Chapter 12:Older Adults: Needs and Services     Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
Empowering Programs with Resources that Enhance Social Work Education    Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Pu...
Social Work: A Competency-           Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE)  - Defines Educational Po...
Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice ...
Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed  with the text provides assignable exer...
Framing the issueThe number and percentage of people reaching oldage are greater than they have ever been throughout recor...
Physiological aging• Growth and physical maturation continue  throughout the life cycle• Scientists have not yet determine...
Theories of aging•   Continuity theory•   Activity theory•   Developmental theory•   Exchange theoryEP 2.1.7a            C...
Retirement•   No universal definition exists•   Income is usually drastically reduced•   Future of the Social Security sys...
Older adults and their families• Most older married couples express general  satisfaction with their marriages• When older...
Care-giving•   Who are care-givers?•   Economics of care-giving•   Impact of care-giving•   Care-giving and work•   Care-g...
Death and dying• Every culture shapes attitudes toward death as well  as life• Most of us are not prepared for coping with...
Aging and mental health• The mental health of older adults is not appreciably  different from that of the population in ge...
Aging and the ecological/systems perspectiveThe way that an individual interacts within theenvironment strongly influences...
Aging and the environment• Social isolation and loneliness often appear to  produce maladaptive behaviors• Overmedication ...
Income security concerns•   Having enough money to live on•   Not being able to work to supplement Social    Security inco...
Health and health care services• Developing health problems in later life• Chronic diseases in old age• Refusal to seek tr...
Abuse and neglect• Little is known about the abuse and neglect of the  elderly• Self-neglect is perhaps the most common• A...
Long-term care• Only 5% of older Americans experience health  problems that require long-term care• Third-party payments t...
Housing• Rate of substandard homes among the elderly  exceeds those for other age groups• Government housing for the aged ...
Transportation• Most older adults travel some distance to procure  the necessities of daily living• Transit systems for th...
People of color as older adults• Life expectancy is shorter• The percentage of the elderly living below the  poverty line ...
Services for older adults• Magnitude of need is great• Availability of services varies across communities• Budget cuts hav...
Social work with older adults• Generalist practice at the micro level most common  intervention• Many opportunities exist ...
Social work with older adults (cont’d)• US Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an overall  increase of 22% for social work...
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Chapter 12 Social Work with Older Adults

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This chapter examines successful aging as well as the more salient issues and problems of older people, reviews their problems of adaptation, and identifies physical and social support systems and resources designed to meet their needs.

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Chapter 12 Social Work with Older Adults

  1. 1. Chapter 12:Older Adults: Needs and Services Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  2. 2. Empowering Programs with Resources that Enhance Social Work Education Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  3. 3. Social Work: A Competency- Oriented Education Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) - Defines Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAs) - Developed 10 “Core Competencies” and 41 Related “Practice Behaviors” Every student should master the Practice Behaviors and Core Competencies before completing the program Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  4. 4. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 The Textbook – - “Helping Hands” icons call attention to content that relates to Practice Behaviors and Competencies - “Competency Notes” at the end of the chapter help put the Practice Behaviors and Competencies in practical context Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  5. 5. Resources Aligned to EPAS 2008 (cont’d) The Practice Behaviors Workbook developed with the text provides assignable exercises that assist in mastering the Practice Behavior and Competencies Additional on-line resources can be found at: www.cengage.com/socialwork Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  6. 6. Framing the issueThe number and percentage of people reaching oldage are greater than they have ever been throughout recorded history EP 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  7. 7. Physiological aging• Growth and physical maturation continue throughout the life cycle• Scientists have not yet determined why we age• Social workers who specialize in working with older adults should be sensitive to physiological changes that are typical processes of growing oldEP 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  8. 8. Theories of aging• Continuity theory• Activity theory• Developmental theory• Exchange theoryEP 2.1.7a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  9. 9. Retirement• No universal definition exists• Income is usually drastically reduced• Future of the Social Security system is a concern• One’s health declines with age• Most older adults rely primarily on Medicare• More research is neededEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.3a, 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  10. 10. Older adults and their families• Most older married couples express general satisfaction with their marriages• When older adults encounter health problems they often turn to their adult children for support• Families continue to be a viable resource for older adultsEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  11. 11. Care-giving• Who are care-givers?• Economics of care-giving• Impact of care-giving• Care-giving and work• Care-giving and healthEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  12. 12. Death and dying• Every culture shapes attitudes toward death as well as life• Most of us are not prepared for coping with either the death of others or our own death• Hospice care/living wills• “Voluntary” and “involuntary” euthanasia have introduced controversy into the dying processEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.8a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  13. 13. Aging and mental health• The mental health of older adults is not appreciably different from that of the population in general• Dramatic changes in the mental health of individuals are seldom caused by the aging process aloneEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  14. 14. Aging and the ecological/systems perspectiveThe way that an individual interacts within theenvironment strongly influences that individual’smental health and perspectives about growing oldEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  15. 15. Aging and the environment• Social isolation and loneliness often appear to produce maladaptive behaviors• Overmedication can cause memory loss, disorientation, or loss of vigor or appetite• Depression may be caused by bereavement, anxiety related to income, a limited social network, relocation, or health concernsEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  16. 16. Income security concerns• Having enough money to live on• Not being able to work to supplement Social Security income• Uncertain future of Social Security benefits• Having enough money to meet support and social services needsEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  17. 17. Health and health care services• Developing health problems in later life• Chronic diseases in old age• Refusal to seek treatment until health conditions become severe or life threatening• Cost of prescription medicines• Government’s role in providing health care for the agedEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  18. 18. Abuse and neglect• Little is known about the abuse and neglect of the elderly• Self-neglect is perhaps the most common• Abuse usually occurs when the older adult is living with a relative• Adult protective services are designed to shield older adults from harmEP 2.1.7b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  19. 19. Long-term care• Only 5% of older Americans experience health problems that require long-term care• Third-party payments to health care providers spawned long-term care industry• Majority of long-term care facilities are proprietary (for profit)• Alternatives to long-term care facilitiesEP2.1.1a, 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  20. 20. Housing• Rate of substandard homes among the elderly exceeds those for other age groups• Government housing for the aged is difficult to secure• Housing alternatives for the more economically secure aged are neededEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  21. 21. Transportation• Most older adults travel some distance to procure the necessities of daily living• Transit systems for the aged are limited• Absence of transportation has resulted in many older adults becoming homebound• Budget cuts have significantly reduced transportation options for the elderlyEP 2.1.7b, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  22. 22. People of color as older adults• Life expectancy is shorter• The percentage of the elderly living below the poverty line is high, especially for persons of color• Percentages dramatically higher for households headed by womenEP 2.1.4a Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  23. 23. Services for older adults• Magnitude of need is great• Availability of services varies across communities• Budget cuts have adversely affected availability of services• Need outstrips availability of servicesEP 2.1.1a, 2.1.9b Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  24. 24. Social work with older adults• Generalist practice at the micro level most common intervention• Many opportunities exist for creating a more responsive opportunity structure for the aged at the community level• Many schools of social work have established specializations in gerontologyEP 2.1.1a, c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
  25. 25. Social work with older adults (cont’d)• US Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an overall increase of 22% for social work jobs between 2006 and 2016; that figure increases to 24% for medical and public health social workers and 30% for mental health and substance abuse social workers.EP 2.1.1a, c Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole Publishing
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