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Willingness to Communicate:
 The dynamics of motivation for
    language use in context


     Peter D. MacIntyre
    Cape...
Where is Nova Scotia?
Where is
Cape Breton University?
                          Languages:
                          English 93%
              ...
Outline
Language learning is done by individuals in a social
context
A view of time
Willingness to communicate is a choice...
Language learning

Done by individuals
  motivations, anxieties, beliefs, values, etc.
In a social context
  intergroup co...
A view of “time”

                       Simplistic, often implicit view of time
                       start             ...
L2 Acquisition:
 individual decision making
Choosing to communicate or not
  Affects Pedagogy
  Affects Intergroup contact...
Motivation meets anxiety

          ?
                                       anxiety

                        1



       ...
WTC In The Second
Language
 Pyramid model of WTC
 6 layers
 Immediate vs. Distal
 Enduring vs. Situational
   Top 3 layers...
Layer I                       1


                                 Layer I       L2        Communication
                 ...
Motivation & Anxiety
      as a State
  At a particular moment, motivation & anxiety
will interact
     Feeling both motiv...
An analogy - Skydiving
    Emotions are ambivalent
Approach and avoidance
gradients Epstein and Fenz (1965)
Approach and avoidance
gradients       Epstein and Fenz (1965)
Ambivalence in Language Learning:
     Crossing the Rubicon (Dörnyei & Otto)

do I raise my hand to answer a question in t...
An example of ambivalence

I was most unwilling to speak French when I
   was at a craft show with my mom and she
   met s...
Simultaneous approach and
   avoidance
Neurological level (brain)
  Behavioral Activation System (BAS)
  Behavioral Inhibi...
WTC research

Immersion education increases WTC
Friends enhance WTC
Social context must provide for choice
WTC affected ad...
Implications for language
   learning and use
Time must be clearly understood (Dörnyei)
  Dynamics of change
  Consistency...
Willingness to Communicate:
 The dynamics of motivation for
    language use in context


     Peter D. MacIntyre
    Cape...
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Mac Intyre - aurkezpena ingelesez

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Transcript of "Mac Intyre - aurkezpena ingelesez"

  1. 1. Willingness to Communicate: The dynamics of motivation for language use in context Peter D. MacIntyre Cape Breton University Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada 1
  2. 2. Where is Nova Scotia?
  3. 3. Where is Cape Breton University? Languages: English 93% French 4% Mi’kmaq 3%
  4. 4. Outline Language learning is done by individuals in a social context A view of time Willingness to communicate is a choice Individuals’ volitional action Influenced by a number of factors The choice to communicate reflects ambivalence Two competing tendencies: to Approach and to Avoid Convergence of dynamic processes Implications for language learning and use
  5. 5. Language learning Done by individuals motivations, anxieties, beliefs, values, etc. In a social context intergroup conflict, demographic patterns, migration, etc. Interact among variables Focus today on: Choice to communicate in the L2.
  6. 6. A view of “time” Simplistic, often implicit view of time start finish Better to think that we arrive at a point in time (distal influences) “Then” “Now” (proximal influences)
  7. 7. L2 Acquisition: individual decision making Choosing to communicate or not Affects Pedagogy Affects Intergroup contact Willingness to communicate “The probability that one will choose to initiate communication, given the opportunity to do so.” Intention to communicate A person might be Able but unwilling
  8. 8. Motivation meets anxiety ? anxiety 1 motivation 2 We require some way to capture what is happening as the learner goes along, in their day-to-day activity .
  9. 9. WTC In The Second Language Pyramid model of WTC 6 layers Immediate vs. Distal Enduring vs. Situational Top 3 layers = situational Bottom 3 layers = enduring
  10. 10. Layer I 1 Layer I L2 Communication Use Behaviour 2 Layer II Behavioural Intention Willingness to Communicate 3 4 Layer III Desire to State Situated Antecedents communicate with Communicative a specific person Self-Confidence 5 6 7 Layer IV Interpersonal Intergroup L2 Motivational Motivation Motivation Self-Confidence Propensities 8 9 10 Layer V Affective-Cognitive Context Intergroup Social Communicative Attitudes Situation Competence Layer 11 12 Social and Individual VI Intergroup Climate Personality Context
  11. 11. Motivation & Anxiety as a State At a particular moment, motivation & anxiety will interact Feeling both motivated and anxious Creates ambivalence • At moderate levels Desire to both approach and avoid A very interesting moment in time Affects the course of future events Effects build up over longer periods of time
  12. 12. An analogy - Skydiving Emotions are ambivalent
  13. 13. Approach and avoidance gradients Epstein and Fenz (1965)
  14. 14. Approach and avoidance gradients Epstein and Fenz (1965)
  15. 15. Ambivalence in Language Learning: Crossing the Rubicon (Dörnyei & Otto) do I raise my hand to answer a question in the classroom, what if I make a mistake? do I offer assistance to a second language speaker I just met at the airport, is there somebody more capable of providing assistance? do I use the second language in conversation, not knowing exactly what course it might take or what embarrassment awaits?
  16. 16. An example of ambivalence I was most unwilling to speak French when I was at a craft show with my mom and she met someone who spoke French. Mom introduced me to her friend, vice versa. I felt like saying hello in French [but did not] I felt I would make a mistake. I don’t feel comfortable talking with strangers in French. I would though, if I had another opportunity.” Taken from an ‘unwillingness to communicate diary’ of a French immersion student (approximately 12 years old) .
  17. 17. Simultaneous approach and avoidance Neurological level (brain) Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) Interact to regulate motivation Opponent Process Theory (emotions) An emotion triggers its opposite The opposite emotion may be below our awareness Maintain homeostasis
  18. 18. WTC research Immersion education increases WTC Friends enhance WTC Social context must provide for choice WTC affected adjustment of Japanese student sojourners WTC initiation of communication in L1 Introverts can be made more willing to communicate than extraverts
  19. 19. Implications for language learning and use Time must be clearly understood (Dörnyei) Dynamics of change Consistency is not expected We must account for ambivalence Convergence of relevant learner variables A more individualistic approach is needed Based on willingness not competence • Idiographic (Gordon Allport, 1962) • Idiodynamic (Rosenzweig, 1986)
  20. 20. Willingness to Communicate: The dynamics of motivation for language use in context Peter D. MacIntyre Cape Breton University Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada 20
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