agree on something takes constant communication and the ability g g y to compromise; however, the end results far outweigh the The Ministry of Agriculture in Belize provided the basic design for the Completed seedling house being inspected Inside the house with the completed Completed house with all participating UA obstacles and complications. seedling house. It was our job to identify cost effective materials to by ANRI staff seedling tables students and ANRI 3rd form class build the structure and to create seedling boxes that optimized production of seedlings in the structure. Sustainability • Social Systems: Acknowledgements • involves the social behaviors, interactions, and dynamics in relationship to environmental sustainability. • Dr. Jennie Popp advised the project. • Most Dangriga farmers purchase seedlings from the government run Central Farm. Seedlings are costly, varieties are limited and sometimes • Mr Derick Clare, the principal of ANRI requested the seedling Mr. Clare unavailable when needed. house and worked diligently with the UA to see the project through. • The seedling structure at ANRI directly serves students and faculty and also has the potential to benefit the surrounding community as well if • Mrs. Francelia Linarez, the Vice Principal helped the UA students ANRI chose to have a seedling market. with any issue they had and was incredibly helpful throughout the • The seedling structure is an appropriate, reliable space for sustainable agriculture learning to occur. Having such an experience in school could entire project. The Proposed Seedling House from the Ministry of Agriculture help young graduates of ANRI better manage their own farms, thus leading to better production, and possible social mobility. • Jeff Lieberman and Hannah Huntley, the University of Arkansas’ • There is a community investment across the board, which leads us to believe that the seedling structure will continue to be useful to ANRI and Peacework Village Initiative representatives, arranged for the empower the local community for many years to come. communication between ANRI and the agriculture team.POSTER TEMPLATE BY:www.PosterPresentations.com
INTEGRATED PASTURED POULTRY INFRASTRUCTURE Carolina K. Proudfoot Capstone For Minor Sustainability, Department of Agriculture, Food and Life SciencesI Sustainable Agriculture Design and Building Sustainable AgricultureIntegrated sustainable agriculture needs experimentation Sustainable agriculture will be the way of the future. Worldwidestations. Infrastructure must be developed and implemented to Design is exceedingly important to the development of sustainable infrastructure. The first rule of sustainable farming is you populations continue to increase currently we are able to feedexecute this much-needed research. The integrated pasture must sustain the farmer this primarily means all infrastructure must be designed in a manner to allow the farmer to perform everyone on the planet however, in the future the green revolutionpoultry infrastructure project created the infrastructure needed to maintenance and managerial tasks as easily as possible. will not be enough. Best management practices must be developedexecute a pasture poultry system within an orchard. The to improve degraded soils, so that they can once again beinfrastructure and management system that were created will The brooder house was designed to have easy access side doors for changing fears and waters. The brooder house can house productive agricultural land to feed the world’s growingallow for the long-term study of soil quality and fertility, as well 100 chicks for approximately 2 weeks. This house also doubles a breeding house that can hold 15 adult chickens. This house population. As the US civilization moves into the future we mustas the ability to determine whether or not this integrated system was constructed on an old 6’ x 8’ trailer. find ways to do more with less agriculturally. The other majorcan cut down on the carbon inputs needed in traditional orchard problem facing conventional agriculture today is peak oil, as oilmanagement. The finishing house was designed without a floor so that all the manure will be directly deposited on the ground. This reduces prices increase so does the cost of most conventional agricultural the amount of litter needed as well as reducing the amount of time it takes to clean out the house. Once the chickens have production methods. Systems as well as agricultural methods must fouled the inside of the house the house can simply be moved to a new clean location. The light weight design enables one evolve so that current agricultural production levels can be person to do this, the finishing households approximately, 50 chickens for six weeks and measures 4 x 10’ at the base. maintained using fewer fossil fuel inputs. This project is an attempt to create the infrastructure needed to study an alternative The laying hen house must be portable to avoid erosion issues and have easy access clean out doors to encourage good agricultural management practice that could prove to be highly management and sanitary living conditions for the chickens. Another requirement for the henhouse is that it is on wheels so, it sustainable increasing soil quality and fertility as well as can be easily moved by three people. Laying boxes are located on the outside of the house for easy egg collection. This laying decreasing carbon inputs needed in fruit orchard production. henhouse was designed to house 75 laying hens and measures 6’ x 24’ it comes apart into two 6 x 12’ sections to make moving Without this meaningful research we will not be able to develop it through the orchard trees easier. agriculture in a manner to sustain future population increases. movable brooder house on pasture Freedom Ranger check 3 day old Materials There are three types of chicken houses needed to conductthis study a brooder house, for starting all baby chickens orchicks. Once the birds are old enough to go out to pasture theirhousing is determined by the purpose of the bird. Laying hens full-grown broilers broiler finishing houseand broilers have different housing requirements. The layinghens will then go into a movable henhouse equipped with roostand laying boxes. The broilers will go into a finishing house this Future Planshouse has no floor so that the broilers manure is deposited Future system upgrades will consist of:directly onto the ground. solar powered fence charger Installation of caster wheels to frame of henhouse completed henhouse • rainwater collection system on henhouse and on brooder house • solar panels for laying hens Recycled materials were used on 75 to 80% of all of theconstruction on the houses. The building materials were Management Plan The future soils research will be conducted over a two-year period.reclaimed from conventional poultry houses that no longer met The management plan for the broilers consisted of two weeks in the brooder house. At two weeks of age the broilers moved into the The first soil samples were taken from the orchard before theindustry standards. These recycled materials made the finishing house. Finishing house should be moved every morning and every evening. The fence should be moved every 2 to 3 days chickens were put into the orchard. This initial sampling will allowinfrastructure more affordable. depending on the amount of manure the broilers are producing. The broilers had 23 hours of light a day as well as 24-hour access to water for a baseline to compare with future soil tests. and an antibiotic hormone free conventional feed with a 28% protein content and compost.. The broilers butchered and eight weeks at the Electric fencing is easily moved around the pasture as well as D.A.R.P. processing facility in Tahlequah Oklahoma. The broilers produced a 3 ½ to 4 pound carcass. Comparisons will also be drawn from the inputs to the orchardbeing the best defense against predators. The electric fence before and after chickens. These inputs consist of fertilizers,charger is powered using solar panels. Solar panels will also Laying hens were allotted a 40’ x 40’ square around their chicken house. Laying hens should the let out at dawn encouraging them to forage insecticides and overall fuel cost for application. Productioneventually be installed to maintain the 15 hour light for insects while they are still in the top of the soil profile. Feed should be provided around 10 o’clock in the morning. Laying hens have numbers will also be collected to determine whether or not therequirements for laying hens to achieve maximum production. specific nutritional requirements so a layer feed should be used with at least an 18% protein content. The house should be cleaned out weekly and moved biweekly along with the fence. Moving the chicken house and the yard will prevent the chickens from scratching the orchard became more productive before or after the chickens wereUnfortunately solar lighting is not an option for broilers at this added to the orchard.time the wattage requirements for heat lamps is cost prohibitive ground bear leading to potential erosion.to use solar panels to generate enough power required for the Soil changes slowly over time this is why it is so important toheat lamps which are needed for the first several weeks of Managing both broilers and laying hens have two separate benefits to the orchard. Broiler manure is higher and nitrogen, however laying hens are more active potentially making them better at weed and bug control. Using both types of poultry could potentially lead to the begin the studies now so that new methods can be developed thatgrowth. diminishment of chemical fertilizers and pesticides needed in traditional orchard management as well as increasing soil quality and fertility. will increase soil quality and fertility for future generations.
University of Arkansas Vehicle Research Project Clark Rogers Capstone for Minor in Sustainability Department of Agriculture, Food and Life Science Parking on Campus The Outcome Sustainability• I have gathered information from the UofA parking and transit facility of all vehicles registered on campus from Fayettev Student ille Campus Car Type Car Data Vech Count Ye a r 2009-2010 6,659 2010-2011 7,484 2011-2012 7,875 Gra nd Tota l 22,018 • Social Systems Year % 36.8% 38.4% 39.3% 38.2% SUV Vech Count 3,615 4,232 4,299 12,146 the past 3 years. No Vech Type Year % Vech Count Year % 20.0% 2,023 11.2% 21.7% 1,751 9.0% 21.4% 2,167 10.8% 21.1% 5,941 10.3% • People tend to buy vehicles based on looks Student Vehicle Truck Vech Count 1,615 2,149 1,825 5,589 +16.7% Motorcycle Year % Vech Count Year % 8.9% 7 0.0% 11.0% 7 0.0% 9.1% 17 0.1% 9.7% 31 0.1% or the size that best fits them.• You will see that the student enrollment is continuously Scooter Vech Count Year % 3 0.0% 9 0.0% 4 0.0% 16 0.0% • Students and Faculty will now have Stude nt Ve ch Count 13,922 15,632 16,187 45,741 Stude nt Ye a r % 76.9% 80.3% 80.7% 79.4% growing each year. Which means more traffic and more Faculty Car Vech Count Year % 1,833 10.1% 1,568 8.1% 1,628 8.1% 5,029 8.7% different opinions of vehicles driven on SUV Vech Count 1,008 926 1,024 2,958 vehicles on campus. Year % 5.6% 4.8% 5.1% 5.1% No Vech Type Vech Count 807 745 649 2,201 Faculty Vehicle Year % 4.5% 3.8% 3.2% 3.8% - 7.7% Truck Motorcycle Vech Count Year % Vech Count 536 3.0% 1 602 3.1% 559 2.8% 6 1,697 2.9% 7 campus. Year % 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%• Scooter Vech Count 2 2 It is important to recognize that if enrollment continues to Faculty Vech Count Faculty Year % Year % 0.0% 4,187 23.1% 0.0% 3,841 19.7% 0.0% 3,866 19.3% 0.0% 11,894 20.6% • Students and Faculty will think of taking Tota l Ve ch Count 18,109 19,473 20,053 57,635 grow then we will not have enough space for students to Tota l Ye a r % 10, 000 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% different types of transportation. 9, 000 park on campus. 8, 000 7, 000 • People when purchasing a new vehicle will 6, 000 5, 000 4, 000 3, 000 2, 000• The graph below indicates that the student population 1, 000 0 now hopefully choose one with great fuel No Vech Type No Vech Type No Vech Type SUV SUV SUV Car Car Car Truck Truck Truck and the student vehicle count is steadily increasing each 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 efficiency. F acility Student year. • Vehicle count on campus is likely to decrease due to the student enrollment 25,000 population. 7 of Every 10 Students have a vehicle Registered on campus •It is obvious that over the past 3 years the majority of students and faculty drive a car compared 20,000 to a SUV or Truck. • Restrictions on parking will be heavily enforced since enrollment is increasing. •SUV’s however are the second largest vehicle driven on campus by students and faculty. 15,000 •We are unaware of 5% of the vehicle models registered on campus. •I believe that the number of motorcycles and scooters is extremely low due to students and 10,000 faculty listing them by their make (ex. Honda, Yamaha, Kawasaki). What this means is that we Reflections are unable to identify whether or not it is a motorcycle or scooter. By all means I believe we have 5,000 a lot more motorcycles and scooters compared to what the graph shows. •The student vehicle count has increased 16.7% in 3 years. However, the faculty vehicle count 0 Student Enrolement 2009-2010 19,845 2010-2011 21,405 2011-2012 23,199 has decreased by 7.7% in 3 years. • I have realized not everyone is fortunate Student Vech Count 13,922 15,632 16,187 enough to pick any vehicle out they desire. Many students are handed down vehicles from brothers, sisters, parents and grandparents. Outlook The Methodology • Sustainability is a bold word. You do not become sustainable over one night. It takes Top 10 most common makes of vehicles on time and development to becoming a• Received an excel spreadsheet from the parking and sustainable community or person. Campus transit facility of vehicles registered on campus from the 3000 past 3 years. 2500 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 • By purchasing a vehicle with great fuel• Categorized each vehicle as either a Car, SUV, Truck or 2000 efficiency you will save money and no vehicle type for both students and faculty. 1500 reduce your carbon footprint. • I have honestly enjoyed working on this 1000• Started building charts in excel and comparing numbers 500 of Cars, SUVs, Trucks and no vehicle types registered on 0 project and have gained more skills to Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty Student Faculty campus. Chevrolet Ford Honda Toyota Nissan Jeep Dodge Hyundai General Motors Mazda living my life sustainably.• Began analyzing the numbers and realized how can the • Within the last 2 years I have purchased a UofA reduce the amount of traffic on campus if the •No matter the vehicle make, cars overall are the most fuel efficient. bicycle and chosen to take the public student vehicle count continues to rise each year. •Gas mileage for SUVs and Trucks vary depending on the make and model. transit to class more often.• To become a more sustainable campus I believe the UofA •If gas prices continue to increase I am hoping to see more students and faculty driving cars. in the future will have restrictions on who can park on • Biking or public transit is fun and you are campus. •If campus were to have smaller parking spots it would allow more room for parking and also not worrying about finding a parking spot decrease our amount of SUVs and Trucks. or awful traffic.
Thermal Performance and Environmental Impact of Sustainable Concrete Kyle Rookstool UA Sustainability Programs DESIGN BUILT ENVIRONMENT THE PROBLEM The structure is designed built as a large room SUSTAINABILITYSustainable development involves maintaining our with 4 identical compartments. Each one of thesecurrent rate of development while leaving suitable The Structure was compartments hold a Green Concrete slab each This investigation and its product has significantresources for later generations to continue developing. made out of with a different percentage of fly-ash in ratio with relevance to sustainability. The information,The production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a Structurally-Insulated- Ordinary Portland Concrete aggregate. design, and lessons learned will be disseminatedresource- and energy-intensive process consuming Panels (SIPS) whichapproximately 1.5 ton of raw materials and Panel 1: 0%FA- made design and to a broad ranging audience.producing approximately 1 ton of carbon dioxide 100%OPC building more efficient. The experimental building itself as an interface(CO2) for each ton of OPC produced. After erecting, the with the public will stand as a demonstration and Panel 2: 25%FA- are interchangeable for any future experiments. sample concrete example for the appreciation of fly ash as a waste 1 2 3 4 75%OPC Temporary appendages were built until further panels are put into by-product. building couldpanels place. These be done. From there the final Panel 3: 50%FA- construction sequence began. • The building is designed and built in a cost 50%OPC 1. Weather barriers were applied; house-wrap and effective, sustainable, and appealing way in 1 2 3 4 tar paper. emphasizing the sustainable built environment Panel 4: 75%FA- 2. Roof profile was thickened and pitched. • The data gathered will demonstrate the 25%OPC 3. Gutter was installed recessed as to not be seen. reduced impact on the natural systems. Fly-Ash Landfill www.ombwatch.org 4. Cedar rain screen installed. • The results obtained from this research will indicate the recommendation guidelinesGlobally, the production of OPC accounts for The Compartments are designed to separate related to best practice of mix and application The cedar rain screenapproximately between 5 to 7% of CO2 emissions each panel into its own thermal zone. Since the of green concrete for lesser environmental performs multiple tasks.into the atmosphere. entire inside will provide a control temperature • Provides a ventilation impact and preserved structural integrity.There are three main reasons to use fly ash as a that will effect each compartment the same way, cavity for evaporationsubstitute ingredient in concrete: the only surface that will be influenced individually • Provides a insulation• First, the reduction of disposal into landfills of the will be the concrete panel. The main room will be cavity. coal combustion products such as fly ash. kept at a constant temperature using a window• Second, it creates significant environmental benefits • Provides depth to an AC unit. It is constructed with a door and two• Third, it improves the quality of the finished product otherwise planar façade. typical windows in order to imitate a typical http://cpcbenvis.nic.in in terms of its properties. dwelling. http://ecosmartconcrete.com • (2) Standard The structure is outfitted with thermocouples. The Interior was wired with thermocouples, lighting, fluorescent lights for THE PROJECT Thermocouples are a wired pair of different and power. interior space. metals that, due to the difference of resistance will These thermocouples in • (2) Standard 120VThe purpose of this project is to evaluate the thermal outlets each metal, the temperature can be calculated. a be wired intoperformance of green concrete based on benchmark • (1) Specialty AC outletdevelopments related to this material. By measuring multiplexer, this allows for • (27) thermocouple THE FUTURE many thermocouples to be runsthe thermal resistance of concrete panels with differentpercentages of fly ash, gathering, and analyzing the run. The multiplexer is run • Powered by external This Project provides an environment to cater todata, we will be able to determine the thermal efficiency to the data logger which Troy-Bilt 7000 watt similar future investigations. Now, any sampleof each panel and the contribution of this ingredient. gathers the information generator. panel may be placed in and data gathered. FutureWith that data, specifications can be made to better produced from the investigations may include:inform the use of fly-ash in concrete. The project is thermocouples and sends The thermocouples are wired an many different points. Currently, there are 3 on the outside of each • Fiber-reinforced fly-ash concretecomprised of 3 stages: it back to the computer. Once the data is gathered panel, 3 on the inside of the chamber, and 3 on the • Aerated fly-ash Concrete1. Retrofit an existing structure for testing the panels. • Insulated Panel with fly-ash concrete in the computer it is main interior. However, the capability for running2. Assemble and configure data-logging equipment for calculated and put into more thermocouples exists for the future. The information from these experiments can structure. graphs that make it easier make headway in implementing fly-ash in3. Develop the structure into a pleasing design, to read as well as concrete for the future. With the thermal data on suitable for the public eye. organize. fly-ash concrete the restraints of structure vs. Type T: Thermocouple thermal can be refined. By narrowing those http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ Courtesy UC/CITRIS (copper–constantan) restraints we can eliminate waste. It takes being informed about a product to make the most This poster was prepared in partial fulfillment of SUST 4103 Sustainability Capstone accurate decision. By providing this information we may increase the implementation and use of fly-ash therefore resulting in less waste, less pollution due OPC production, and a better environment.