Unit 3: Ecological Systems Prespective

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  • 1. Chapter 3:The Ecological/Systems Perspective . Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 2. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 3. Social Work: A Competency- Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) - Defines Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAs) - Developed 10 “Core Competencies” and 41 Related “Practice Behaviors” Every student should master the Practice Behaviors and Core Competencies before completing the program Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 4. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice Behaviors and Competencies - “Competency Notes” at the end of the chapter help put the Practice Behaviors and Competencies in practical context Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 5. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed with the text provides assignable exercises that assist in mastering the Practice Behavior and Competencies Additional on-line resources can be found at: www.cengage.com/socialwork Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 6. Ecological/systems frameworkAn umbrella framework used by generalist socialwork practitioners to understand both social welfare problems and individual needs and to guide thevarious interventions social workers use whenhelping clients.EP2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 7. Impact of frameworks on interventionDoes the framework:• contribute to preserving/restoring dignity?• recognize benefits of and celebrate diversity?• assist in transforming ourselves and society to recognize strengths?• help us to reach our fullest potential?• reflect participation and experiences of diverse groups and individuals?EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 8. Causal relationships and association • Cause-and-effect relationship are not likely when talking about social welfare and individual problems • Association, or many factors connected to or related to problem, rather than one isolated factor, more appropriateEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 9. A conceptual framework for understanding Social welfare problems• Theory – way of clearly and logically organizing a set of facts or ideas• Good theories must be inclusive, capable of being generalized, and testable• There are many theories applicable to social work practiceEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 10. A conceptual framework for understanding Social welfare problems• Theory – way of clearly and logically organizing a set of facts or ideas• Good theories must be inclusive, capable of being generalized, and testable• There are many theories applicable to social work practiceEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 11. The ecological/systems framework• Broad “umbrella” framework for understanding social welfare problems and determining specific intervention theories to address them• Allows focus on both person and environment and interactions between them• Focuses on both structure (systemic properties) and interactions (ecology)EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 12. Systems theory and concepts• System – entity composed of separate but interacting and interdependent parts• Synergy – achieved when all the parts of a system are working in concert with each other• Boundary – point at which one system ends and another begins• Open system – system with permeable boundariesEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 13. Systems Theory and Concepts (cont’d)• Closed system – system with impermeable boundaries• Entropy – closed system that stagnates and eventually dies• Steady state - systems are steadily moving• Equifinality – final state of system is achieved in many different ways (different interventions can achieve same results)EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 14. Ecological/systems perspective• Incorporates bio-psycho-social- cultural perspectives of individual• Incorporates broader environment• Can define a system/subsystem in many ways• Allows for use of tools such as “ecomaps” to determine aspects of person and environment that create both risk and opportunity for individuals and communitiesEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 15. Levels of the environment• Microsystem – individual and all persons and groups that incorporate the individual’s day-to- day environment• Mesosystem – relationship between two micro- systems linked by some person who is present in bothEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 16. Levels of the environment (cont’d)• Exosystem – community factors that may not relate directly to an individual but affect the way that person functions• Macrosystem – “blueprints” for defining and organizing society, such as societal valuesEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 17. Problems in living• All persons experience “problems in living”: - When experiencing life transitions, such as getting married and having children - when interacting with their environments - When there are maladaptive interpersonal problems and needs in families in groups• These patterns must be incorporated in social work interventionsEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 18. Utility of the ecological/systems framework• Allows one to deal with multiple factors and relationships between them• Concepts apply to individuals, families, groups, organizations, communities, society• Focuses on transactions between systems• Views people as actively involved with their environments and capable of changeEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 19. Utility of the ecological/systems framework• Views systems as goal-oriented and incorporates client in change process• Allows a social worker to engage in positive transactions• Views change and conflict as part of daily living• Encourages social workers to be aware of systems and how change at one level impacts all levels EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 20. Other theories and frameworks• Psychosocial frameworks - Psychoanalytic theory - Ego psychology/life span development• Cognitive behavioral frameworks• Political and ideological frameworks• All other frameworks can be incorporated within the systems/ecological frameworkEP 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 21. The Generalist Model• Allows for multiple interventions in working with clients at the individual, family, group, organizational, community, or societal level• Incorporates a knowledge, value, and skills base that is transferable between and among diverse contexts and locations• Incorporates ecological/systems framework and focuses on fit between person and environmentEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 22. Concepts of generalist practice• Strengths perspective• Empowerment and resilience• Social and economic justice• Social worker is a change agent who uses helping process to facilitate change in client or client systemsEP 2.1.3a, 2.1.3b, 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 23. Stages of the helping process• Dialogue/engagement stage - Develop relationship - Define the problem - Identify preliminary goals• Discovery/contract stage - Assess and evaluate needs - Explore resources and client strengths - Develop action plans and frame solutions EP 2.1.3b, 2.1.10 a, b, c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .
  • 24. Stages of the helping process• Development/action stage - Carry out plan - Strengthen clients/help them get what they need - Engage resources - Monitor plan and adjust as needed - Terminate when appropriate - Evaluate change and strategies for continued successEP 2.1.3b, 2.1.10 a, b, c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing .