Effectiveness and Change in School Organization F. Javier Murillo
I. School Effectiveness Research
Sammons, P., Hillman, J., & Mortimore, P. (1995). Key characteristics of effective schools: a review of school effectiveness research . London: OFSED and Institute of Education.
II. School Improvement Movement
Muijs, D., Harris, A., & Chapman, C. (2004). Improving Schools in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas--A Review of Research Evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149-175.
III. Effective School Improvement
Murillo, F.J. (2004). A comprehensive framework for effective school improvement. Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa, 21, 319-360.
I. School Efectiveness Research I.1. Definition and characteristics I.2. History I.3. School Effects I.4. Factors of Effectiveness I.5. Models of Effectiveness
I.1. School Effectiveness Research
To study of School Effects and their scientific properties
To identify factors than make an effective school
To elaborate Models of School Effectiveness
That in which all and each one of its students obtains an integral development further than might be expected considering theirs socio-economical and cultural background.
Value added: considering theirs socio-economical and cultural background.
Equity: all and each one of its students
Integral development as product
Effective school is…
Stage 1. The beginning: Coleman Report and their re-analysis
1966 - Coleman Report: “School don’t matter”
Quantitative research with big samples.
Aim: Estimate the size of school effects.
Stage 2. The first researches on effective schools.
Case studies on effective schools: a qualitative approach
First results on characteristics of effective schools
I.2. A brief history
Stage 3. Consolidation of School Effectiveness Research
Macro-research, with big samples
Link with effective instruction
Results applied to improving schools
Stage 4. Research of third generation: Multilevel studies.
Use of Multilevel Models.
Qualitative and quantitative approach
Models of School Effectiveness
Present and Future: Effective School Improvement?
I.3. School Effects
More in Math than in Literacy
More in Primary than in Secondary
Non significant in socio/affective outcomes
I.4. Factors for Effective Schools
The school effectiveness is not the sum of isolated elements.
The schools that have been able to be effective have a special form to be, to think and to act: an effectiveness culture.
Nevertheless, so that a deficiency is generated in effectiveness is sufficient that some of the key elements fails seriously.
The activity factors do not have sense of isolated form, but like a whole, and are only elements for the reflection.
1. Professional leadership
Effective leader exercise an indirect but powerful influence on the effectiveness of schools and on the students’ achievement
Firm and purposeful
A participative approach
The leading professional
2. Shared vision and goals
Unity of purpose
Consistency of practice
Collegiality and collaboration
3. School climate
The most important school factor:
An orderly atmosphere
An attractive working environment
Absence of violence
4. Maximisation of learning time
Maximisation of school time
Maximisation of classroom time
5. Purposeful teaching
Preparation of lessons
Clarity of purpose
Varied activities, participatory and active
Use of ICT and traditional resources
6. High expectations
High expectation all around
Providing intellectual challenge
7. Monitoring progress
Monitoring pupil performance
Evaluating school performance
8. Home-school partnership
Parental involvement in their children’s learning
9. A learning organisation
School-based school development
I.5. Models of School Effectiveness
They leave from a sistemic vision of the school:
Shows the interaction between the elements and its reciprocal relations
Multinivel vision: student, classroom, school and context.
Departure point the learning of the student.
They gather not only the results of the empirical research, but also hypothetical factors
An integrated model of school effectiveness (Scheerens, 1992)
Teacher experience docente
Per pupil expenditure
Accievement stimulants from administrative levels
Develop ob educacional consumerism
“ Covariables”, sucha as school size, sutudent-body composition, school category, urban/rural
Degree of achievement-oriented policy
Consensus, cooperative planning of teachers
Quality of school curricula
A nivel de aula
Time on task (including homework)
Opportinutuy to learn
High expectation of pupils’ progress
Degree of eveluation and monitoring of pupils’ progress
Student achievement adjusted for:
Contexto Escuela Aula Alumno Calidad : política enfocada a la eficacia: política de evaluación; sistema de información y apoyo; financiación según resultados. Tiempo : orientación nacional para horarios; supervisión de horarios. Oportunidad : orientación nacional del currículo. Calidad educativa: reglas y acuerdos sobre la enseñanza en el aula; política de evaluación/sistema de evaluación. Calidad organizativa : política de coordinación, supervisión, profesionalización; cultura escolar que lleva a la eficacia. Tiempo : horarios, normas sobre uso del tiempo; entorno tranquilo. Oportunidad : currículo escolar; consenso sobre la misión; normas y acuerdos sobre cómo implementar el currículo escolar. Calidad del currículo : explicitación de metas y contenidos; organizadores previos; evaluación; enseñanza correctiva. Proceds. agrupación : Mastery Learning; agrupación por capacidades... Comportamientos del profesor : clima ordenado; deberes; altas expectativas; metas claras; estructuración del contenido; claridad de presentación; ejercicios; evaluación; enseñanza correctiva. Tiempo y oportunidades para aprender Coherencia Constancia Supervisión Coherencia Cohesión Constancia Supervisión Coherencia Destrezas básicas Destrezas de orden superior Destrezas metacognitivas Tiempo tarea Oportunidades utilizadas Motivación Aptitudes Antecedentes sociales COMPONENTES DE CALIDAD, TIEMPO Y OPORTUNIDAD NIVELES Creemers (1994) Criterios formales para la eficacia
Model for School effectiveness (Murillo, 2008) Resources Family engagement Monitonig and evaluation Professional development Instruction Climate Leadership Sense of community Student AULA School CONTEXT
Concept and features
Factors of change
The process of change
Strategies for change
School Improvement is…
Planned and systematic a change, coordinated and assumed by the school that it aim increase the quality of the institution by means of a modification of the teaching and learning processes and its organization.
Focus in the school
There is a systematic vision for the change
It implies all the school community.
It pretend to modify so much the of teaching and learning education processes and learning like the school organization.
Its final aim is to increase the quality of the school and the teachers
1. Antecedents: decade of the pedagogical optimism
Reaction to the impelled reforms of curricular and organizational character from outside in the 60.
Model: Investigation -> Development -> Diffusion -> Adoption (IDDA)
In spite of the invested resources, the innovations were very little.
All the innovations had a common pattern.
The teachers were passives consumers.
The values and goals of the school did not have any function in the process of the change.
Did not recognize change in the participants
A brief History…
2. First generation of school improvement programs
Key - Idea : the school must be the center of the key change
To give importance to the organization and to the cultural processes
The more effective strategies of change were teacher trainning adapted to each school
Support to the classroom from external agents of change
To gather ideas of other projects of change
To make a continuous monitoring of the process of change
Participation of the teaching staff in the decision making
3. Second generation of programs
Phase of the management of the change or capacity for the change
Collective Learning: The schools will not improve if the teachers do not improve individual and collectively.
Participation of the community: The good schools have forms to work that they stimulate the participation of the school community, specially of the students.
Vision: The successful center that develops change knows a clearly vision of such.
Shared leadership: In the centers that improve, the leader shares information and responsibilities.
Team work and coordination: It is necessary to foment the formal and informal contacts of the educational ones.
Self-reflection: The center considers the questioning and the reflection important elements of the school.
Planning: A careful planning can help to turn the future desirable of the school, the vision, in improvement priorities, to order those priorities in the time and to maintain the attention on the practice of the classroom.
Attention to fundamental conditions of school culture
Commitment to a few key goals
Engagement in a ongoing, dynamic process
Getting a fix on current reality
The significance of monitoring and evaluation
Some key characteristics:
7. A focus on teaching and the improvement of learning
8. Recognition that each school is unique
9. The reality of multiple innovations and the need for interconnections
10. The benefits of a support infrastructure
11. The fundamental question of impact
12. The developmental nature of a process of change
or mobilization or adoption:
Consists of the process that leads up and includes a decision to adopt or proceed with a change
Include the initial assessment or diagnosis
Factors associated with initiation
Existence and quality of innovations
Access to information
Advocacy from Central Administration
External Change Agents
New Policy – Funds
Problem-solving and Bureaucratic Orientations
Involves the first experience of attempting to put an idea into practice
Tips to develop the improvement planning
Involve al staff in the process
Set up a structure to enable all staff to be included
Build a vision of that you are traing to achieve
Write a mission statement
Don’t set the plan in tables of stone!
Link vision building and planning activities
Be willing to learn by making mistakes
Factors affecting implementation
1. Characteristics of change
Need - Clarity
Complexity - Quality/Practicality
2. Local Characteristics
District - Community
Principal - Teacher
3. External Factors
Refer to whether the change gets built in as an ongoing part of the system or disappears by way of a decision to discard or though attrition
It depend on whether or not the changes gets embedded or built into the structure
Through policy, budget, timetable
1. School Culture
Unless we direct the attention to the school culture… It will be difficult that an improvement of the school is really obtained (Hopkins, Ainscow y West, 1994)
Coherence between saying and doing
Collective commitment of the community
Global high expectations
Ten cultural norms underpin successful school improvement:
Shared Goals: “we know where we’re going ”
Responsibility for success: “ we must succeed ”
Collegiality: “ we’re working on this together ”
Continuous improvement: “ We can get better ”
Lifelong learning: “ learning is for everyone ”
Risk taking: “ we learn by trying something new ”
Support: “ there’s always someone the to help ”
Mutual respect: “ everyone has something to offer ”
Openness: “ we can discuss our differences ”
Celebration and humour: “ we feel good about ourselves ”
2. Focus on Teaching and learning
A clear focus on a limited number of goals
It can be encouraged by training staff in specific teaching methods at start of the school’s improvement effort
Creating consistency in teaching approach
A leadership for the change has to be able of:
To have vision: capacity to imagine a future and to design the steps to obtain it.
To mobilize the teaching staff and to obtain their implication and commitment are the process.
To plan the change process.
To facilitate the cultural, curricular and organization transformations necessary in the change.
To evaluate and to give reinforcement on the results of the process to the participants.
Of managing the conflicts and problems that could take place
Collaborative and distributive
4. Building a Learning Community
Characteristics of the organizations who learn:
They treat to the professors like professionals.
The students are not standardized and education is not a routine.
It is necessary to be constantly learning to improve in the performance.
They foment that the teaching staff learns offering opportunities for it.
They stimulate the leadership of the teaching staff and the participation.
They foment the collaboration for the improvement.
They develop forms to initiate, to include and to harness to the new members of the organization.
It is developed within its local, regional and national context.
They work to change what matters
Work hard in the small questions
5. Continuous Professional Development
Improving schools spend more time and effort on professional development than stable schools.
Key Elements forma effective staff development:
Practical relevant information
An element of theory, aimed and fostering deep understanding
Incorporating some element of demonstration likewise increases the effectiveness of training substantively
Combining these three makes an ever bigger difference
Coaching and feedback
6. Involving educational community
To foment the implication of the students in its process of learning
To obtain the commitment and the implication of the families
7. External support
Networks of schools than can support one another… providing:
leadership at many levels,
social and technical support,
sharing and generating of ideas,
disseminating good practices
creating larger professional learning communities
Effective School Improvement
The necessity of the fusion The theory must be useful it practical and to consider the knowledge generated by it The educative practice must be oriented by knowledge scientifically validated
School Effectiveness Research provided:
Direction towards the results
School Improvement Movement provides:
The practical way
Evidences to validate the theories
Contributions of the Effectiveness and the Improvement to the Effective school Improvement
Contributions of Effectiveness:
Focus on the results
Focus on the school organization
Emphasis in the fairness use of the data for the decision making
Understanding of which the school is the center of the change
Direction towards the quantitative methodology
Contributions of Improvement:
Focus on the processes
Direction towards the action and the development
Emphasis in the areas of improvement selected
Importance of the school culture
Importance of being centered in the teaching and learning processes
School like center of the change
Direction towards the qualitative methodology
Effective School Improvement is…
How a school can developed a change processes,
that increase the development of all the students,
optimizing the processes of teaching and learning and the organization of the school, and
apply that knowledge to a real improvement of the school.
A framework for Effective School Improvement Educational goals Pressure to improvement Resources for improvement The Improving school Improvement culture Improvement processes Improvement outcomes The educational context
Pressure to improve
External evaluation and accountability
Participation of society in educational/societal changes/educational policies which stimulate change
Resources/support for improvement
Autonomy granted to schools
Financial resources and favourable daily working conditions
Internal pressure to improve
Autonomy used by schools
Willingness to become a learning organisation
Assessment of improvement needs
Diagnosis of improvement needs
Setting of detail goals
Planning of improvement activities
Evaluation and reflection
Goals that are explicitiy written in terms of student outcomes
Golas are focused on change:
Materials used by students
A framework for Effective School Improvement Educational goal Pressure to improve Resources for improvement The Improving school Improvement culture Improvement processes Improvement outcomes The educational context
Ideas for the schools:
It is useful in the design, planning and implementation of school improvement.
It gives an overview of many factors that may promote or hinder effective school improvement
It can never prescribe how a specific school in should act, but it can help to indicate the starting points or issues for the reflection.
Ideas for the researchers:
It is important for further research in the field of effective school improvement
It can be used to generate hypothesis and to select variables that should be investigated and further operationalised.