六合彩-香港六合彩

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港六合彩一把,甚至连一点点胜利的曙光都吝啬于给香港六合彩。又凭什么要香港六合彩坚持下去?香港六合彩又凭什么坚持到最后呢?

"我厌倦了。"公主抬起头,对着那双曾让香港六合彩心动良久的海蓝色双眸陈述最后的宣判,"你曾经说过,除了卓远之和战野,在你整个生命里,我是你惟一的朋友。不管未来会如何改变,不管香港六合彩俩会变成什么样。我都是你水远割舍不下的那个人。我现在要告诉你,我要割舍对你的那份感情,做回原本没有烦恼的公主。如果你爱我,就请你来追我吧!

香港六合彩比香港六合彩先一步转身拉起阿土的手走回自己的道路,不去管身后的天涯是何表情。

不要以为你直面的方向才是前进,背过身,我走的路也有我的向往!

猛地偏过头,公主发现阿士正若有所思地看着香港六合彩,眉眼之间含着笑容。那份赞赏,是公主在王子的眼中从未看过的。

"我……"

"你很可爱。"

阿士丢下话,猛地转身向车走去,连个起码的反应机会都不留给公主。

香港六合彩可爱?

小矮魔女挠挠头,满脸害羞的表情,"我……我也这么觉得暧!



九个小时后,奥古斯塔斯·克里斯塔贝尔·艾伯克龙比王储殿下出现在X国王宫内。

没等呵狗正式进入后宫范围,它就嗅到了危险的气息。哪里?在哪里?哪里有危险危险在哪里?

危险你给我出来!

一双红通通的狼眼充斥着防御,阿狗以它四十二公分的高度四下巡望,不肯放弃任何危险的信息。它有理由确定,危险正在一步步向它靠近。

危险来了!

阿狗凶猛地昂起头,向

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六合彩-香港六合彩

  1. 1. Build a Balanced Speech <ul><li>Introduction-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain audience attention via an example, quote, statistics or a visual aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the Central Thesis (the main idea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish your credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify with the audience and recognize the occasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview the main points, in the same order they will appear in the speech </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Build a Balanced Speech (continued) <ul><li>Body-80% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 3-5 main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give balanced attention to each section </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a mirror image of introduction, with a review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer back to the attention-getter in the introduction (e.g., a vivid example) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t introduce new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End with authority, and always on time </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Employ Frequent Transitions <ul><li>Transitions help adult learners know what to expect </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions link the main parts of the speech, and create a smooth flow </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can review, and then preview main points </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can be long or short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single words, phrases or sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Transitions <ul><li>“Now that we have reviewed the problem of homelessness, let’s examine three main causes…” </li></ul><ul><li>“The second major problem is…” </li></ul><ul><li>“Next, we will consider..” </li></ul><ul><li>“That brings us to…” </li></ul><ul><li>“The final point…” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Employ Humor With Care <ul><li>Where humor is concerned, there are no standards - no one can say what is good or bad, although you can be sure that everyone will! </li></ul><ul><li>John Kenneth Galbraith </li></ul>
  6. 6. Use Varied and Multiple Types of Evidence and Support <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid success stories or brief scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual aids or models </li></ul><ul><li>Expert testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes attributed to an expert enhance the speaker’s credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to round off and interpret </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies and statistics . Benjamin Disraeli
  8. 8. Statistics always remind me of the fellow who drowned in a river whose average depth was three feet. Woody Hayes Coach, Ohio State Football
  9. 9. Always provide people with a context to help them understand. Richard E. Moran
  10. 10. A talk is a voyage with a purpose, and it must be charted. The man who starts out going nowhere, generally gets there. Dale Carnegie
  11. 11. Strategically Choose Your Organizational Pattern(s) <ul><li>Chronological (in order of occurrence, as in a historical perspective) </li></ul><ul><li>Topical (by subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial (by physical position, as in geographic) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Cause-Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence </li></ul>
  12. 12. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create interest in the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze problem characteristics and relate these to the audience needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose a course of action that eliminates the problem and satisfies audience needs, desires and wants </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (continued) <ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbally depict the world as it will exist if the plan is or is not instituted, and contrast these possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for audience commitment and action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is commonly used in advertising to persuade… </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Delivery Tips <ul><li>A speaker is always “on stage” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are “on” from moment they are announced, to the time they return to their place in the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause before beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Vary intonation </li></ul><ul><li>A slightly faster pace increases audience comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain good eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Assume a relaxed, open posture, with few self-adaptors/touch </li></ul>
  15. 15. (Sometimes, “less” is “more”) Talk low, talk slow and don’t say too much. John Wayne
  16. 16. The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause. Mark Twain
  17. 17. To Minimize Anxiety <ul><li>Convert anxiety to presentational energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that mild arousal is normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seek public speaking opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More speaking experience=less anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Eat and sleep enough </li></ul><ul><li>Deep breathing, activity and relaxation may help </li></ul>
  18. 18. Practice the Presentation <ul><li>Rehearse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions (this is where many speakers experience the most difficulty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Become Familiar With the Room <ul><li>Messages are perceived better in an attractive room </li></ul><ul><li>Check-out the sound system and lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with audiovisual (AV) technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for water, pointer, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Always Have A Back-Up Plan <ul><li>What if the AV fails? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a lo-tech back-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if your available time is diminished? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate sub-points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t speed rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if you misplace your speech? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep an extra copy, or quickly construct an outline </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. FAQ’s <ul><li>What if I make a mistake? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that most speakers make them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct it; humor is ok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize profusely or start over </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can I avoid saying “Um?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ speaking transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate silence </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. FAQ’s <ul><li>How can I slow down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause between sections. Stop at the end of sentences. Underline key words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape record your practice sessions and count the words per minute. Then, practice speaking at a deliberately slower rate to gain conscious control over rate. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. FAQ’s <ul><li>What about eye contact? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t bob your head up and down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t fix your gaze at one person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up at the end of a section, rather than lose your place, or train of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face the audience, not your slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look more at friendly, supportive people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t favor one side of the room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased eye contact increases audience learning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. FAQ’s <ul><li>What do I do with my hands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t play with your hair, clothes, objects or jingle money in your pockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t worry about your gestures--they will emerge naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your hands on or near the podium, or at your sides. Don’t cross your arms, or clasp your hands in front of your body. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Audience Q&As <ul><li>Anticipate potential questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listen to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t get defensive and never embarrass an audience member </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain an open and relaxed posture </li></ul><ul><li>Admit to not having an answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“I really can’t speak to that; I will refer that concern to….” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. I’m glad this question came up, in a way, because there are so many ways to answer it that one if them is bound to be right. Robert Benchley I was gratified to be able to answer promptly. I said, “I don’t know.” Mark Twain
  27. 27. In Closing <ul><li>Speaking in public represents an opportunity to enhance knowledge, change attitudes, and promote action </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, strive to communicate with your audience and to meet their unique needs </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker has a responsibility to communicate publicly in an informed and ethical manner </li></ul>
  28. 28. Source: Cohn, E. Public Speaking, University of Pittsburgh Center for Instructional Development & Distance Education, Fifth Edition, January 2001.

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