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  • 1. Effectiveness and Change in School Organization F. Javier Murillo
  • 2. Contents
    • I. School Effectiveness Research
      • Sammons, P., Hillman, J., & Mortimore, P. (1995). Key characteristics of effective schools: a review of school effectiveness research . London: OFSED and Institute of Education.
    • II. School Improvement Movement
      • Muijs, D., Harris, A., & Chapman, C. (2004). Improving Schools in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas--A Review of Research Evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149-175.
    • III. Effective School Improvement
      • Murillo, F.J. (2004). A comprehensive framework for effective school improvement. Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa, 21, 319-360.
  • 3. I. School Efectiveness Research I.1. Definition and characteristics I.2. History I.3. School Effects I.4. Factors of Effectiveness I.5. Models of Effectiveness
  • 4. I.1. School Effectiveness Research
    • Three aims:
    • To study of School Effects and their scientific properties
    • To identify factors than make an effective school
    • To elaborate Models of School Effectiveness
  • 5.
    • That in which all and each one of its students obtains an integral development further than might be expected considering theirs socio-economical and cultural background.
    • Key characteristics:
      • Value added: considering theirs socio-economical and cultural background.
      • Equity: all and each one of its students
      • Integral development as product
    Effective school is…
  • 6.
    • Stage 1. The beginning: Coleman Report and their re-analysis
      • 1966 - Coleman Report: “School don’t matter”
      • Quantitative research with big samples.
      • Aim: Estimate the size of school effects.
    • Stage 2. The first researches on effective schools.
      • Case studies on effective schools: a qualitative approach
      • First results on characteristics of effective schools
    I.2. A brief history
  • 7.
    • Stage 3. Consolidation of School Effectiveness Research
      • Macro-research, with big samples
      • Quantitative approach
      • Link with effective instruction
      • Results applied to improving schools
    • Stage 4. Research of third generation: Multilevel studies.
      • Use of Multilevel Models.
      • Qualitative and quantitative approach
      • Models of School Effectiveness
    • Present and Future: Effective School Improvement?
  • 8. I.3. School Effects
    • Size:
      • Aprox 20%
      • More in Math than in Literacy
      • More in Primary than in Secondary
      • Non significant in socio/affective outcomes
  • 9. I.4. Factors for Effective Schools
    • The school effectiveness is not the sum of isolated elements.
    • The schools that have been able to be effective have a special form to be, to think and to act: an effectiveness culture.
    • Nevertheless, so that a deficiency is generated in effectiveness is sufficient that some of the key elements fails seriously.
    • The activity factors do not have sense of isolated form, but like a whole, and are only elements for the reflection.
  • 10.
    • 1. Professional leadership
    • Effective leader exercise an indirect but powerful influence on the effectiveness of schools and on the students’ achievement
      • Firm and purposeful
      • A participative approach
      • The leading professional
  • 11.
    • 2. Shared vision and goals
      • Unity of purpose
      • Consistency of practice
      • Collegiality and collaboration
  • 12.
    • 3. School climate
    • The most important school factor:
      • An orderly atmosphere
      • An attractive working environment
      • Good relationships
      • Absence of violence
  • 13.
    • 4. Maximisation of learning time
      • Avoid absenteeism
      • Maximisation of school time
      • Maximisation of classroom time
      • Classroom management
  • 14.
    • 5. Purposeful teaching
      • Preparation of lessons
      • Efficient organization
      • Clarity of purpose
      • Structured lessons
      • Adaptative practice
      • Varied activities, participatory and active
      • Use of ICT and traditional resources
  • 15.
    • 6. High expectations
      • High expectation all around
      • Communication expectations
      • Providing intellectual challenge
  • 16.
    • 7. Monitoring progress
      • Monitoring pupil performance
      • Evaluating school performance
  • 17.
    • 8. Home-school partnership
      • Parental involvement in their children’s learning
  • 18.
    • 9. A learning organisation
      • School-based school development
  • 19. I.5. Models of School Effectiveness
    • They leave from a sistemic vision of the school:
    • Shows the interaction between the elements and its reciprocal relations
    • Multinivel vision: student, classroom, school and context.
    • Departure point the learning of the student.
    • They gather not only the results of the empirical research, but also hypothetical factors
  • 20. An integrated model of school effectiveness (Scheerens, 1992)
    • Teacher experience docente
    • Per pupil expenditure
    • Parent support
    INPUT
    • Accievement stimulants from administrative levels
    • Develop ob educacional consumerism
    • “ Covariables”, sucha as school size, sutudent-body composition, school category, urban/rural
    CONTEXT
    • School level
    • Degree of achievement-oriented policy
    • Educational leadership
    • Consensus, cooperative planning of teachers
    • Quality of school curricula
    • Orderly atmosphere
    • Evaluative potential
    • A nivel de aula
    • Time on task (including homework)
    • Structured teaching
    • Opportinutuy to learn
    • High expectation of pupils’ progress
    • Degree of eveluation and monitoring of pupils’ progress
    • Reinforcement
    PROCESS
    • Student achievement adjusted for:
    • Previous achievement
    • Intelligence
    • SES
    PRODUCT
  • 21. Contexto Escuela Aula Alumno Calidad : política enfocada a la eficacia: política de evaluación; sistema de información y apoyo; financiación según resultados. Tiempo : orientación nacional para horarios; supervisión de horarios. Oportunidad : orientación nacional del currículo. Calidad educativa: reglas y acuerdos sobre la enseñanza en el aula; política de evaluación/sistema de evaluación. Calidad organizativa : política de coordinación, supervisión, profesionalización; cultura escolar que lleva a la eficacia. Tiempo : horarios, normas sobre uso del tiempo; entorno tranquilo. Oportunidad : currículo escolar; consenso sobre la misión; normas y acuerdos sobre cómo implementar el currículo escolar. Calidad del currículo : explicitación de metas y contenidos; organizadores previos; evaluación; enseñanza correctiva. Proceds. agrupación : Mastery Learning; agrupación por capacidades... Comportamientos del profesor : clima ordenado; deberes; altas expectativas; metas claras; estructuración del contenido; claridad de presentación; ejercicios; evaluación; enseñanza correctiva. Tiempo y oportunidades para aprender Coherencia Constancia Supervisión Coherencia Cohesión Constancia Supervisión Coherencia Destrezas básicas Destrezas de orden superior Destrezas metacognitivas Tiempo tarea Oportunidades utilizadas Motivación Aptitudes Antecedentes sociales COMPONENTES DE CALIDAD, TIEMPO Y OPORTUNIDAD NIVELES Creemers (1994) Criterios formales para la eficacia
  • 22. Model for School effectiveness (Murillo, 2008) Resources Family engagement Monitonig and evaluation Professional development Instruction Climate Leadership Sense of community Student AULA School CONTEXT
  • 23. School Improvement
    • Concept and features
    • Factors of change
    • The process of change
    • Strategies for change
  • 24. School Improvement is…
    • Planned and systematic a change, coordinated and assumed by the school that it aim increase the quality of the institution by means of a modification of the teaching and learning processes and its organization.
    • Characteristics:
        • Focus in the school
        • There is a systematic vision for the change
        • It implies all the school community.
        • It pretend to modify so much the of teaching and learning education processes and learning like the school organization.
        • Its final aim is to increase the quality of the school and the teachers
  • 25.
    • 1. Antecedents: decade of the pedagogical optimism
    • Reaction to the impelled reforms of curricular and organizational character from outside in the 60.
    • Model: Investigation -> Development -> Diffusion -> Adoption (IDDA)
    • Results:
    • In spite of the invested resources, the innovations were very little.
    • All the innovations had a common pattern.
    • The teachers were passives consumers.
    • The values and goals of the school did not have any function in the process of the change.
    • Did not recognize change in the participants
    A brief History…
  • 26.
    • 2. First generation of school improvement programs
    • Key - Idea : the school must be the center of the key change
    • Questions :
      • To give importance to the organization and to the cultural processes
      • Of seeing the results as problematic
      • Understand the school as a dynamic institution
      • Begins the preoccupation by the school culture
    • Model :
    • Initiation <-> Planning <-> Implementation <-> Evaluation <-> Institutionalization
  • 27.
    • Some learned lessons:
    • The more effective strategies of change were teacher trainning adapted to each school
    • Support to the classroom from external agents of change
    • To gather ideas of other projects of change
    • To make a continuous monitoring of the process of change
    • Participation of the teaching staff in the decision making
  • 28.
    • 3. Second generation of programs
    • Phase of the management of the change or capacity for the change
    • Some establishments:
      • Collective Learning: The schools will not improve if the teachers do not improve individual and collectively.
      • Participation of the community: The good schools have forms to work that they stimulate the participation of the school community, specially of the students.
      • Vision: The successful center that develops change knows a clearly vision of such.
  • 29.
    • Shared leadership: In the centers that improve, the leader shares information and responsibilities.
    • Team work and coordination: It is necessary to foment the formal and informal contacts of the educational ones.
    • Self-reflection: The center considers the questioning and the reflection important elements of the school.
    • Planning: A careful planning can help to turn the future desirable of the school, the vision, in improvement priorities, to order those priorities in the time and to maintain the attention on the practice of the classroom.
  • 30. Improvement process
    • Initiation <-> Implementation <-> Institutionalization <–> Outcomes
    • Assessment: Diagnosis of the school
    • Planning:
      • Objectives
      • Strategies
      • Activities
      • Responsibilities
      • Resources
    • Implementation
    • Evaluation
    • Institutionalization
  • 31.
    • Coordination of the process
    • Attention to fundamental conditions of school culture
    • Commitment to a few key goals
    • Engagement in a ongoing, dynamic process
    • Getting a fix on current reality
    • The significance of monitoring and evaluation
    Some key characteristics:
  • 32.
    • 7. A focus on teaching and the improvement of learning
    • 8. Recognition that each school is unique
    • 9. The reality of multiple innovations and the need for interconnections
    • 10. The benefits of a support infrastructure
    • 11. The fundamental question of impact
    • 12. The developmental nature of a process of change
  • 33. 1. Initiation
    • or mobilization or adoption:
    • Consists of the process that leads up and includes a decision to adopt or proceed with a change
    • Include the initial assessment or diagnosis
  • 34. Factors associated with initiation
    • Existence and quality of innovations
    • Access to information
    • Advocacy from Central Administration
    • Teacher Advocacy
    • External Change Agents
    • Community Pressure/Support/Apathy
    • New Policy – Funds
    • Problem-solving and Bureaucratic Orientations
  • 35. 2. Implementation
    • Involves the first experience of attempting to put an idea into practice
    • Planning:
      • Objectives
      • Strategies
      • Activities
      • Responsibilities
      • Resources
    • Implementation
    • Evaluation
  • 36. Tips to develop the improvement planning
    • Involve al staff in the process
    • Set up a structure to enable all staff to be included
    • Build a vision of that you are traing to achieve
    • Write a mission statement
    • Set priorities
    • Plan objectives
    • Don’t set the plan in tables of stone!
    • Promote collaboration
    • Link vision building and planning activities
    • Be willing to learn by making mistakes
  • 37. Factors affecting implementation
    • 1. Characteristics of change
      • Need - Clarity
      • Complexity - Quality/Practicality
    • 2. Local Characteristics
      • District - Community
      • Principal - Teacher
    • 3. External Factors
  • 38. 3. Institutionalization
    • Refer to whether the change gets built in as an ongoing part of the system or disappears by way of a decision to discard or though attrition
    • It depend on whether or not the changes gets embedded or built into the structure
    • Through policy, budget, timetable
  • 39. Improving Factors
    • 1. School Culture
    • Unless we direct the attention to the school culture… It will be difficult that an improvement of the school is really obtained (Hopkins, Ainscow y West, 1994)
      • Coherence between saying and doing
      • High expectations
      • Collective commitment of the community
      • Global high expectations
      • Team work
      • Teacher cohesion
  • 40. Ten cultural norms underpin successful school improvement:
    • Shared Goals: “we know where we’re going ”
    • Responsibility for success: “ we must succeed ”
    • Collegiality: “ we’re working on this together ”
    • Continuous improvement: “ We can get better ”
    • Lifelong learning: “ learning is for everyone ”
    • Risk taking: “ we learn by trying something new ”
    • Support: “ there’s always someone the to help ”
    • Mutual respect: “ everyone has something to offer ”
    • Openness: “ we can discuss our differences ”
    • Celebration and humour: “ we feel good about ourselves ”
  • 41. 2. Focus on Teaching and learning
    • A clear focus on a limited number of goals
    • Academic orientation
    • It can be encouraged by training staff in specific teaching methods at start of the school’s improvement effort
    • Creating consistency in teaching approach
  • 42. 3. Leadership
    • A leadership for the change has to be able of:
      • To have vision: capacity to imagine a future and to design the steps to obtain it.
      • To mobilize the teaching staff and to obtain their implication and commitment are the process.
      • To plan the change process.
      • To facilitate the cultural, curricular and organization transformations necessary in the change.
      • To evaluate and to give reinforcement on the results of the process to the participants.
      • Of managing the conflicts and problems that could take place
  • 43.
    • Leadership style:
      • Collaborative and distributive
      • Invitational
      • Instructional style
  • 44. 4. Building a Learning Community
    • Characteristics of the organizations who learn:
      • They treat to the professors like professionals.
      • The students are not standardized and education is not a routine.
      • It is necessary to be constantly learning to improve in the performance.
      • They foment that the teaching staff learns offering opportunities for it.
      • They stimulate the leadership of the teaching staff and the participation.
      • They foment the collaboration for the improvement.
      • They develop forms to initiate, to include and to harness to the new members of the organization.
      • It is developed within its local, regional and national context.
      • They work to change what matters
      • Work hard in the small questions
  • 45. 5. Continuous Professional Development
    • Improving schools spend more time and effort on professional development than stable schools.
    • Key Elements forma effective staff development:
      • Practical relevant information
      • An element of theory, aimed and fostering deep understanding
      • Incorporating some element of demonstration likewise increases the effectiveness of training substantively
      • Combining these three makes an ever bigger difference
      • Coaching and feedback
  • 46. 6. Involving educational community
      • To foment the implication of the students in its process of learning
      • To obtain the commitment and the implication of the families
  • 47. 7. External support
    • Networks of schools than can support one another… providing:
      • leadership at many levels,
      • social and technical support,
      • sharing and generating of ideas,
      • disseminating good practices
      • creating larger professional learning communities
    • External monitoring
    • External pressure
  • 48. 8. Resources
    • Economical resources
    • Technical resources
  • 49. Effective School Improvement
  • 50. The necessity of the fusion The theory must be useful it practical and to consider the knowledge generated by it The educative practice must be oriented by knowledge scientifically validated
    • School Effectiveness Research provided:
      • Theoretical bases
      • Direction towards the results
    • School Improvement Movement provides:
      • The practical way
      • Evidences to validate the theories
  • 51. Contributions of the Effectiveness and the Improvement to the Effective school Improvement
    • Contributions of Effectiveness:
    • Focus on the results
    • Focus on the school organization
    • Emphasis in the fairness use of the data for the decision making
    • Understanding of which the school is the center of the change
    • Direction towards the quantitative methodology
    • Contributions of Improvement:
    • Focus on the processes
    • Direction towards the action and the development
    • Emphasis in the areas of improvement selected
    • Importance of the school culture
    • Importance of being centered in the teaching and learning processes
    • School like center of the change
    • Direction towards the qualitative methodology
  • 52. Effective School Improvement is…
    • How a school can developed a change processes,
    • that increase the development of all the students,
    • optimizing the processes of teaching and learning and the organization of the school, and
    • apply that knowledge to a real improvement of the school.
  • 53. A framework for Effective School Improvement Educational goals Pressure to improvement Resources for improvement The Improving school Improvement culture Improvement processes Improvement outcomes The educational context
  • 54. Context Factors
    • Pressure to improve
      • Market mechanisms
      • External evaluation and accountability
      • Participation of society in educational/societal changes/educational policies which stimulate change
    • Resources/support for improvement
      • Autonomy granted to schools
      • Financial resources and favourable daily working conditions
      • Local support
    • Educational goals
  • 55. School factors
    • Improvement culture
      • Internal pressure to improve
      • Autonomy used by schools
      • Shared vision
      • Willingness to become a learning organisation
      • Improvement History
      • Ownership
      • Leadership
      • Staff stability
      • Time
  • 56.
    • Improvement Processes
      • Assessment of improvement needs
      • Diagnosis of improvement needs
      • Setting of detail goals
      • Planning of improvement activities
      • Implementation
      • Evaluation and reflection
  • 57.
    • Improvement Outcomes
      • Goals that are explicitiy written in terms of student outcomes
      • Golas are focused on change:
        • School organization
        • Teacher behaviour
        • Materials used by students
        • ....
  • 58. A framework for Effective School Improvement Educational goal Pressure to improve Resources for improvement The Improving school Improvement culture Improvement processes Improvement outcomes The educational context
  • 59. Ideas for the schools:
    • It is useful in the design, planning and implementation of school improvement.
    • It gives an overview of many factors that may promote or hinder effective school improvement
    • It can never prescribe how a specific school in should act, but it can help to indicate the starting points or issues for the reflection.
  • 60. Ideas for the researchers:
    • It is important for further research in the field of effective school improvement
    • It can be used to generate hypothesis and to select variables that should be investigated and further operationalised.
  • 61. F. Javier Murillo
    • [email_address]
    • http://www.uam.es/javier.murillo