العدد 108
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العدد 108

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    العدد 108 العدد 108 Document Transcript

    • ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫3‬ ‫.................................................................................................................‬ ‫• اﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴـــﺔ اﻟﻌــــــﺪد‬ ‫• اﻟﺮﺑﻂ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ اﻟﺒﺮي ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺿﺮورة ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ وﺧﻄﻮة ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ، ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪد اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ، ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺪس ﻣﺮهﻒ اﻟﺼﺎﺑﻮﻧﻲ اﻷﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫5‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻼﺗﺤﺎد اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ............................................................................‬ ‫• اﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ هﻲ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻓـﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻓـﻲ ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﺣﺪود ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫003 آﻢ/ ﺳﺎ ...............................................................................................................................‬ ‫12‬ ‫• اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ أآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺮد ﺗﺴﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﺎرات أﻃﻮل ، ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺪ آﺮﻳﺴﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺟﺎآ ﺴﻮن‬ ‫13‬ ‫رﺋﻴﺲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ راﻳﻠﻮاي اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ ‪Railway Gazette International‬‬ ‫• اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴ ﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴ ﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘ ﻞ ﺑﺎﻟ ﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳ ﺔ )9991 ‪ ( COTIF‬ﻟﻠ ﺪآﺘﻮر‬ ‫73‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺮﻓﺮاﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺗـﺰ ، اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ‪............. OTIF‬‬ ‫55‬ ‫.............................................................................................................‬ ‫• أﺧﺒــــــﺎر ﺳـــــــﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫9956‬ ‫ﺣﻠﺐ - ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ - ﺹ.ﺏ‬ ‫0727662 - 1165662 ) 12-369 (‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺲ : 0006862 )12-369 ( - ﻫﺎﺗﻒ :‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ : ‪uacf@scs-net.org‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ 801 – ﺸﺒﺎﻁ ) ﻓﺒﺭﺍﻴﺭ ( 2102‬
    • ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴـﺱ ﻤﺠﻠــﺱ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ :‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮط اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺴﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ :‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ - اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮآﺔ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴـــﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـــــﺎﻡ :‬ ‫א‬ ‫اﻷردن‬ ‫• ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺳﻜﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻷردن‬ ‫• اﻟﺨﻂ اﻟﺤﺠﺎزي اﻷردﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧــﺲ‬ ‫• اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰاﺋــﺮ‬ ‫• اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴـﻮدان‬ ‫• هﻴﺌﺔ ﺳﻜﻚ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﺳــﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮط اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺴﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳــﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻂ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪي اﻟﺤﺠﺎزي‬ ‫اﻟﻌــﺮاق‬ ‫• اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻌﺮاق‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴـﻄﻴﻦ‬ ‫• ﻓﻠﺴــــــﻄﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨــــﺎن‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺳﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ واﻟﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮك‬‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎهﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫• ﺟﻬـﺎز ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ وإدارة ﻣﺸﺮوع اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼـــﺮ‬ ‫• اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺼـﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻐــﺮب‬ ‫• اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼـــﺮ‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻨﻊ ﻣﻬﻤﺎت اﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ) ﺳﻴﻤﺎف ( – اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺳــﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎء اﻟﺨﻄﻮط اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳــﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮق واﻟﺠﺴﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰاﺋــﺮ‬ ‫• اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻌﺪات اﻟﺴﻜﺔ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ وﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰاﺗﻬﺎ ) ﻓﻴﺮوﻓﻴﺎل (‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰاﺋــﺮ‬ ‫• اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ اﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ ﻹﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻬﻴﺎآﻞ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ) اﻧﻔﺮاﻓﻴﺮ (‬ ‫ﻣﺼـــﺮ‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻨﻊ اﻟﻤﺤﺮآﺎت - اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺼـــﺮ‬ ‫• ﻣﺼﻨـﻊ ﻗـﺎدر ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻮرة - اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺎرات‬ ‫• ﺷــﺮآــﺔ ﻳﻮﻧﺎﻳﺘﺪ ﺗﺮاﻧﺲ )ﻗﻄﺎرات(‬
    • ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺘـﺎﺣﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌــﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻤﺭﻫﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺒﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴـﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬‫آﻠﻤﺎ اﻧﺘﻬﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪد ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ أﻋﺪاد ﻧﺸﺮﺗﻨﺎ اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ )اﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ(‬‫ﻳﺴﺎورﻧﻲ اﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ أﻋﻀﺎء اﻻﺗﺤﺎد ، أو ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬‫اﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻃﻦ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ . وﻣﺮد هﺬا اﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻳﻌﻮد إﻟﻰ أﻣﺮﻳﻦ اﺛﻨﻴﻦ ، أﺣﺪهﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻬﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ )ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ وﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ وزﺧﺮﻓﺔ وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ ، أي ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة‬‫وأﻧﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ( ، واﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﻀﻤﻮن هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ، وﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت اﻋﺘﻤﺪت‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺸﺮهﺎ ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ .‬‫ﻻ ﺷﻚ أﻧﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ اﻻﺗﺤﺎد ، ﺣﺮﺻﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺻﺪار هﺬﻩ اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ، وﻧﺤﻤﺪ اﷲ أﻧﻪ أﻋﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺻﺪارهﺎ دون اﻧﻘﻄﺎع ، وﻻﺷﻚ أﻧﻨﺎ اﻋﺘﻤﺪﻧﺎ ﺑﺈﺻﺪارهﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪراﺗﻨﺎ اﻟﺬاﺗﻴﺔ دون ﺣﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻮازﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ أﻣﻮال اﻻﺗﺤﺎد ﺗﻐﻄﻲ آﻠﻔﺔ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬‫وإﺻﺪار هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ، ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ اهﺘﻤﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﻜﺮﺳﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﻜﻞ واﻟﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ واﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ، إﻧﻤﺎ اﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ً‬‫ﺣﺮﺻﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻀﻤﻮن وﻣﺪى اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻌﻜﺴﻬﺎ وﺗﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ ، ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪي ، واﻻرﺗﻘﺎء ﺑﺨﺪﻣﺎت ﻧﻘﻞ هﺬا اﻟﻘﻄﺎع إﻟﻰ أﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت .‬‫ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﺄآﻴﺪ ، آﺎن اهﺘﻤﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻀﻤﻮن أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻻهﺘﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ، وﻟﻮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ً‬‫ﻳﺮﺿﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻷذواق واﻷﻃﺮاف اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﺼﻠﻬﻢ ﻧﺸﺮﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ دوري . ﻟﺬا آﻨﺖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ داﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫اﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﺪد ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة وﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻮزﻳﻌﻬﺎ ، أﺷﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﻖ وأﺟﻬﻞ رأي‬‫اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ هﺬا اﻻﻧﺘﺎج وأهﻤﻴﺘﻪ ، وهﻞ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﺸﻜﻞ أهﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻀﻤﻮن أم أن‬‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ اﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻧﺸﺮهﺎ ﺳﺘﻌﻮد ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة وﺗﻜﻮن أآﺜﺮ أهﻤﻴﺔ وﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮا ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ أﻋﻀﺎء‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬‫اﺗﺤﺎدﻧﺎ اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﻴﻦ ﻷﺳﺮﺗﻨﺎ اﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ، وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮون أن ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﻨﺸﺮة أﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻻهﺘﻤﺎم‬‫واﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﺬﻟﻚ آﻨﺖ دوﻣﺎ أﻧﺘﻈﺮ أن أﻋﺮف ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ، وﻣﺪى‬ ‫ً‬ ‫3‬
    • ‫وﻣﻘﺪار اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮة ﻣﻨﻬﺎ . وﻟﻘﺪ أﺧﺬت هﺬﻩ اﻟﺤﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ واﺳﺘﻄﻼع رأي اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪة ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ، إﻟﻰ أن وﻗﻔﺖ وﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ اﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻋﻦ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺤﻴﺮة ، وذﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ اﺷﺘﺮآﺖ ﻓﻲ‬‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎع اﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﺒﺮي اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻘﺪة ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ، ﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﺒﺮي ، ﻹﺑﺪاء اﻟﺮأي ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ‬‫وزراء اﻟﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﻌﺮب . ﺣﻴﺚ ﻷول ﻣﺮة ﻳﻔﺎﺗﺤﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎء ﻣﻤﻦ أﻋﺮﻓﻬﻢ ﺑﺮأﻳﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ‬‫اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ ، واﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻟﻲ هﻮ أن هﺬا اﻟﺮأي وﻓﻲ هﺬا اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎع ﺑﺎﻟﺬات ، ﺗﻜﺮر ﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎت‬‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪة آﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺸﺎرآﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎع ، وآﺎﻧﺖ هﺬﻩ اﻵراء ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻟﻲ ﺷﻜﺮ أﺻﺤﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺘﻼم‬‫اﻟﻌﺪد اﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺮة اﻟﺴﻜﻚ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ . وﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ أﻧﻨﻲ رددت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﺑﻤﺜﻠﻪ ، ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮا أن‬ ‫ً‬‫هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻣﻠﺔ هﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﺪر ﻋﻘﺐ ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ ﻋﺪد ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ، ﻏﻴﺮ أن اﻟﺸﻲء‬‫اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻓﺎﺟﺄﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ هﺆﻻء اﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎء هﻮ اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة وأهﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻨﺎ ، وأآﺪ اﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺳﻜﻜﻲ أن ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻃﻼع ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ أو ﻗﺮاءﺗﻬﺎ .‬‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ، ﻓﺎﻧﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺮة ﻓﺎﺟﺄﻧﻲ ﺷﻜﺮ هﺆﻻء اﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎء ، ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺷﻜﺮا روﺗﻴﻨﻴﺎ‬‫ً‬ ‫ً‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺘﻼم ﻋﺪد ﻣﻦ أﻋﺪاد هﺬﻩ اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ ، إﻧﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﺟﺄﻧﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﺄآﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﺘﻪ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮاﺋﺪ وﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ أﺑﺤﺎث هﺎﻣﺔ آﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰهﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮهﺎ ﻣﻦ إﺻﺪارﺗﻨﺎ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ .‬‫وﻻ أﺧﻔﻲ ﺳﺮا أﻧﻨﻲ آﻨﺖ ﺳﻌﻴﺪا ﺟﺪا ﻟﺴﻤﺎع هﺬﻩ اﻵراء ، وزادﻧﻲ هﺬا اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ً ً‬ ‫ً‬‫إﺻﺮارا ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻهﺘﻤﺎم ﺑﻤﻀﻤﻮن اﻟﻨﺸﺮة أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ وزﺧﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ . وهﻨﺎ أﺣﻘﻖ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ً‬‫إﺻﺪارهﺎ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻴﻦ هﺎﻣﻴﻦ ، أﺣﺪهﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻧﺨﻔﺎض ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ إﺻﺪارهﺎ ، ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻗﺪراﺗﻨﺎ اﻟﺬاﺗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ هﺬا اﻻﺻﺪار ، واﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﻀﻤﻮن هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﺸﺮة وﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﻧﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻷﻓﻀﻞ ، ﻟﻴﻌﻮد ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة اﻷآﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺘﺘﺒﻌﻴﻦ واﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ‬‫اﻟﻨﺸﺮة ، وهﺬا هﻮ هﺪﻓﻨﺎ واﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ إﺻﺪارهﺎ ، وهﺬا ﻣﺎ آﻨﺖ أﻓﺘﺶ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ، وﻣﺎ آﻨﺖ‬‫أﺗﻮﺧﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺻﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮارﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ إﺻﺪار هﺬﻩ اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ ، وهﺬا ﻣﺎ آﻨﺖ أﺗﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪة ﺗﻌﻮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ وﺑﻘﻄﺎﻋﻨﺎ اﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، وﻟﻤﺎ ﻧﺘﻤﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﻬﺬا اﻟﻘﻄﺎع ﻣﻦ ﺧﻴﺮ وﺗﻄﻮر‬‫وﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻻرﺗﻘﺎء ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ وﻃﻨﻨﺎ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ إﻟﻰ أﻋﻠﻰ درﺟﺎت اﻟﺘﻘﺪم واﻻزدهﺎر، واﷲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻴﻦ ، واﷲ ﻣﻦ وراء اﻟﻘﺼﺪ .‬ ‫*********‬ ‫4‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﱪﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﺘﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ، ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺽ :‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫:‬ ‫–‬‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ، ﻭﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ، ﺃﺼـﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻡ‬‫ﺃﻤﺭﺍ ﻤﺴﻠﻤﺎ ﺒﻪ ، ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ ﻤﺠﺎﻻ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ . ﻭﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﻫﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ، ﺍﺠﺘﺎﺯ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﻴﻥ ، ﻤﻨﻌﻁﻔﺎﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ، ﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﻔﻭﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺤـﺩﻯ ﻭﺴـﺎﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ، ﻭﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ، ﻭﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻴﻨﺤﺴﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻭﻕ ، ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ﻨﻘـل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻼﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻬﺎ ، ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺨﻴﺹ ، ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ . ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜـﺴﺎﺕ ، ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺄﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺤﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺤـل ﺍﻷﻓـﻀل ، ﺃﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻘﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ، ﺘـﺴﻬل ﻭﺘﻴـﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ، ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻜﺘﻤـﺎل ﺸـﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـل ﺒﻜﺎﻓـﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋـﻪ‬‫ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁﻪ ، ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺠﺴﺘﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺭﻴﻎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩل ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻔـﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠـﺎل‬‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ، ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻋﺒﺭ ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ . ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤـﺭ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬‫ﻤﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﺠﺄ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ، ﻴﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ، ﺒﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻤﻊ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ، ﻭﺃﺼﺩﺭ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﻩ ﺨـﻼل ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻨﻌﻘـﺎﺩﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻲ ﺸﻬﺭ ﻨﻭﻓﻤﺒﺭ 1991 ، ﺒﺘﻜﻠﻴـﻑ ﺍﻻﺘﺤـﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ ﻟﻠـﺴﻜﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺒﺎﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺒﻨﺩﺍ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ، ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫5‬
    • ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺼﺩﻭﺭ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ، ﺒﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻠﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ، ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ، ﻤﻥ ﻤﺸﺭﻗﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻐﺭﺒﻪ ، ﻭﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ، ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻨﻌﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ 2991 .‬ ‫:‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫–‬‫ﺍﺘﺒﻌﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ، ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻥ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺃﻁـﻭﺍل ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤـﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻨﺘـﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ،‬‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ . ﻭﺘﻭﺼـﻠﺕ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﺸﺎﻤل ، ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﺒﻴﻥ ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ ﺃﻗﻁـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ ، ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒـﺔ ﺩﻟﻴـل ﺃﻭﻟـﻲ ، ﺘﻬﺘـﺩﻱ ﺒـﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻬـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤـﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ، ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌـﺩﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ، ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﺃﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ، ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ .‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﻻﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ، ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ :‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ، ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ً‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻻﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺩﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤـﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ 2002 ﺸﻜل ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ، ﺒﺭﺌﺎﺴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻁـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ، ﻻﺴـﺘﻜﻤﺎل‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻬـﺎﻡ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﺼﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻭﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ، ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟـﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤل ، ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐﺭﺏ ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻴل .‬ ‫6‬
    • ‫:‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫–‬‫ﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩ ، ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟـﺭﺒﻁ ﻓـﻲ ﺃﻗﻁـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﺘﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ، ﺘﺭﺒﻁﻬـﺎ ﺒـﺎﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻜﻤﻭﺍﻨﺊ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﺯﻋﺕ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ )ﺸﻤﺎل-ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ )ﺸﺭﻕ-ﻏﺭﺏ( ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ :‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﻭل ) ﺸﻤﺎل - ﺠﻨﻭﺏ (‬‫ﻭﻴﻜﺘﺴﻲ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻜﻭﻨﻪ ﻴﺼل ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ، ﺒﺎﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻋﺒـﺭ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺎ . ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺔ ، ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﻠﺏ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ، ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻭﻙ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﺭﺓ ، ﻭﺼﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺩﺓ . ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﺎ ﻤﺤﺎﺫﻴﺎ ﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻥ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺒﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0073 ﻜﻡ .‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺩﻤﺸﻕ ﻗﺎﺌﻡ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﻗﻴﺎﺴـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫)5341ﻤﻠﻡ( ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺩﻤﺸﻕ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻨﻔﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬‫ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻻ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺴﺎﻉ ﻀﻴﻕ )ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ 0501 ﻤﻡ ( . ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ، ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻤـﺸﻕ ﻭﻴﻨﺘﻬـﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﺭﺓ . ﻭﻗﺩ ﻟﺤﻘﺕ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌـﻪ . ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﺍﻻﺘﻔـﺎﻕ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺄﻫﻴل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨـﻁ ﻭﺘﺠﺩﻴـﺩﻩ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼـﻔﺎﺕ‬‫ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﻜل ﻗﻁﺭ ﻋﺭﺒﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ، ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗـﻊ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺭﺍﻀـﻴﻪ‬‫ﻀﻤﻥ ﺨﻁﻁﻪ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ . ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺩﻥ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﻪ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻭﺠﻨﻭﺒﻪ .‬‫ﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺨﻁﺎﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎﻥ : ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﻨﻁﻠـﻕ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻴﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻼﺫﻗﻴـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬‫ﺤﻠﺏ ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﺨﻁ ﻗﺎﺌﻡ . ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺼﻨﻌﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴـﺩﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻭل ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﺨﻁ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻭل .‬ ‫7‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺒﺄﻗﺴﺎﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺫﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘـﺭﺡ ﺘﺠﺩﻴـﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺫﻫﺎ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓـﻕ ﻤـﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪ ، (UIC‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺒﺘﻤﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺎ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺸﻤﺎل – ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬‫ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻴﻘﺘـﺭﺡ ﺍﻻﺘﺤـﺎﺩ ﻋﻤﻭﻤـﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﺼـﻔﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻷﻱ ﻗﺴﻡ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻴﺠـﺭﻱ ﺘﺠﺩﻴـﺩﻩ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻗـﺴﻡ ﻴﺠـﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻩ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺎ ، ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻤﻲ ﻭﻭﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫8‬
    • ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ) ﻏﺭﺏ - ﺸﺭﻕ (‬‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﻭﺍﻨﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺒـﺼﺭﺓ ، ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠـﻕ ﻤـﻥ‬‫ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻁﺭﻁﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻱ ، ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﻗﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻤﺹ ، ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺸـﺭﻗﺎ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻤﻨـﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴـﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺭ ، ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺼﺭﺓ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻴﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0051 ﻜﻡ ، ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻪ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ، ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗـﻊ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺭ ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺭ ﻭﻤﺤﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻜﻤـﺎل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻭﺸﺭ ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻩ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ )ﻏﺭﺏ – ﺸﺭﻕ(‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬‫ﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ : ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ ﺤﻠـﺏ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬‫ﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺭ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻭﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ . ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻴﻨﻁﻠـﻕ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻴﻨـﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍ ﺒﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻁﺭﺍﺒﻠﺱ ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻔﺫﺍ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻤﻪ ﺘﺨﺭﺒﺕ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻭﻻ ﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺠﺩﻴﺩﻩ ﻻﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ . ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫9‬
    • ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻤﺸﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼل ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ) ﺸﻤﺎل - ﺠﻨﻭﺏ (‬‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘـﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼـﺔ ، ﻷﻨـﻪ ﻴـﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﻌﻅـﻡ ﺃﻗﻁـﺎﺭ ﻤﺠﻠـﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ ، ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻡ ﻗـﺼﺭ ، ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻭﻴـﺕ ، ﻓﻤﻴﻨـﺎﺌﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻅﻬﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻔﻭﻑ ، ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﺎ ﻟﻴﻤﺭ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ ﻓﺎﻻﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻋﺒﻭﺭﺍ ﺒﺄﺒﻭ ﻅﺒﻲ ، ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻠﻁﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﻤﺴﻘﻁ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0681 ﻜﻡ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ، ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤﻘﺘـﺭﺡ ، ﻭﺒﻌـﺩ‬‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻩ ، ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻭﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻥ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻭل ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻜﻤل ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ )ﺸﻤﺎل – ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺑﻂ أﻗﻄﺎر ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎون اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫01‬
    • ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺨﻁـﻭﻁ ﺭﺌﻴـﺴﻴﺔ : ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﺘﺠـﻪ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼـﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺭﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺤﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﺘﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺠﺴﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﻥ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻴﻨﻁﻠـﻕ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍ ﺒﺩﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﻋﺠﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻭﻴﻥ ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻓﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻴﺭﺓ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ) ﺸﻤﺎل - ﺠﻨﻭﺏ (‬‫ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﺸﺭﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ، ﻭﻴﺘـﺎﺒﻊ‬‫ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﺒﺎﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺤﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴـﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﺘﻭﺠﻬـﺎ ﺠﻨﻭﺒـﺎ ﻀـﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﻴﺎﺕ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻑ ، ﻭﺤﺎﺌل ، ﻭﺒﺭﻴﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ، ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴﺭﺒﻁ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ، ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁـﻪ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻭل ، ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ، ﻭﻋﺒﺭﻩ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺨـﻼل‬‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺎ ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻜﻭﻨﻪ ﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻜﺴﺎﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺭﻋﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ )ﺸﻤﺎل – ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺎض‬ ‫11‬
    • ‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0061 ﻜﻡ ، ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴـﺴﻲ‬‫ﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻫﻭ ﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل/ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺌﻪ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻁﻭل ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ 0031 ﻜﻡ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ) ﺸﺭﻕ - ﻏﺭﺏ (‬‫ﻭﻴﻘﻊ ﺒﻜﺎﻤﻠﻪ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﺅﻤﻥ ﺭﺒﻁﺎ ﺴﻜﻜﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺠﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻏﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ، ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻔﻭﻑ ،‬‫ﻭﻴﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﻏﺭﺒﺎ ﻟﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ، ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻏﺭﺒﺎ ﻟﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺠﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﻼﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺸﻜل ﺠﺴﺭﺍ ﺴﻜﻜﻴﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺭ .‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0041 ﻜﻡ ، ﻭﻤﻌﻅﻤﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ، ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗـﻊ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬‫ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ، ﻓﻬﻭ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻤﻨﺫ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ . ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺩﺓ ، ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻁﻭﻟﻪ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 059 ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍ ، ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﺴﺘﻜﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻩ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺤﺭﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻌﻴﻥ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ )ﺸﺭﻕ – ﻏﺭﺏ(‬ ‫21‬
    • ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ) ﺸﺭﻕ - ﻏﺭﺏ (‬‫ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﻘﻁ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺩﻥ . ﻴﻤﺘﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﺤﺎﺫﻴـﺎ ﻟﻠـﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﻭﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﻋﺩﻥ ، ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺴﻠﻁﻨﺔ ﻋﻤـﺎﻥ ﻭﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ، ﻭﻴﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﺍﻨﺊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺴﻠﻁﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ .‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺒﻜﺎﻤﻠﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ، ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ ﺍﻟـﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0052ﻜﻡ .‬‫ﻭﺼﻭﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺩﻥ ، ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻷﻗﻁـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﻴﻘﻲ ، ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺩﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘﻨﻘـل ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﺩﻥ ﻭﺠﻴﺒﻭﺘﻲ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ )ﺸﺭﻕ – ﻏﺭﺏ(‬ ‫31‬
    • ‫:‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫−‬ ‫א‬‫ﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺭﻴﻘﻲ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﺤـﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻁ ﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ) ﺸﺭﻕ - ﻏﺭﺏ (‬‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻟﻸﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠـﻕ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ، ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﻏﺭﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘـﻭﻨﺱ ، ﻓـﺎﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻐﺭﺏ ، ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﺎ ﻟﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﺭﻴﺘﺎﻨﻴﺎ ، ﻤﺎﺭﺍ ﺒﺄﻫﻡ ﻤﺩﻥ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻨﺊ ﺍﻷﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻁﻭل ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺎﺫﻱ ﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ، ﻭﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﺍﻷﻁﻠﺴﻲ .‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺃﻤﺩ ﺒﻌﻴﺩ ، ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻗـﺴﻤﻴﻥ : ﺍﻷﻭل ﻫـﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻭﺸﺭ ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻤﻪ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺭﺏ ﻭﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻨﻭﺍﺩﻴﺒﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺭﻴﺘﺎﻨﻴﺎ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ )ﺸﺭﻕ – ﻏﺭﺏ(‬‫ﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻨﺊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻷﻗﻁـﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻴﺩﻱ ﺒﻭﻗﺎﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻪ ﺸﻤﺎﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻁﻨﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫41‬
    • ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺴﻜﻙ ﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﺴﺒﺎﻨﻴﺎ ، ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﺴﺒﺎﻨﻴﺎ ، ﻭﺤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺒﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺒـ 0026 ﻜﻡ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ) ﺸﻤﺎل - ﺠﻨﻭﺏ (‬‫ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺠﻨﻭﺒـﺎ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼـﻤﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻭﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻁﻭﻡ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍ ﺒﺄﺴﻴﻭﻁ ، ﺍﻷﻗﺼﺭ ، ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ، ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺤﻠﻔﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ، ﺜـﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺤﻤﺩ ﻓﻌﻁﺒﺭﺓ ، ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺭﻁﻭﻡ .‬ ‫ً‬‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﻤـﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ، ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺤﻠﻔﺎ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺤﻁﺘﻲ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬‫ﺤﻠﻔﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺨﻁ ﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ . ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﻜل‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ، ﻓﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻔﺫﺓ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻲ 5341ﻤﻡ ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬‫ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ . ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻻ ﻴﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﺌﻘﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺤﻠﻔﺎ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺤﻠﻔﺎ ﻤﺤﻁـﺔ‬‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ، ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺘﻴﻥ ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﺘﺨﺫ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺴﺭﺍﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺴـﻜﺔ‬‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻜﺔ ﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺒـﺎﻟﻌﻜﺱ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ ، ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺠﺩﻴـﺩ ﺨﻁـﻭﻁ ﺴـﻜﻙ ﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻭﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺨﻁﻭﻁﺎ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼـﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻁﻭﻡ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻘﺩﺓ ﻋﻁﺒﺭﺓ .‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺤﻠﻔﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0032 ﻜﻡ .‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻫﻲ :‬‫• ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﻗﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﺎﻋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺱ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻜﻭﺒﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﺍﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺩ ﻓﺭﻓﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ .‬‫• ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻭﺒﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﺎ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺤل ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺱ ، ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻪ ﺸﻤﺎﻻ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺤل ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ ﻤﺎﺭﺍ ﺒﺩﻫﺏ ﻭﺸﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻭﻨﻭﻴﺒﻊ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ ، ﻟﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ .‬‫• ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺸﺭﻗﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺴﻔﺎﺠﺎ ﻭﻤﻨﻪ ﺘﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻀﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ .‬ ‫51‬
    • ‫• ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻭﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻁﺒﺭﺓ ﻤﺘﻔﺭﻋﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﻗﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺠﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺒﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎﺌﻴﻥ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ )ﺸﻤﺎل – ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬ ‫61‬
    • ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ ) ﺸﻤﺎل - ﺠﻨﻭﺏ (‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺠﻴﺒﻭﺘﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﻤﺎل ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺭﺒﻁ ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﺠﻴﺒـﻭﺘﻲ‬‫ﺒﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺩﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﻘل ﻋﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺭﻴﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺠﺴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻔﻕ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻤـﻀﻴﻕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺭﺍ ، ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻻﻓﺭﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺃﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ ﻋﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﻥ .‬‫ﻴﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﺠﻴﺒﻭﺘﻲ ﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﺎ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ ﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﻋـﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻱ ، ﻟﻴﺩﺨل ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺼﻤﺔ ﻤﻘﺩﻴﺸﻭ . ﻭﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺒـ 0051 ﻜﻡ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ )ﺸﻤﺎل – ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬ ‫71‬
    • ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺸﺭ ) ﺸﻤﺎل - ﺠﻨﻭﺏ (‬‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺤﻠﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻁـﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﺭﺍﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺒﻴـﺸﺎﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺌـﺭ‬‫) ﻭﻫﻭ ﺨﻁ ﻗﺎﺌﻡ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ( ﻭﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﻨـﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴـﺔ .‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﻁﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺒﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ 0003 ﻜﻡ .‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺸﺭ)ﺸﻤﺎل – ﺠﻨﻭﺏ(‬ ‫81‬
    • ‫−א‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟـﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻓـﻲ ﻜـل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐـﺭﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ، ﻭﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻴل ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﻴﻘﻲ . ﻨﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﻴﻀﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺭﺒـﻁ ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻡ ، ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﻜﺭﺓ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـﺸﺭﻴﻥ ، ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻋﺼﺭﺍ ﺫﻫﺒﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ، ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺜﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺃﻨﻪ :‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ – ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻅﻤﺕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ – ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ – ﺍﻷﻗل ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺒﻌﺎ- ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫َ‬‫ﻭﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺸـﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁـﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﻬﺭﺒﺔ ، ﻭﻗﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﺯل ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ . ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴـﺔ ﺘـﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ . ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟـﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ، ﻭﺘﻁـﻭﺭ ﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺤـﺎﻓﻼﺕ ﻨﻘـل‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ، ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺨﻴﺹ ، ﻭﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ . ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﻠـﻪ‬‫ﺴﺤﺏ ﺯﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻤﺅﻗﺘﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﻱ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ .‬ ‫ً‬‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻔﺎﻗﻡ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ، ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺌـل ، ﻷﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ، ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﺘﺤﺭﻗـﻪ ﻤﺤﺭﻜـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ‬‫ﺭﺤﻤﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﻨﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ . ﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ، ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ، ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫91‬
    • ‫ﺘﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺍﻟـ 003 ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍ/ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺯﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺘﻴﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﺎﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻫﻤﺎ :‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻨﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻲ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻗﻴـﺔ ، ﺒـل ﺤﺘـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺌﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺜﺔ ، ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ 005 ﻭﺃﻟﻔﻲ ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻻ ﻋﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺃﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﺸـﻐﻠﻪ‬‫ﻁﻭﻴﻼ ﻜﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻨﻘل ﻤﺤﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺃﺨﺫﺕ ﺘﻨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤـﺔ ﻭﺘﺠـﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ ، ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﻗﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻨﻌﻘﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻁﻠـﻊ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ‬‫9002 ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭﻨﺎ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ، ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻡ ، ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ، ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ ﺒﺎﻁﻼﻕ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴـﺔ ، ﻁﺒﻘـﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻋﺩﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ .‬‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ ، ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ، ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻭل ﺤﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ، ﻓﺄﺒﺩﻯ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ ، ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ .‬ ‫******‬ ‫02‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ ﲣﻄﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ 003 ﻛﻢ/ ﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـﺭﺽ :‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺨﻁ "ﻭﻭﻫﺎﻥ – ﻏﻭﺍﻨﻐﺯﻫﻭ" ‪ Wuhan-Guangzhou‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﻟﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﺨﻼل ﻋﺎﻤﻴﻥ . ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻁﺅ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ، ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﺘﺎ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﻔﻭﻕ‬ ‫051 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ، ﻟﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ " ﻜﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺘﺎﻴﻠﺭ" ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﻋﻭﺩﺍ ﻁﻤﻭﺤﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺒﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻗﻔﺯ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ . ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ، ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﻼﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻪ ، ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﻔﻭﻕ ﺍﻟـ 003 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ. ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﺒﻜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ 1102 ، ﻭﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺌﺔ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ "ﻭﻨﺯﻫﻭ" ‪Wenzhou‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ 32 ﺘﻤﻭﺯ )ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ( ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺕ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﺒﻘﻲ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻪ .‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 5791 ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻤﺴﻜﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺸﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺤﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻘل ﻋﻥ 071 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴـﺎ. ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﺠﻤﻊ "ﺩﻭﻨﺎﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻴﻔﻪ" ﻋﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ "‪ "Railway Gazette‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5791، ﻭﻴﻭﻤﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬ ‫01 ﺩﻭل ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫" ﻓﻠﻴﺠﻨﺩ ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻏﺭ" ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟـ 021‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻭﻕ 021 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ. ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻀﻲ 04 ﻋﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺒﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﻴﺭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 7.421 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺒﺭﻟﻴﻥ ﻭ ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ" ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 3591، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﹸﺸ ﹼل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 401 ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﻁﻭﻜﻴﻭ" ﻭ"ﻨﺎﻏﻭﻴﺎ"‬ ‫ﺘ ﻐ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 9.961 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﺸﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 1102 ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل . ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ‬‫ ‬ ‫12‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻘﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ 3002 ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺕ 051ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ021 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ "ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻑ" ﻗﺩ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻀﻌﺎﻑ.‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺫ ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ 7991، ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 9002 ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 632 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺒﻴﺠﻨﻎ" ﻭ "ﺘﻴﺎﻨﺠﻥ" ‪ . Beijing-Tianjin‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻀﻌﺔ ﺸﻬﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﻨﺸﺭﻩ ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 62 ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل 9002، ﺨﻁﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 003 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل " ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻁﻭل ﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ" . ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ 2.493 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁ "ﻭﻭﻫﺎﻥ- ﻏﻭﺍﻨﻐﺯﻫﻭ" .‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺤﻲ، 1001‪ ،G‬ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ 861 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻴﻐﻁﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ 229 ﻜﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫" ﻭﻭﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﻭﺍﻨﻐﺯﻫﻭ ﺒﻲ" ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 3.923 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ. ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ 083 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ، ﻭ ﺤﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻟـ 64 ﻜﻡ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟـ 869 ﻜﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ " ﻭﻭﻫﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻏﻭﺍﻨﻐﺯﻫﻭ ﻨﺎﻥ" ﻓﻲ 881 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﻌﺩل 9.803 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0102 ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻓﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺨﻁ "ﺸﺎﻨﻐﻬﺎﻱ- ﻨﺎﻨﺠﻨﻎ"‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁ "ﺸﺎﻨﻐﻬﺎﻱ- ﻫﺎﻨﻐﺯﻫﻭ". ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺨﻁ "ﺒﻴﺠﻨﻎ- ﺸﺎﻨﻐﻬﺎﻱ" ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ 083 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺤﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ، ﻭﻓﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ُﻨﺸﺄﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺕ ‪ CRH380A‬ﺴﺠل ﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻟـﺴﺭﻋﺔ 1.684 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻕ . ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭﺍ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺴﺭﻋﺔ 005 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل .‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻻﺤﻘﺎ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ ، ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)ﺃﺒﺭﻴل( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺴﻴﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻥ 053 ﺍﻟﻰ 003 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﺯ )ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ( ، ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ . ﺇﻥ ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻟﺨﻁ "ﺠﻴﻨﻎ- ﻫﻭ" ‪ Jing-Hu‬ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺒﻴﺠﻨﻎ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺎﻨﻐﻬﺎﻱ ﻫﻭﻨﺠﻜﻴﺎﻭ" ﻻﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺘﺎ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻤﻥ 082 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ، ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ "‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻜﺴﻲ" ﺇﻟﻰ "ﻨﺎﺠﻴﻨﻎ ﻨﺎﻥ" ﻭﺒﻴﻥ "ﻨﺎﺠﻴﻴﻨﻎ ﻨﺎﻥ" ﻭ"ﺒﻴﺠﻨﻎ ﻨﺎﻥ" ﻓﻲ ﻜﻼ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﻴﻥ .‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ ﺘﻤﻭﺯ )ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ( ﻟﺨﻁ "ﻭﻭﻫﺎﻥ- ﻏﻭﺍﻨﻐﺯﻫﻭ" ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻬﺎ ﺒـﺴﺘﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ، ﻜل ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻴﻌ ‪‬ﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﺸﺎﻨﻐﺸﺎ ﻨﺎﻥ"، ﻴﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺴﺭﻋﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ 3.692‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ ‬ ‫22‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ‪ . II‬ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻁﺅ ، ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻻﻴﺯﺍل ﻤﺩﺭﺠﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ 003 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﺠﻌﺕ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 9002. ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍل 73 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ " ﻟﻭﺭﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺸﺎﻤﺒﺎﻨﻴﺎ-ﺃﺭﺩﻥ" ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ LGV‬ﺸﺭﻕ ﻭﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ 8.172 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ. ﺇﻥ ﻗﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ‪ TGV9866,s‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺍﻜﺱ- ﺁﻥ -ﺒﺭﻭﻓﺎﻨﺱ ﻭﺃﻓﻴﻨﻴﻭﻥ ﺒـ 81 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ 023 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﺴﺏ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ II‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻕ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪. I‬‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺸﻬﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻁ "‪ LGV‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺭﻴﻥ- ﺭﻭﻥ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6102 " ‪ LGV‬ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺤﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺍﺭ ، ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ. ﻭﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ . ﺇﻥ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ "ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ- ﺠﻨﻴﻑ" ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺨﻁ "ﻫﻭﺕ - ﺒﻭﻏﻲ" ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ "ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ- ﺒﻴﺭﻥ" ﻗﺩ ﺘﺴﺘﺤﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ﺴﻤﺔ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﻻ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ051 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻨﺸﺭ ﻜﺭﺍﺱ ﺴﻴﺭ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﺘﻭﻤﺎﺱ ﻜﻭﻙ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫"‪ "Thomas Cook Overseas Timetable‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ/ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل 0102،‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺼﻌﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﻊ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ، ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻻﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻴﺔ . ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 9002.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺴﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻁﻭل 8.18 ﻜﻡ ﻟـ"ﺘﻭﻫﻭﻜﻭ ﺸﻴﻨﻜﺎﻨﺴﻥ"‬ ‫‪ Tohoku Shinkansen‬ﻤﻥ "ﻫﺎﺸﻴﻨﻭﻫﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺸﻥ ﺃﻤﻭﺭﻱ" ‪ .Hachinohe-Shin Aomori‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ "E5" Hayabusa‬ﻫﺎﻴﺎﺒﻭﺴﺎ ﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 023 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻁﻊ ﺭﺤﻠﺔ "ﻁﻭﻜﻴﻭ- ﺸﻴﻥ – ﺃﻤﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ "‬ ‫576 ﻜﻡ ﻓﻲ 3 ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ 5 ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺸﻬﺭ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ . ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻭﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 11 ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺔ ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻀﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﺯﻟﺯﺍل ﻗﻭﻱ ﻭﺘﺴﻭﻨﺎﻤﻲ ، ﻤﺤﺩﺜﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻭﺼﻔﻪ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ ‬ ‫32‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ I‬ﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻄﺎرات اﻷﺳﺮع اﺑﺘﺪاء ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻐﺎدرة ﺣﺘﻰ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ، واﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﺤﻘﻘﺔ‬ ‫ً‬‫ ‬ ‫42‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ I‬ﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻄﺎرات اﻷﺳﺮع اﺑﺘﺪاء ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻐﺎدرة ﺣﺘﻰ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ، واﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﺤﻘﻘﺔ‬ ‫ً‬‫ ‬ ‫52‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫"ﻨﺎﻭﺘﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ" ﻜﺄﺼﻌﺏ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﻰ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﺭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ. ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﻁﻭﻜﻴﻭ ﻭﻫﺎﺸﻴﻨﻭ"، ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺨ ‪‬ﻤﻬﺎ "ﺘﻭﻫﻭﻜﻭ ﺸﻴﻨﻜﺎﻨﺴﻴﻥ".‬ ‫ﻴ ﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍل ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ .‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫8 ﺘﻤﻭﺯ )ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ( 1102. ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻥ، ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﻨﺸﺭﻫﺎ. ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﺁﺏ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻫﻭ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺃﻭﻤﺎﺒﺎ ﻭﺴﻨﺩﺍﻱ"‬ ‫38 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻫﻭ 6.212 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍل ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﺒـ 62 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻤﺎﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺯﻟﺯﺍل.‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺤﺠﺏ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺯﻟﺯﺍل ﻭﺘﺴﻭﻨﺎﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺸﻬﺩ‬ ‫21 ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ﺍﻁﻼﻕ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ 031 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺸﻤﺎل ﻤﻘﻁﻊ "ﻜﻴﻭﺸﻭ ﺸﻴﻨﻜﺎﻨﺴﻴﻥ" ﺒﻴﻥ "ﻫﺎﻜﺎﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻴﻥ-ﻴﺎﺘﺴﻭﺸﻴﺭﻭ"، ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻤﻥ "ﺴﺎﻨﻴﻭ ﺸﻴﻨﻜﺎﻨﺴﻴﻥ".‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ ﻟـ "ﻜﻴﺸﻭ ﺸﻴﻨﻜﺎﻨﺴﻴﻥ" ﺒﺸﻜل ﻜﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺴﺎﻜﻭﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼل " ﺸﻴﻥ- ﺍﻭﺴﺎﻜﺎ ﻭﻫﺎﻜﺎﺘﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻜﻭﻤﺎﻤﻭﺘﻭ ﻭﻜﺎﺠﻭﺸﻴﻤﺎ- ﺸﻭ". ﺘﺅﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺕ‬ ‫"ﺘﺴﻭﺒﺎﻡ" ﻜل ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﻫﺎﻜﺎﺘﺎ ﻭﻜﻭﻤﺎﻤﻭﺘﻭ"، ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫"ﻜﺎﺠﻭﺸﻴﻤﺎ". ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ ﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ "ﻤﻴﺯﻭﻫﻭ" ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫"ﺸﻴﻥ- ﺃﻭﺴﺎﻜﺎ" ﻭ "ﻜﺎﻨﺠﻭﺸﻴﻤﺎ- ﺸﻭ". ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟـ"ﻤﻴﺯﻭﻫﻭ "606 ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻁﻊ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫5.388 ﻜﻡ ﻓﻲ 3 ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ54 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺨﻤﺱ ﺘﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ، ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻤﻌﺩﻟﻬﺎ 6.532 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪. II‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ "ﺘﺎﻴﻭﺍﻥ" ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﺕ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﻟﺯﺍل ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫4 ﺁﺫﺍﺭ 0102. ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺼﺎﺏ ﺴﺘﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ، ﺃﺤﺩﻫﻡ ﺠﻨﺢ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ 072 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ، ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻗﻡ ‪ THSRC‬ﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺩﻭﺀ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻴﻭﻤﻴﻥ. ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 9002، ﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ 4.542 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺸﻴﺎﻴﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻴﺸﻨﻎ" ﺍﺨﺘﻔﺕ ﻭﺘﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ 8.442 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﻤﻥ "ﺘﺎﻴﺸﻨﻎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻭﺸﻨﻎ ﺯﻭﻴﻨﻎ ".‬‫ ‬ ‫62‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﻜﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺕ ‪ II‬ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺍﺒﺔ ‪ KTX‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 053 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ 9002 ، ﻭ ‪‬ﻅﻬﺭ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﺸﻬﺭ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل 0102‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ. ﺇﻥ ﺃﺴﺭﻉ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ "ﺩﻴﺠﻭﻥ" ﺇﻟﻰ "ﺸﻴﻭﻨﻭﻥ ﺁﺴﺎﻥ" ﻫﻭ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫1.202 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ، ﺃﻱ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺒـ 01ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻋﺎﻡ 9002 ، ﻟﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺎﺩ ﻴﺘﺨﻁﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫002ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ "ﺴﻴﺅﻭل" ﻭ"ﺩﻴﺠﻭﻥ" . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﻑ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻋﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟـ ‪ KTK‬ﻟﻡ ﺘﻔﻠﺢ .‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺒﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﻟﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺒﺎﻨﻴﺎ ﺘﻭﺠﺕ ﺒﺎﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻜﺎﻨﺘﻲ. ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ /‪ ./ I‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺸﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﻭﺩﺍﺩ ﺭﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺍﻏﻭﺯﺍ ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 3.342ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﻭﺍﺸﺒﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﻏﻭﺯﺍ ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 4.512 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ، ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺭﺸﻠﻭﻨﺔ، ﺍﺸﺒﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺎﻟﻘﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫091ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪. (II‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻜﺴﺒﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺕ ‪ AVE‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﺴﺒﺎﻨﻴﺎ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺴﻁ ﻤﺘﺼ ‪‬ﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﺓ ، ﻤﻊ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ‪ Alvia‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻀﻌﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼل ﻤﺩﺭﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﺸﺒﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺴﺎﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻋﺸﺭ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ 6.102 ﻜﻡ/ ﺴﺎ. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﺨل ﺍﺴﺒﺎﻨﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺠﺩﻫﺎ. ﻭﻻﺘﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻤﺎﺸﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 054ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ ﻭﺃﻤﺴﺘﺭﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﻜﻔﻭﺭﺕ ﻗﺒل ﻋﺎﻡ 3102.‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻁﻼﻕ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻴﻐﺭﻭ ‪ Allegro‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﻠﺴﻴﻨﻜﻲ ﻭﺴﺎﻥ ﺒﻁﺭﺴﺒﻭﺭﻍ ﻟﻘﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻨﺼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺎﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ، ﻟﻜﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻨﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ 63 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ 614 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﻤﻊ /6/ ﺘﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ، ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 6.511ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ. ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺭﻭﺴﻴﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ، ﻤﻊ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺴﺎﺒﺴﺎﻥ ‪ Sapsan‬ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﻁﻊ ﺃﺴﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻭﺴﻜﻭ ﻭﺴﺎﻥ ﺒﻁﺭﺴﺒﻭﺭﻍ ﺒـ 3 ﺴﺎ ﻭ 54 ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ /‪. /I‬‬‫ ‬ ‫72‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ، ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻜل‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺯﻤﻨﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 9002. ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺩﻫﺸﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺭﻭﻤﺎ ﻭ ﻨﺎﺒﻭﻟﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻷﺭﺒﻊ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻟﺘﺎ ﻓﻴﻠﻭﺴﻴﺘﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻁﻊ ﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ /18/ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒـ /76/ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل 2.591 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺠﺯﺀ ﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﺘﺩ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﺭﻴﻨﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﺎﻟﻴﺭﻴﻨﻭ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﻴﺕ 005 ‪ETR‬‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ 003ﻜﻡ /ﺴﺎ ﻭﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻨﺩﻭﻟﻴﻨﻭﺱ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 052 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻜﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺭﻗﻡ /‪/ l‬ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻥ. ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟـ‪ SBB‬ﻫﻭ /52/ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ /26/ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺭﻥ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺘﻴﻥ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 8.841 ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻥ، ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﻴﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻥ ﻴﺼﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﻻﺭﻴﺴﺎ ﻭﺴﺎﻟﻭﻨﻴﻙ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ 741/ﻜﻡ/ﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ II‬ﻣﺴﺎرات أﺧﺮى ﻟﻘﻄﺎرات ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻮق اﻟـ 051 آﻢ/ ﺳﺎ‬‫ ‬ ‫82‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ III‬ﻋﺪد اﻟﺒﻠﺪان اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻗﻄﺎراﺗﻬﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺎت أﻋﻈﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺰﻳﺎدة ﻣﺘﺪرﺟﺔ 01آﻢ / ﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ IV‬ﺑﻠﺪان ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻗﻄﺎراﺗﻬﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺎت ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ 021 و 051 آﻢ / ﺳﺎ‬‫ ‬ ‫92‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ V‬اﻟﻘﻄﺎرات اﻷﺳﺮع ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮهﻮآﻮ ﺷﻴﻨﻜﺎﻧﺴﻦ ‪ Tohoku Shinkansen‬‬ ‫*******‬‫ ‬ ‫03‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺗﺴﻴﲑ ﻗﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺩ ﻜﺭﻴﺴﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺠﺎﻜﺴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺭﺍﻴﻠﻭﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Railway Gazette International‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ :‬‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻁﻭل . ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬‫ﻤﺎﻴﻙ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ )‪ ،(Mike Franczak‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺸﻐل ﻤﻨﺼﺏ ﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻱ ، ﺒﺄﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ، ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ، ﻭﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ.‬‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﺩﻭﻤﺎ ﺍﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ "ﻴﻘﻭل ﻤﺎﻴﻙ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ". ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻔﺴﺭﺍ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻘﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺴﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎ ، ﻭﻨﻭﺼﻲ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﻴﺔ، ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬‫ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ، ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻜﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ. ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻔﻜﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻻﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻺﺭﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺃﻴﺩﻴﻨﺎ. ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ، ﻫﻲ ﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ. ﺇﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻜل ﻨﺴﻴﺠﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ ، ﻭﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺘﻤﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ، ﻟﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬‫ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻟﻬﺎ 3.4 ﻜﻡ . ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ، ﻤﻊ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬‫ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل. ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﻯ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ ، ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ.‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺘﻤﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺨﻁ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻁﻭﻟﻪ 51642 ﻜﻡ ، ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒـ 62733 ﻜﻡ ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ. ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺴﺨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﺨﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻷﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 0881 . ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺤﺭﻴﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎل ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﺭﻴﺩ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﻜﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻱ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟـ 521 ﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺘﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل :‬ ‫13‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﺫﻟﻨﺎ ﺠﻬﺩﻨﺎ ﻟﻨﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻤﻨﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ًﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ. ﻓﻔﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫0102 ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺒﻨﻘل 4.2 ﺒﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻨﺠﺯﻴﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﻨﻘل ﻴﻌﺎﺩل 063 ﺒﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ- ﻜﻡ ، ﻤﻤﺎ‬‫ﺤﻘﻕ ﻋﺎﺌﺩﺍﺕ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ 5 ﺒﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻜﻨﺩﻱ . ﻟﻘﺩ ﺤﻘﻘﻨﺎ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﺭﻴﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﻨﺊ ﻓﺎﻨﻜﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل ، ﻓﻴﻼﺩﻟﻔﻴﺎ ﻭﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﺭﻙ . ﻭﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟـ 34% ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﺌﺩﺍﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻁ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒـ 92% ﻤﻥ ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭ82% ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ . ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻁ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺯﻴﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺩ .‬‫ﺘﻘﻊ ﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻨﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺴﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﻘﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﺎﻟﻐﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6991. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ .‬‫ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 8891 ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻟﻐﺭﻱ ﻭﻓﺎﻨﻜﻭﻓﺭ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﺯﺩﺤﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 43 ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﻭﺓ ، ﻭﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﻼﺴل ﺠﺒﻠﻴﺔ ، ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ 2.2 % ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ 1% ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺘﻘﺩﺭ ﺒـ 7.41 ﻜﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﻕ ﺠﺒل ﻤﺎﻜﺩﻭﻨﺎﻟﺩ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﻤﺭ ﺭﻭﺠﺭ .‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ:‬‫ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻗﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺌﺩ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺹ ﺘﺸﺤﻴﻡ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ "ﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﻗﺩﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻜﻭﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ . ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﺫ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻲ ﻜﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 001 % . ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002 ﻭﻗﺭﺭﺕ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ.‬‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ "ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ 942 ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺘﺸﺤﻴﻡ ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻟﻐﺭﻱ ﻭﻓﺎﻨﻜﻭﻓﺭ" ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬‫ﺨﺎﺹ ﻤﻁﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻜﻴﻠﺴﺎﻥ ‪ . Kelsan‬ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺘﺸﺤﻴﻡ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﺯﻴﺞ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻀﺎﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﺸﺭﻩ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻟﻴﺏ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﻰ 3 ﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻲ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺤﻴﻡ .‬‫ﻴﺨﻔﻑ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﻻﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﻴﺨﻔﻑ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ . ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺭﺃﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻫﺘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 03% . ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل 061 ﻜﻡ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺒﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻨﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺏ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ . ﻭﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺍﻫﺘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴـﺏ‬ ‫23‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻟﻴﺏ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺭﺽ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺹ ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺹ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻜﻜل .‬‫" ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ " ، ﻴﻀﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ، ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺤﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻱ ، ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ‬‫ﺒﻠﻎ 5,7 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻟﺘﺭ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺠﻨﺭﺍل ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺭﻴﻙ " ﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻕ ﻟﻠﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل " ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻘﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ .‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻜﻨﺕ‬‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ . ﺘﻡ ﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻭﻜﻭﺘﺭﻭل ‪ Locotrol‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻓﺄ ﺭﻭﺒﻴﺭﺘﺱ ﺒﺎﻨﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻓﺎﻨﻜﻭﻓﺭ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺩﻭﺠﺔ . ﻭﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﺘﻌﻤﻼﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫0044 ﺤﺼﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ ﻭﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺨﺭﺓ ، ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯ "001%‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﺘﻌﻤل ﻭﻓﻕ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﻜﻭﺘﺭﻭل" .‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ ﺠﺭ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ ﺠﺭ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ ﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺭ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ  ‬ ‫ﺠﺭ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺨﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺓ ﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺨﺭﺓ‬ ‫33‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﻘﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ ، ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻘﺔ ﺘﺠﻌل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺸﺤﻥ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻤﻜﺎﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ . ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻠﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺒﺢ ﻭﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ.‬‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ "ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺒﺴﻼﺴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻭﺃﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل" .‬‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺒﺢ ‪ECP‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ‪ roll-out‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ.‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ :‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ، ﺇﺫ ﻴﺅﻜﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ .‬‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺯﻴﻡ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـ "ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ" ‪. Train Area Marshaling‬‬‫ﺘﻀﻡ ‪ TRAM II‬ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺭﺒﻁ ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ . ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺒﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻟﻠﺤﻤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻏﺔ ، ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻗﻁﺎﺭ .‬‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ" ﻟﺭﻓﻊ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻤﺯﺝ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﺯﺩﻭﺍﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ "ﻋﺩﺩ ﻜﺎﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻁﻭل 4 ﻜﻡ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺘﻼﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻗﻲ . ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺒﻨﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻴﺅﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ " ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺨﻁﻁ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻤلﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻭﺍﺕ".‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺘﻤﺘﺔ :‬‫ﻴﺅﻜﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ‪ IT‬ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ : "ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺭﺼﺩﻨﺎ ﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺒﻨﻴﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﺩﺍﺘﻨﺎ ﻭﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫43‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﺎﺌﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﻓﻀل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل ﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﺘﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ.‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻀﻁﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺄﺴﺭﻉ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ."ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻨﺎ. ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬‫ﺴﻴﺼل 0055 ﻤﻭﻅﻑ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﺩل 53% ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺩ ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺴﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻭﺍﺤﺩ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺒﺄﻋﻁﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻗﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ‬‫ﺴ ُﻤ ﹼﻥ ﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ ، ﻭﺴﻨﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭﻨﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ، ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻷﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻗل ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل .‬‫ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺄﻗﺼﻰ‬‫ﺴﺭﻋﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻤﻊ ﻓﺤﺹ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺕ ﻟﻠﺨﻁ . ﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ" ﺴﻨﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ" .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﻗﺎﺌﻼ:" ﺇﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺜﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺼﺤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻼﺅﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ ، ﻤﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ، ُﻤ ﹼﻨﻨﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻜ‬‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤل ﺘﻌ ﹼل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﻭﺭﺸﺔ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ. ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻁ‬‫ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﺒﺎﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻹﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺡ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺭﺽ" .‬‫"ﺇﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻷﻋﻁﺎل ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻁﺎل ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺤﺎﺕ ، ﻓﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ . ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺒﺤﺜﻭﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻁﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﺎل ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ . ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ . ﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ" ﺇﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﻨﻔﻕ ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻲ 052 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻜﻨﺩﻱ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ ﻭﺍﻹﺼﻼﺡ ، ﻭﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻜل ﺘﻌﻁل ﻟﻠﺨﻁ ﻴﻜﻠﻔﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل 0005 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻜﻨﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺁﺨﺫﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺘﺄﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻭﻟﺔ .‬ ‫53‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ ‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﺌﺩ :‬‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤﹰ، ﺼﺭﺡ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻁﻭل ، ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺒﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻤﻭﺍﺀﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ.‬‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ، ﻭﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺨﻠﻑ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻭﺭﺍﺀﻨﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ.‬‫ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﻁﻭﺭﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻁﺭﺩ ، ﻗﺎل" ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 34% ، ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﻴﺭ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺃﻁﻭل ، ﻭﺘﻨﻘل‬‫ﺤﺠﻤﺎ ﺃﺜﻘل ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ 51% . ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﻨﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﻓﺤﺹ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺩﺍﺩ ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺒﺘﻀﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ.‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ، ﺇﻥ ﻫﺩﻓﻨﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻡ ﻤﺅﻟﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ 251 ﻋﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 3102 ﻤﻊ ﺠﺭ ﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ 00091 ﻁﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺜﻼﺙ ﻭﻀﻌﻴﺎﺕ . ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺭﻓﻊ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ 81% ﻤﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ .‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ، ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺍﻷﺜﻘل ﻫﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻓﺎﻨﻜﻭﻓﺭ،‬‫ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺅﻟﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ 241 ﻋﺭﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺘﺴﺤﺏ ﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﻰ 00581 ﻁﻥ ، ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺒﺩﺃﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒـ 421 ﻋﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻤﻴﻥ . ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﻤﺅﻟﻑ ﻤﻥ 071 ﻋﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ 05222 ﻁﻥ:‬‫ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ 02% . ﻭﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻨﻜﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻜﺜﻴﻑ ﺍﻟـ 071 ﻋﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ ﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ.‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ، "ﻫﺩﻓﻨﺎ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ 11% ﻤﻥ ﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻗﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺜﻼﺙ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻭﻀﻌﻴﺎﺕ" . ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﺅﻟﻑ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻜﻨﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﻔﻴﻙ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﻋﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻜل ﻴﻭﻡ ، ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﺴﺯﺍﻙ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺇﻁﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺴﻴﻼﺌﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁ "ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ، ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﻜل ﺯﻭﺝ ﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻴﺭﻩ ﻋﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻓﺭﺍ ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻴﺼل ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ 01 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺤﻘﻘﺕ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ، ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ، ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ.‬‫"ﻫﺫﺍ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺤﻭل ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ ﻗﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻁﻭل "ﺨﺘﻡ ﻗﺎﺌﻼ " ﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﺫﺍ ﻭﻀﻌﺘﻡ ﻜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻌﺎ ، ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻀﺨﻤﺎ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫*******‬ ‫63‬ ‫ ‬
    • ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫) 9991 ‪( COTIF‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺠﻴﺭﻓﺭﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻭﺘـﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪OTIF‬‬ ‫‪ – I‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﻀﻌﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 41 ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل‬‫) ﺃﻜﺘﻭﺒﺭ ( ﻋﺎﻡ 0981 ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺩﺭﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ . ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺨﻼل ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻨﺠﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ ، ﺒل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ) ‪ ( COTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻘﻬﺎ )‪ (CIV‬ﻭ )‪(CIM‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ) ﺒﺭﻥ ﺒﺭﻗﻡ 4.03 ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 9/5/0891 ( ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﺎﻓﺫﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺩﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﻴﺎﺭ ) ﻤﺎﻴﻭ ( 5891 ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺨﻀﻌﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻁﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫9891/0991 . ﻭﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎﻴﻭ )ﺃﻴﺎﺭ( 0891 ﻭﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ ﻟﻠـ‬‫)‪ (OTIF‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻁﻠﻊ ﺸﻬﺭ ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ )ﻴﻭﻨﻴﻭ( 9991 ﻓﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺨﻀﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﺭﻗﻡ ) 044/19( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ )ﻴﻨﺎﻴﺭ(‬‫3991 ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺠﺯﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻭﻤﺸﻐﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ . ﻭﻤﺎﺯﺍل‬‫ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ 0991 ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ )‪ (COTIF‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ﻤﺒﻨﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁ . ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 5991 ﻭﺤﺘﻰ 7991 ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫73‬
    • ‫ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﻨﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (COTIF‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ، ﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺎ ) ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭﻻ ( ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟـ ‪CIV‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭ ‪ CIM‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟـ ‪ . RID‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺠﻬﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﻨﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬‫)‪ .(COTIF‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‪ CUV‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ D‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ) ‪ CUI‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ E‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ( ، ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬‫) ‪ – APTU‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ F‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ( ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ) ‪ ATMF‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ G‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ( .‬‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻭﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ . ﻨﺎﻗﺸﺕ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻭﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﻪ 09 ﺘﺴﻌﻭﻥ ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻋﺩﻟﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺤﻭﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ . ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻤل ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ - ﻤﻊ ﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل – ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫)0891 ‪ (COTIF‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ﺍﻨﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ) ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ( ﻤﻥ 62 ﺃﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ 3 ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ 9991 ﺒﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ " ﻟﻴﺘﻭﺍﻨﻴﺎ " .‬ ‫‪ – II‬ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﺭﺕ ) ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ( ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ 9 ﺃﻴﺎﺭ 0891‬‫ﺒل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻜﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ 91 ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ 0891 ، ﻭﺃﻗﺭﺕ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ . ﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺭﺓ / 02 / ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ 0891 ‪ COTIF‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟـ )‪(OTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ.‬ ‫‪ – III‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ )‪ ) (COTIF‬ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ (‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ – ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ :‬ ‫83‬
    • ‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﻭﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ﻋﺎﻡ 9991‬ ‫‪COTIF‬‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﺤﻭل ﺍﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺤﺼﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪OTIF‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪G‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪F‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪E‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪D‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪C‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪B‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪A‬‬ ‫‪ATMF‬‬ ‫‪APTUR CUI UR CUVUR‬‬ ‫‪RID‬‬ ‫‪CIM UR‬‬ ‫‪CIV UR‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪COTIF‬‬ ‫ﺁ – ‪ OTIF‬ﻗﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﻱ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ- ‪ " OTIF‬ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ "‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ :‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ‪RID‬‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫93‬
    • ‫1- ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ )‪ (COTIF‬ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫9 ﺃﻴﺎﺭ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ) ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ( ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫0891 ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺸﻤل ﺃﻤﻭﺭﺍ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﻤﺘﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ 1999 COTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﻤﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ 1980 COTIF‬ﻭﻤﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ، ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـ ‪ 1980 CIM UR‬ﻭ ‪ CUI UR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺩﺨﻭل ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ )‪ (COTIF‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺅﻤﻥ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺩﻉ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺩﻉ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫2- ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ) ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪( COTIF‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﻭﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺨﺎﺹ ، ﻤﺎﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﻤﻘﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ "ﺒﺭﻥ" . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ، ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺒﺎﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ، ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻋﻤل ﺃﺨﺭﻯ . ﺇﻥ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﺘﺴﺘﺒﺩل ﺒﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺒﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ .‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻠﻤﻭﺴﺔ . ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ )2( ‪COTIF‬‬‫9991 ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻠﻕ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ .‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ . ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫04‬
    • ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ . ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ .‬‫ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ‪ . OTIF‬ﻭﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺫﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺸﻴﻜﺎﻏﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺱ 9991 ‪ ICAO‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻭﺘﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻫﺫﺍ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺸﻐﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ، ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻪ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ‪ ) EC‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ( . ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬‫) ﻋﻭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ( . ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ، ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ . ﻓﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻠﺙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻲ ﻋﺸﺭ ، ﻭﺘﻌ‪‬ﻥ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺒﺄﻜﺒﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ . ﻭﺤﻴﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺸﺎﻏﺭ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﻤﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻟﻜل ﻋﻀﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺴﻤﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻭﻨﺎ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ . ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ، ﺒل ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻁﺒﻌﺎ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺴﻨﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ .‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻭﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ) ‪. ( RID‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻟﺠﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻴﺘﺎﻥ ) ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ( ﻭ ) ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ( .‬‫ﺘﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻲ ﺒﺄﺴﺱ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ، ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ .‬ ‫14‬
    • ‫ﺘﺘﺨﺫ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻱ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﻭﺤﻭل ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺸﺎﺀ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ ، ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺒﺎﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺨﺹ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺭﻓﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ . ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻜﺄﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺴﺭ ﺍﻟـ ‪ ، OTIF‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻭﻻﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺒﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ . OTIF‬ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ﺍﻨﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺱ ﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩﻴﻥ ‪ CIV‬ﻭ ‪ CIM UR‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯﻫﺎ . ﺃﻤﺎ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻗﺩ ﺴﻘﻁﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ . ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ ﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺨﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﻭل ﺍﻻﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺸﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﺤﺼﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺭﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ . ﻭﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻥ ، ﻓﻠﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻻﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺩﻑ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ . ﺇﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﺜﻨﻲ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺸﻬﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺜﻠﺜﻲ ) ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ( ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ - ﻭﻗﺒل ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ –‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﺕ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﺤﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻤﻔﺘﻭﺡ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻜل ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺱ ﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ) ﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ( . ﺇﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺭﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ . ﻭﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺴﺎﻭ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺩﻭل ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﻗﺭﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ) ‪ ( EC‬ﺴﺘﻨﻀﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ . COTIF‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ 83 ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﻓﺎﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻩ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘﺒﺭﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ OTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ . EC‬ﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ،‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟـ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻓﻼ ﺘﺯﺍل ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻨﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺩﺨﻭل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺤﺘﻤل‬ ‫24‬
    • ‫ﺨﻼل ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ، ﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ EC‬ﻋﻀﻭﺍ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ .‬‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ " ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻙ " ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ . ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻟـ ‪) OTIF‬ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﺔ( .‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﻭﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ . ﻭﺘﺘﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ . ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺴﺘﻌﻔﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ .‬ ‫3- ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪OTIF‬‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻨﺹ ﻭﺃﻋﻴﺩ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ ، ﻤﻊ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﻔﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻨﺔ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺤﻜﻡ‬‫ﻗﻀﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻁﺭﻑ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺒﺄﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﻐﻠﺔ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻱ ﺤﻜﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﻑ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﻴﻌﻔﻰ . ﻭﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﺜﻼ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪. OTIF‬‬‫4- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪A‬‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( CIV‬‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻋﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ . ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻀﻌﻭﺍ‬‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺎ ﺃﻥ )‪ (CIV UR‬ﻟﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻤﺘﻔﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﻭﺃﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ .‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ، ﻓﺎﻥ )‪ (CIV UR‬ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﺘﺤﻭﻱ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﺎ ﺍﺠﺒﺎﺭﻴﺎ ، ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ . ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ، ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﺎﺌﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ .‬ ‫34‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻲ ) ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ – ﻋﻘﺩ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ( ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﺃﺜﻴﻨﺎ ( ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 4791 ﻭﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﻭﺍﺭﺴﻭ ( ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫9291 ﻭﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل ( ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 9991 . ﺇﻥ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺘﺫﻜﺭﺓ )‪ (CIV‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻁﻠﺒﺎ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺎ ، ﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺜﺒﺕ ﺒﺘﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﻜﺏ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺨﺎﻀﻐﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﺃﻭ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﻡ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ . ﺇﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ، ﻭﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺘﻡ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺯﺩﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻭﻟﺔ ، ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ) ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ( ، ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ .‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ) ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ( ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﺃﺜﻴﻨﺎ ( ﻋﺎﻡ 4791 : ﺍﺫﺍ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ) ﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺩﻴل ( ﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ . ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ . ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻴﺘﺤﻤل ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ‪ CIV UR‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﻴﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺤﻘﻭﻗﺎ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ CIV UR‬ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺒل ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﻁﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻋﺒﺭﻫﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ، ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭﻭﻥ ﻜﺄﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻫﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺄﺨﺭ ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ﺘﻡ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻜﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻻﻟﻐﺎﺀ ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﺄﺨﺭ‬‫ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺭﺤﻠﺘﻪ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ، ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺒﻼﻍ‬‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻠﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻨﺘﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻜﺏ . ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ .‬ ‫5- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ B‬ﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ) ‪( CIM‬‬ ‫44‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ، ﻜﺎﻥ / ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻤﻊ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ (CMR‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 6591 .‬‫ﺇﻥ )‪ (CIM UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺠﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻋﻘﺩ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻴﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﻀﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻥ.‬‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ . ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺯﺍﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟـ ) ‪ (CIM UR‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺠﺭ ﺃﺒﺩﺍ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ )9991 ‪ (CIM UR‬ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ‪. CMR‬‬‫)‪ (CIM UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻋﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫- ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ، ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ.‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻗﻲ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ .‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭ‬‫ﻻﺴﺘﻼﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻀﻭ ، ﺇﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ )‪. (CIM‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻫﻭ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻜﺎﻑ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ . ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ )‪ (CIM UR‬ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻤﻥ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ SMGS‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫1591 ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﻤﺜﺎل ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ "ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ" ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ "ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل" ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﺎﺌﻥ . ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻗﺼﻭﻯ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻴﺎ ) ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﺎ ( . ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﺩ ﻭﺘﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 6 ، 1 ﻤﻥ ‪ CIM UR‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 9991. ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ‪ . CMR‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ ، ﺃﻭ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺨﺎﻀﻌﺎ ﻟـ "‪. "CIM UR‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻥ ، ﻓﻔﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺩﺨﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (EC‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻜل ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺎ ﺒﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﺘﺅﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻫﺎﻨﺎ ﻗﺎﺒﻼ ﻟﻠﺩﺤﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ :‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫- ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل .‬ ‫54‬
    • ‫- ﺘﻜﻔل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل .‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻭﺘﻐﻠﻴﻔﻬﺎ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ، ﺒﺎﺘﺘﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ.‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻌﻁﻰ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ، ﻤﺜﻼ ﺒﺎﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﻭﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻁﺒﻘﺎ ﻟـ ) ‪ (CIM UR‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ . ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺨﺎﻀﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺤﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ، ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻡ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻭﻭﻗﺕ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ) ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ( ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻼ ‪ ) CIV UR‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ (‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـ )‪ . (CIM UR‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 8791 ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﺈﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ، ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﺩﻴل ، ﻭﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺴﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ، ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﺯ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ) ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺠﺯﺌﻲ ( . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺤﻘﻭﻗﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ) ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻗﺎﺀ ( . ﻫﺫﻩ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ( ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﻅﻡ ﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺯﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻴﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ )‪(CIM UR‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻴﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻤﻤﻨﻭﺤﺔ ﻟﻪ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻘﺒل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﺸﺄ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬‫‪ . CIM UR‬ﺇﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭﻭﻥ ﻜﺄﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻻﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ )‪ .(CIV UR‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻫﻭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ‪ CMR‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻟﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻥ .‬‫- ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺤﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻜﻴل ، ﺘﻡ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺅﻫﺎ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻁﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺴﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺠﻼﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﻜﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ . ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫64‬
    • ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ) ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻟﻭﻓﺔ ( ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪ (RIP‬ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ ﻟﻜل ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟـ 71 ﺤﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ CIM UR‬ﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ‬‫ﺒﻬﺎ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﻭﺒﺄﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻻﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ – ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ، ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺘﺨﻔﻴﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 8791 . ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺸﻤل ، ﻭﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒـ ) ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﺒﺔ ( . ﻭﻓﻘﻁ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ) ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ( ﻭ ) ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺫ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺫ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ( ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﺭ ، ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ( . ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻲ ( ﻜﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ .‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺘﻴﻥ 05 ﻭ 2 ﻓﻲ ‪ CIM‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺠﻌﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺘﺩﻋﻭﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ .‬‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ، ﺤﺘﻰ ﻭﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁﺄ ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻠﺏ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ، ﻭﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩﻤﻭﺍ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻠﺘﺯﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﻬﺎ .‬ ‫6- ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ) ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ C‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( RID‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ RID‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻟـ ‪ ، COTIF‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ )‪ (RID‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ‬‫ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل )‪ . (CIM‬ﻭﺒﺨﻀﻭﻋﻪ ﻟﻼﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ‪ RID‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﻴﻨﺌﺫ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟـ ‪ RID‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﺩ ) ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺯ ‪ ( IMDG‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﺼﻑ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻡ . ﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻟﻙ : ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﺎﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻴﺭﻟﻨﺩﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻁﻴﻕ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟـ ‪ RID‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻟﺨﻠﻕ ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ . ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪ RID‬ﻭ ‪ ADR‬ﻓﺎﻥ ‪ ADR / RID‬ﻭﺒﺎﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬‫) ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ 7991( ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ) ﺠﺯﺀ ﺭﻗﻡ 1 ( ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ .‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻻﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )‪. (RID‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫74‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟـ ‪ RID‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺒﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ . ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﻨﻘل ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻭﺍﺭﺉ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻤﺯﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ RID‬ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟـ ‪ ، RID‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎ ﺒﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ، ﻭﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻼ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ – ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﻤﺎﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ –‬‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ C‬ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ .‬‫7- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪D‬‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( CUV‬‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻜﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻴﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ.‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( CUV UR‬ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﺎ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ، ﻴﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ) ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ – ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﺒﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ ، P‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻤﺜل ﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﺠﻴﺏ ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺩﻴﺔ ( ﻭﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻋﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ . ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ) ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ( ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﻁﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ ﻟﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )‪ (RIV‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )‪.(RIC‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻭﻉ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ، ﻴﻔﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺨﻁﺄ‬‫ﻤﺤﺘﻤل ) ﻤﻔﺘﺭﺽ ( . ﻭﺘﺭﻙ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ ، P‬ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ) ﻤﺎﺩﺓ 21 ﻭ 1 ‪. ( RIP‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻟﻭﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ، ﺸﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﻐﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺩ .‬‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ، ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻜﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻜﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﻔﻘﻭﺩﺓ ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺘﺴﺭﻱ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ P‬ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ 31 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫84‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ) ‪ ، ( RIP‬ﻭﺍﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺸﻬﺭﺍ ﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 91 ﻤﻥ )‪ (RIC‬ﻭﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺸﻬﺭﺍ ) ﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ( ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 81 ﻤﻥ )‪ . (RIV‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ، ﺍﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﻴﺔ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻋﺎﺩ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬‫ﺒﺎﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺘﻔﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻻﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻥ )‪ (CU VUR‬ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻁﺒﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﻼل ﻤﺤل ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺎﺘﺕ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ، ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ، ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬‫ﺸﺨﺹ ﺒﺸﺨﺹ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﺎﺭﺱ ، ﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ، ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ) ﺒﺎﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺠﺴﻭﺭ ( ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ 21 ، 6 ﻤﻥ ‪. RIP‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻭل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺓ ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻨﻘل ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (CUV UR‬ﻭﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻭﻏﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ، ﻋﺒﺭ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ) ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﺒﺎﻻﺘﻔﺎﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﺘﻨﺸﺊ ﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻤﺔ . ﺨﻼﻓﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﻁﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ . ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻋﻰ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻭﻁﻥ ﻋﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫8- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ E‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪(CUI‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻋﻘﺩ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻨﻘل ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺭﻴﻥ ) ‪ ( CIV‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ )‪. ( CIM‬‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺒﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻭﻁﻥ ﻋﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ . ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ( CUI UR‬ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ، ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل . ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ . ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ، ﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ، ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻑ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ CUI UR‬ﻻ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫94‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ . ﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ، ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻻﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻤﻬﺎﻤﻬﻡ .‬‫ﻴﺤﻕ ﻷﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺭﻴﺢ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺤﺎﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ) ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ، ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ(‬‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ) ﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ ( ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ، ( CIM UR‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ . ﻭﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺒﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ . ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ، ﺘﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺘﻤﺕ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ) ‪ ، ( CIV UR‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟـ ‪ CIM UR‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل( ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ) ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ، ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ) ﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ (‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺕ . ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ )ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ( ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻨﻘﻠﺕ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻔﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﺃﻭ ) ‪. ( CIM UR‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﺜﻼ : ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﺍ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺸﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ " ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻤﻬﺎﻤﻬﻡ " .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺸﻜل ) ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺨل ﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ( ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺴﺘﻌﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ، ( CVI UR‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻊ ) ﺤﺩ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ( ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺒـ 000,571 ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ) ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ( ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ .‬‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺒﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻤﻲ ، ﻭﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ . ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ . ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺼﺎﺭﻡ .‬ ‫05‬
    • ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ، ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻬﺎ : ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﺸﻜﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ . ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﻭل ﺤﻘﻭﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ . ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ . ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﻤﻘﺎﻀﺎﺓ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ، ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﻠﻔﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫9- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ F‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( APTU‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﻴﻥ ‪ ( APTU) F‬ﻭ ) ‪ – G‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 01 ( ﻴﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (COTIF‬ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ )‪ ( APTU‬ﺘﺸﻜل ) ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ( ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ‪. ATMF‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟـ )‪ ( APTU UR‬ﺘﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺜﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ . ﺇﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ) ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ( ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺱ (‬‫ﻻ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـ )‪ . (OTIF‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟـ ] ‪. [CEN , CENELEC, ETSI, etc‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻟـ )‪ (APTU UR‬ﻫﻭ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻭﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﻟـ ‪ . APTUUR‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﺭﺠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ‪ . ATMF UR‬ﺇﻥ ‪ APTU UR‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻴﻨﺌﺫ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺘﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ) ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﻊ 01 ( .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻫﻭ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻥ ﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ) ‪ ( OTIF‬ﻭﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻟﻸﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﻗﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ، ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ.‬ ‫15‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ، ﺃﻱ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺘﺸﺭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ) ﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪( EC‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺃﻱ ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ) ﻤﺜﻼ ‪ ( UIC‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺎﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻸﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ) ‪ ( APTU UR‬ﺃﺤﺩﺜﺕ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﺠﻨﻴﻑ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ 8591 ( ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻼﺕ ، ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻁﻊ ، ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ .‬‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺼﺩﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻨﺎﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 2881/8391 ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻓﻬﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟـ )‪ (RIV‬ﻭ )‪ (RIC‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ )‪. (UIC‬‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺘﻭﺒﺭ ) ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ( 9991 ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ‪ EU‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ . ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺭﻗﻡ ‪2001/16/EC‬‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺒﻨﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ‬‫91/3/1002. ﻭﺩﺨل ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻨﺸﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (EC‬ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 02/4/1002 . ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﺌﺫ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺘﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ‪ APTU UR‬ﻭ ‪. ATMF UR‬‬‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺴﺭ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺩﺨﻠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﺘﺒﺭﺓ‬‫– ﻭﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ – ﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺘﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻭﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﻭﺍﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬‫ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ ، (TSI‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﻟﻠـ ‪. APTU UR‬‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻭﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ )‪ ( TSI‬ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ، ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻼﺤﻕ ‪ APTU‬ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻀﻼﺕ ، ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (EC‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟـ ‪ COTIF‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ RID‬ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﻤﺜل .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﺴﻘﺔ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ COTIF‬ﻭﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪COTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﻟﻠـ )‪ (EC‬ﻓﺭﺼﺎ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـ )‪. (OTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫25‬
    • ‫01- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ G‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( ATMF‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻫﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ) ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ‪ ( OTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﻟﺯﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ) ﺩﻭل ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﻋﺎﻡ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫) ﻤﺜﻼ: ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ( . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻭﺜﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ . ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻜﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻨﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ، ﺃﻭ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ . ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﻬﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ ) ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ( . ﻭﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺯﺍل ﻴﻨﺠﺯ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ . ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﺤﺩﻩ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻵ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـ ‪. OTIF‬‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ )‪ (OTIF‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻋﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ " ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ " ﻋﺎﻡ 9991 ﺘﻘﺭﺭ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎ ، ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻟﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺘﺸﻜل ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ .‬‫ﻭﻁﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ ، ATMF UR‬ﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ، ﻭﺍﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ‪. OTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ ﻀﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﻟـ )‪ (APTUU UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺸﻜل ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ . ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺫﻋﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﻟﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻠﺯﻤﺎ ﻟﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭﺓ ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ‪ ، ATMF UR‬ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ . ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ، ATMF‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺯﻭﺩ ﺒﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺎ ، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ‪. APTU‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻓﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ، ﻤﺜﻼ : ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﺤﻤل ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ‪ RIV‬ﺃﻭ ‪ RIC‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ‪ ، COTIF‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺘﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ) ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎ ( ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺯﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ . ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫35‬
    • ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻨﻘل ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺸﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﻤﻨﻭﻉ .‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﻤﻨﺢ ) ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ( ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻴﻥ : ﺒﻤﻨﺢ " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ " ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ـ ﻴﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻨﺢ " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل " ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ " ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﺒﺴﻁ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ، ﻜﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻭﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﺁﺨﺭ ، ﻭﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻓﻨﻲ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺒﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺘﻠﺘﺯﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻭﺤﺩ ، ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫" ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ " ﺃﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل " ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ " ‪ " ad rem‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ] ﺃﻭ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ [ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﹰ ‪‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ – ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﺃﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ، ﻟﺩﻯ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﺩ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ APTU UR ، ATMF UR‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ ، RID‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ . ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻨﻙ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺜﻪ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـ ‪. OTIF‬‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﻴل ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ‪ APTU UR‬ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ATMF UR‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪(EC‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ . ﺇﻥ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ‪ OTIF‬ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺘﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻭﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﻭﺍﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬ ‫‪ – IV‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺨﺘﺎﻤﻴﺔ :‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻭﺴﻊ ﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫‪ ، OTIF‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪ (IMO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻁﻴﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻲ )‪ . (ICAO‬ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل .‬ ‫********‬ ‫45‬
    • ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫) 9991 ‪( COTIF‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺠﻴﺭﻓﺭﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻭﺘـﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪OTIF‬‬ ‫‪ – I‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﻀﻌﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 41 ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل‬‫) ﺃﻜﺘﻭﺒﺭ ( ﻋﺎﻡ 0981 ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺩﺭﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ . ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺨﻼل ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻨﺠﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ ، ﺒل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ) ‪ ( COTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻘﻬﺎ )‪ (CIV‬ﻭ )‪(CIM‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ) ﺒﺭﻥ ﺒﺭﻗﻡ 4.03 ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 9/5/0891 ( ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﺎﻓﺫﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺩﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﻴﺎﺭ ) ﻤﺎﻴﻭ ( 5891 ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺨﻀﻌﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻁﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫9891/0991 . ﻭﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎﻴﻭ )ﺃﻴﺎﺭ( 0891 ﻭﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ ﻟﻠـ‬‫)‪ (OTIF‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻁﻠﻊ ﺸﻬﺭ ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ )ﻴﻭﻨﻴﻭ( 9991 ﻓﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺨﻀﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﺭﻗﻡ ) 044/19( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ )ﻴﻨﺎﻴﺭ(‬‫3991 ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺠﺯﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻭﻤﺸﻐﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ . ﻭﻤﺎﺯﺍل‬‫ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ 0991 ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ )‪ (COTIF‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ﻤﺒﻨﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁ . ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 5991 ﻭﺤﺘﻰ 7991 ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫73‬
    • ‫ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﻨﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (COTIF‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ، ﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺎ ) ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭﻻ ( ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟـ ‪CIV‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭ ‪ CIM‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟـ ‪ . RID‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺠﻬﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﻨﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬‫)‪ .(COTIF‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‪ CUV‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ D‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ) ‪ CUI‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ E‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ( ، ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﻭﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬‫) ‪ – APTU‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ F‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ( ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ) ‪ ATMF‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ G‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ( .‬‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻭﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ . ﻨﺎﻗﺸﺕ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻭﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﻪ 09 ﺘﺴﻌﻭﻥ ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻋﺩﻟﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺤﻭﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ . ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻤل ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ - ﻤﻊ ﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل – ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫)0891 ‪ (COTIF‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ﺍﻨﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ) ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ( ﻤﻥ 62 ﺃﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ 3 ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ 9991 ﺒﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ " ﻟﻴﺘﻭﺍﻨﻴﺎ " .‬ ‫‪ – II‬ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﺭﺕ ) ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ( ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ 9 ﺃﻴﺎﺭ 0891‬‫ﺒل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻜﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ 91 ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ 0891 ، ﻭﺃﻗﺭﺕ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ . ﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺭﺓ / 02 / ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ 0891 ‪ COTIF‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟـ )‪(OTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ.‬ ‫‪ – III‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ )‪ ) (COTIF‬ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ (‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ – ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ :‬ ‫83‬
    • ‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﻭﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ﻋﺎﻡ 9991‬ ‫‪COTIF‬‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﺤﻭل ﺍﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺤﺼﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪OTIF‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪G‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪F‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪E‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪D‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪C‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪B‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪A‬‬ ‫‪ATMF‬‬ ‫‪APTUR CUI UR CUVUR‬‬ ‫‪RID‬‬ ‫‪CIM UR‬‬ ‫‪CIV UR‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪COTIF‬‬ ‫ﺁ – ‪ OTIF‬ﻗﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﻱ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ- ‪ " OTIF‬ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ "‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ :‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ‪RID‬‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫- ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫93‬
    • ‫1- ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ )‪ (COTIF‬ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫9 ﺃﻴﺎﺭ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ) ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ( ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﺃﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫0891 ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺸﻤل ﺃﻤﻭﺭﺍ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﻤﺘﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ 1999 COTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﻤﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ 1980 COTIF‬ﻭﻤﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ، ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـ ‪ 1980 CIM UR‬ﻭ ‪ CUI UR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺩﺨﻭل ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ )‪ (COTIF‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺅﻤﻥ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺩﻉ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺩﻉ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل 9991 .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫2- ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ) ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪( COTIF‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﻭﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺨﺎﺹ ، ﻤﺎﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﻤﻘﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ "ﺒﺭﻥ" . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ، ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺒﺎﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ، ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻋﻤل ﺃﺨﺭﻯ . ﺇﻥ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﺘﺴﺘﺒﺩل ﺒﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺒﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ .‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻠﻤﻭﺴﺔ . ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺩ )2( ‪COTIF‬‬‫9991 ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻠﻕ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ .‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ . ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫04‬
    • ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ . ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ .‬‫ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ‪ . OTIF‬ﻭﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺫﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺸﻴﻜﺎﻏﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺱ 9991 ‪ ICAO‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻭﺘﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻫﺫﺍ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺸﻐﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ، ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻪ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ‪ ) EC‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ( . ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬‫) ﻋﻭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ( . ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ، ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ . ﻓﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻠﺙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻭﻀﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻲ ﻋﺸﺭ ، ﻭﺘﻌ‪‬ﻥ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺒﺄﻜﺒﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ . ﻭﺤﻴﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺸﺎﻏﺭ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﻤﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻟﻜل ﻋﻀﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺴﻤﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻭﻨﺎ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ . ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ، ﺒل ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻁﺒﻌﺎ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺴﻨﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ .‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻭﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ) ‪. ( RID‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻟﺠﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻴﺘﺎﻥ ) ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ( ﻭ ) ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ( .‬‫ﺘﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻲ ﺒﺄﺴﺱ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ، ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ .‬ ‫14‬
    • ‫ﺘﺘﺨﺫ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻱ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﻭﺤﻭل ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺸﺎﺀ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ ، ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺒﺎﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺨﺹ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺭﻓﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ . ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻜﺄﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺴﺭ ﺍﻟـ ‪ ، OTIF‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻭﻻﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺒﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ . OTIF‬ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ﺍﻨﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺱ ﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩﻴﻥ ‪ CIV‬ﻭ ‪ CIM UR‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯﻫﺎ . ﺃﻤﺎ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻗﺩ ﺴﻘﻁﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ . ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ ﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺨﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﻭل ﺍﻻﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺸﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﺤﺼﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺭﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ . ﻭﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻥ ، ﻓﻠﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻻﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺩﻑ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ . ﺇﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﺜﻨﻲ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺸﻬﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺜﻠﺜﻲ ) ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ( ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ، ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ - ﻭﻗﺒل ﺩﺨﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ –‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﺕ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﺤﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻤﻔﺘﻭﺡ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻜل ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺱ ﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ) ﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ( . ﺇﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺭﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ . ﻭﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺴﺎﻭ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺩﻭل ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﻗﺭﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ) ‪ ( EC‬ﺴﺘﻨﻀﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ . COTIF‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ 83 ﻤﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﻓﺎﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻩ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘﺒﺭﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ OTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ . EC‬ﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ،‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟـ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻓﻼ ﺘﺯﺍل ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻨﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺩﺨﻭل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺤﺘﻤل‬ ‫24‬
    • ‫ﺨﻼل ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ، ﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ EC‬ﻋﻀﻭﺍ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ .‬‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ " ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻙ " ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ . ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻟـ ‪) OTIF‬ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﺔ( .‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﻭﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ . ﻭﺘﺘﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ . ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺴﺘﻌﻔﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ .‬ ‫3- ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪OTIF‬‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻨﺹ ﻭﺃﻋﻴﺩ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ ، ﻤﻊ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﻔﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﻨﺔ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺤﻜﻡ‬‫ﻗﻀﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻁﺭﻑ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺒﺄﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﻐﻠﺔ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻱ ﺤﻜﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﻑ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﻴﻌﻔﻰ . ﻭﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﺜﻼ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪. OTIF‬‬‫4- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪A‬‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( CIV‬‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻋﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ . ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻀﻌﻭﺍ‬‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺎ ﺃﻥ )‪ (CIV UR‬ﻟﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻤﺘﻔﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﻭﺃﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ .‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ، ﻓﺎﻥ )‪ (CIV UR‬ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﺘﺤﻭﻱ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﺎ ﺍﺠﺒﺎﺭﻴﺎ ، ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ . ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ، ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﺎﺌﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ .‬ ‫34‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻲ ) ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ – ﻋﻘﺩ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ( ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﺃﺜﻴﻨﺎ ( ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 4791 ﻭﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﻭﺍﺭﺴﻭ ( ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫9291 ﻭﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل ( ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 9991 . ﺇﻥ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺘﺫﻜﺭﺓ )‪ (CIV‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻁﻠﺒﺎ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺎ ، ﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺜﺒﺕ ﺒﺘﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﻜﺏ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺨﺎﻀﻐﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﺃﻭ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﻡ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ . ﺇﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ، ﻭﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﻜﺎﺏ ﺘﻡ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺯﺩﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻭﻟﺔ ، ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ) ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ( ، ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ .‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ) ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ( ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﺃﺜﻴﻨﺎ ( ﻋﺎﻡ 4791 : ﺍﺫﺍ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ) ﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺩﻴل ( ﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ . ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ . ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻴﺘﺤﻤل ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ‪ CIV UR‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ ﻴﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺤﻘﻭﻗﺎ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ CIV UR‬ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺒل ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﻁﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻋﺒﺭﻫﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ، ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭﻭﻥ ﻜﺄﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻫﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺄﺨﺭ ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ﺘﻡ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻜﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻻﻟﻐﺎﺀ ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﺄﺨﺭ‬‫ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺭﺤﻠﺘﻪ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ . ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ، ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺒﻼﻍ‬‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻠﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻨﺘﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻜﺏ . ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ .‬ ‫5- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ B‬ﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ) ‪( CIM‬‬ ‫44‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ، ﻜﺎﻥ / ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻤﻊ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ (CMR‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 6591 .‬‫ﺇﻥ )‪ (CIM UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺠﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻋﻘﺩ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ‬‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻴﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﻀﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻥ.‬‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ . ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺯﺍﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻟـ ) ‪ (CIM UR‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺠﺭ ﺃﺒﺩﺍ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ )9991 ‪ (CIM UR‬ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ‪. CMR‬‬‫)‪ (CIM UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻋﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬‫- ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ، ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ.‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻗﻲ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ .‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭ‬‫ﻻﺴﺘﻼﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻀﻭ ، ﺇﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ )‪. (CIM‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻫﻭ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻜﺎﻑ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ . ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ )‪ (CIM UR‬ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻤﻥ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ SMGS‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫1591 ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﻤﺜﺎل ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ "ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ" ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ "ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل" ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺯﺒﺎﺌﻥ . ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻗﺼﻭﻯ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻴﺎ ) ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﺎ ( . ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﺩ ﻭﺘﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 6 ، 1 ﻤﻥ ‪ CIM UR‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 9991. ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ‪ . CMR‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ ، ﺃﻭ ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺨﺎﻀﻌﺎ ﻟـ "‪. "CIM UR‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻥ ، ﻓﻔﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺩﺨﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (EC‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻜل ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺎ ﺒﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﺘﺅﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻫﺎﻨﺎ ﻗﺎﺒﻼ ﻟﻠﺩﺤﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ :‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫- ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل .‬ ‫54‬
    • ‫- ﺘﻜﻔل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل .‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻭﺘﻐﻠﻴﻔﻬﺎ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ، ﺒﺎﺘﺘﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ.‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻌﻁﻰ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ، ﻤﺜﻼ ﺒﺎﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﻭﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻁﺒﻘﺎ ﻟـ ) ‪ (CIM UR‬ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ . ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺨﺎﻀﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺤﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ، ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻡ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻭﻭﻗﺕ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ) ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ( ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻼ ‪ ) CIV UR‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ (‬‫ﻭﺍﻟـ )‪ . (CIM UR‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 8791 ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﺈﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ، ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﺩﻴل ، ﻭﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺴﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ، ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﺯ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ) ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺠﺯﺌﻲ ( . ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺤﻘﻭﻗﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ) ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻗﺎﺀ ( . ﻫﺫﻩ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ( ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﻅﻡ ﻋﻘﺩﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺯﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻴﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ )‪(CIM UR‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻴﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻤﻤﻨﻭﺤﺔ ﻟﻪ ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻘﺒل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﺸﺄ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬‫‪ . CIM UR‬ﺇﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭﻭﻥ ﻜﺄﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻻﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ )‪ .(CIV UR‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻫﻭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ‪ CMR‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻟﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻥ .‬‫- ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺤﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻜﻴل ، ﺘﻡ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺅﻫﺎ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻁﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺴﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺠﻼﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﻜﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ . ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫64‬
    • ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ) ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻟﻭﻓﺔ ( ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪ (RIP‬ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﺩﺩﺍ ﻟﻜل ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟـ 71 ﺤﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ CIM UR‬ﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ‬‫ﺒﻬﺎ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﻭﺒﺄﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل . ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻻﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ – ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ، ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺘﺨﻔﻴﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻫﺎﻤﺒﻭﺭﻍ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 8791 . ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺸﻤل ، ﻭﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒـ ) ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﺒﺔ ( . ﻭﻓﻘﻁ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ) ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ( ﻭ ) ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺫ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺫ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ( ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﺭ ، ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ( . ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻲ ( ﻜﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ .‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺘﻴﻥ 05 ﻭ 2 ﻓﻲ ‪ CIM‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 0891 ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺠﻌﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺘﺩﻋﻭﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ .‬‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ، ﺤﺘﻰ ﻭﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁﺄ ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻠﺏ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺫﻜﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻡ ، ﻭﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩﻤﻭﺍ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻠﺘﺯﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﻬﺎ .‬ ‫6- ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ) ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ C‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( RID‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ RID‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻟـ ‪ ، COTIF‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ )‪ (RID‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ‬‫ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل )‪ . (CIM‬ﻭﺒﺨﻀﻭﻋﻪ ﻟﻼﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ‪ RID‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﻴﻨﺌﺫ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟـ ‪ RID‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﺩ ) ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺯ ‪ ( IMDG‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﺼﻑ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻡ . ﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻟﻙ : ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﺎﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻴﺭﻟﻨﺩﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻁﻴﻕ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟـ ‪ RID‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻟﺨﻠﻕ ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ . ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪ RID‬ﻭ ‪ ADR‬ﻓﺎﻥ ‪ ADR / RID‬ﻭﺒﺎﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬‫) ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ 7991( ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ) ﺠﺯﺀ ﺭﻗﻡ 1 ( ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ .‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻻﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )‪. (RID‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫74‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟـ ‪ RID‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺒﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ . ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﻨﻘل ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻭﺍﺭﺉ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻤﺯﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ RID‬ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺔ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟـ ‪ ، RID‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎ ﺒﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ، ﻭﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻼ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ – ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﻤﺎﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ –‬‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ C‬ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴﻼﺕ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ .‬‫7- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪D‬‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( CUV‬‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻜﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻴﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ.‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( CUV UR‬ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﺎ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ، ﻴﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ) ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ – ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﺒﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ ، P‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻤﺜل ﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﺠﻴﺏ ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺩﻴﺔ ( ﻭﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻋﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ . ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ) ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ( ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﻁﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ ﻟﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )‪ (RIV‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )‪.(RIC‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻭﻉ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ، ﻴﻔﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺨﻁﺄ‬‫ﻤﺤﺘﻤل ) ﻤﻔﺘﺭﺽ ( . ﻭﺘﺭﻙ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ ، P‬ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ) ﻤﺎﺩﺓ 21 ﻭ 1 ‪. ( RIP‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻟﻭﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ، ﺸﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﻐﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺩ .‬‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ، ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻜﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻜﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﻔﻘﻭﺩﺓ ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺘﺴﺭﻱ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ‪ P‬ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ 31 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫84‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ) ‪ ، ( RIP‬ﻭﺍﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺸﻬﺭﺍ ﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 91 ﻤﻥ )‪ (RIC‬ﻭﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺸﻬﺭﺍ ) ﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺎﺕ ( ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 81 ﻤﻥ )‪ . (RIV‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ، ﺍﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﻴﺔ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻋﺎﺩ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ٍ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺭﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬‫ﺒﺎﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺘﻔﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻻﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻥ )‪ (CU VUR‬ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻁﺒﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻕ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﻼل ﻤﺤل ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺎﺘﺕ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ، ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ، ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬‫ﺸﺨﺹ ﺒﺸﺨﺹ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﺎﺭﺱ ، ﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ، ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ) ﺒﺎﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺠﺴﻭﺭ ( ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ 21 ، 6 ﻤﻥ ‪. RIP‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻭل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺓ ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻨﻘل ، ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (CUV UR‬ﻭﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻭﻏﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ، ﻋﺒﺭ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ) ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﺒﺎﻻﺘﻔﺎﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﺘﻨﺸﺊ ﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻤﺔ . ﺨﻼﻓﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﻁﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ . ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻋﻰ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻭﻁﻥ ﻋﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺤﻨﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫8- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ E‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪(CUI‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻋﻘﺩ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻨﻘل ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺭﻴﻥ ) ‪ ( CIV‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ )‪. ( CIM‬‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﺒﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻭﻁﻥ ﻋﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ . ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ( CUI UR‬ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ، ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل . ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ . ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ، ﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ، ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻑ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ CUI UR‬ﻻ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫94‬
    • ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ . ﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ، ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻻﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻤﻬﺎﻤﻬﻡ .‬‫ﻴﺤﻕ ﻷﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺭﻴﺢ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻻ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺤﺎﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ) ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ، ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ(‬‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﻀﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ) ﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ ( ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ، ( CIM UR‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ . ﻭﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺒﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ . ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ، ﺘﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺘﻤﺕ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ) ‪ ، ( CIV UR‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟـ ‪ CIM UR‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل( ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻱ ) ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ، ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ ( ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ) ﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ (‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺅﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺕ . ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ )ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ( ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﻨﻘﻠﺕ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻟﻼﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻔﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ) ‪ ( CIV UR‬ﺃﻭ ) ‪. ( CIM UR‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗل ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻻﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﺜﻼ : ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﺍ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺸﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻭﻥ " ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﻤﻬﺎﻤﻬﻡ " .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺸﻜل ) ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺨل ﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ( ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺴﺘﻌﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﺎﺏ ، ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ، ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟـ ) ‪ ، ( CVI UR‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻊ ) ﺤﺩ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ( ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺒـ 000,571 ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ) ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ( ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ .‬‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺒﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻤﻲ ، ﻭﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ . ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ . ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺼﺎﺭﻡ .‬ ‫05‬
    • ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ، ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻬﺎ : ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﺸﻜﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ . ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﻭل ﺤﻘﻭﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ . ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ . ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ . ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﻤﻘﺎﻀﺎﺓ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ، ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﻠﻔﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫9- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ F‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( APTU‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﻴﻥ ‪ ( APTU) F‬ﻭ ) ‪ – G‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 01 ( ﻴﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (COTIF‬ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ )‪ ( APTU‬ﺘﺸﻜل ) ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ( ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ‪. ATMF‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟـ )‪ ( APTU UR‬ﺘﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺜﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ . ﺇﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ) ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ ( ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺱ (‬‫ﻻ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـ )‪ . (OTIF‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟـ ] ‪. [CEN , CENELEC, ETSI, etc‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻟـ )‪ (APTU UR‬ﻫﻭ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻭﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﻟـ ‪ . APTUUR‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﺩﺭﺠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ‪ . ATMF UR‬ﺇﻥ ‪ APTU UR‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻴﻨﺌﺫ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺘﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ) ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﻊ 01 ( .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻫﻭ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻥ ﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ) ‪ ( OTIF‬ﻭﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻟﻸﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﻗﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ، ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ.‬ ‫15‬
    • ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ، ﺃﻱ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺘﺸﺭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ) ﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪( EC‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺃﻱ ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ) ﻤﺜﻼ ‪ ( UIC‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺎﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ . ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻸﺠﻬﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ) ‪ ( APTU UR‬ﺃﺤﺩﺜﺕ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ) ﺠﻨﻴﻑ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ 8591 ( ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻼﺕ ، ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻁﻊ ، ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ .‬‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺼﺩﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻨﺎﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل‬‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 2881/8391 ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻓﻬﻲ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟـ )‪ (RIV‬ﻭ )‪ (RIC‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ )‪. (UIC‬‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺘﻭﺒﺭ ) ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ( 9991 ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ‪ EU‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ . ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺭﻗﻡ ‪2001/16/EC‬‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺒﻨﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ‬‫91/3/1002. ﻭﺩﺨل ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻨﺸﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (EC‬ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 02/4/1002 . ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﺌﺫ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺘﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ‪ APTU UR‬ﻭ ‪. ATMF UR‬‬‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺴﺭ ﺍﻟـ )‪ (OTIF‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺩﺨﻠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﺘﺒﺭﺓ‬‫– ﻭﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ – ﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺘﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻭﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﻭﺍﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ . ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬‫ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ ، (TSI‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﻟﻠـ ‪. APTU UR‬‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻭﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ )‪ ( TSI‬ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ، ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻼﺤﻕ ‪ APTU‬ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻀﻼﺕ ، ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (EC‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟـ ‪ COTIF‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ RID‬ﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﻤﺜل .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ COTIF‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﺴﻘﺔ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ COTIF‬ﻭﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ، ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪COTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﻟﻠـ )‪ (EC‬ﻓﺭﺼﺎ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـ )‪. (OTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫25‬
    • ‫01- ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ G‬ﻟﻼﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪( ATMF‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻫﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ) ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ‪ ( OTIF‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﻟﺯﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ) ﺩﻭل ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﻋﺎﻡ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫) ﻤﺜﻼ: ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ( . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻤﻭﺜﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ . ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻜﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻨﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ، ﺃﻭ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ . ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﻬﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ ) ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ( . ﻭﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺯﺍل ﻴﻨﺠﺯ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ . ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﺤﺩﻩ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ، ﻵ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـ ‪. OTIF‬‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ )‪ (OTIF‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻋﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ " ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ " ﻋﺎﻡ 9991 ﺘﻘﺭﺭ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎ ، ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﻟﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ، ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺘﺸﻜل ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ .‬‫ﻭﻁﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ، ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ ، ATMF UR‬ﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ، ﻭﺍﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ‪. OTIF‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ ﻀﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﻟـ )‪ (APTUU UR‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺸﻜل ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ . ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺫﻋﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﻟﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ ، ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻠﺯﻤﺎ ﻟﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﺭﺍﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺒﺭﺓ ، ﺃﻭ ﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ‪ ، ATMF UR‬ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ . ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ، ATMF‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺯﻭﺩ ﺒﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﻴﺎ ، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ‪. APTU‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻓﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ، ﻤﺜﻼ : ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﺤﻤل ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ‪ RIV‬ﺃﻭ ‪ RIC‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﻥ ‪ ، COTIF‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺘﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ) ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎ ( ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺯﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ . ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫35‬
    • ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻨﻘل ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺸﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﻤﻨﻭﻉ .‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﻤﻨﺢ ) ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ( ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻴﻥ : ﺒﻤﻨﺢ " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ " ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ـ ﻴﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻨﺢ " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل " ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ " ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﺒﺴﻁ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ، ﻜﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﻭﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﺁﺨﺭ ، ﻭﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻓﻨﻲ .‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺒﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺘﻠﺘﺯﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﻭﺤﺩ ، ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫" ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ " ﺃﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل " ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ " ‪ " ad rem‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ] ﺃﻭ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ [ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﹰ ‪‬‬‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ – ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ، ﺃﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ، ﻟﺩﻯ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ، ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﺩ‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ APTU UR ، ATMF UR‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ ، RID‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ . ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻨﻙ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺜﻪ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـ ‪. OTIF‬‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﻴل ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ‪ APTU UR‬ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ATMF UR‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪(EC‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ . ﺇﻥ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ‪ OTIF‬ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺘﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻭﻟﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﻭﺍﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ .‬ ‫‪ – IV‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺨﺘﺎﻤﻴﺔ :‬‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻓﻴﻠﻨﻴﻭﺱ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 9991 ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻭﺴﻊ ﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫‪ ، OTIF‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )‪ (IMO‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻁﻴﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻲ )‪ . (ICAO‬ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل .‬ ‫********‬ ‫45‬
    • ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﻜﺭﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻓﻴﺼل ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺯﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ،‬‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺠﻭﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻌﺒﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫، ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ، ﻴﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻠﺏ ﻤﻘﺭ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﻭﻤﻘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﻭﺠﻤﻌﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻭﻤﻲ 11 ﻭ 21 ﺃﺒﺭﻴل‬‫)ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ( 2102 ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ ، ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬‫ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ،‬‫ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻭﻴﺔ ، ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ،‬ ‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻋﻥ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻱ ، ﻋﻘﺩ ﻴﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﺜﻨﻴﻥ 03 ﻴﻨﺎﻴﺭ )ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ( 2102 ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﻟﻠﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ 34 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ .‬‫ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺤﺔ( ﺇﺜﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ ، ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺭﻏﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﻬﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻭﺓ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺹ ﻟﺒﺤﺙ :‬ ‫55‬
    • ‫• ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ .‬ ‫• ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺒﻨﻙ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ .‬ ‫• ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻱ .‬‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺨﻠل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﻌﺕ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ،‬‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺩﺨﻠﺕ ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻓﻲ 11 ﺃﻏﺴﻁﺱ 1102 )ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ 64 ﻤﻨﻬﺎ( ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺼﺩﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺸﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ / ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬‫ﻋّﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ ﺠﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ ﺯﻏﻠﻭل ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺎ ﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ / ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺨﻠﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺭﺤﺎﺏ ، ﻭﺃﺴﺭﺓ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﻐﺘﻨﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ ﺠﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ ﺯﻏﻠﻭل ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﺃﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﻨﻲ ، ﻤﺘﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ، ﻭﻟﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﻤﺯﻴﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﺭﺌﺎﺴﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ، ﺁﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻗﺩﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﺩﻋﻤﺎ ﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺸﻘﻴﻘﺔ .‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻜﻠﻑ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻨﻌﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ 8/21/1102 ، ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬‫ﺒﺎﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﻋﺩ ﺃﻗﺼﺎﻩ ﺸﻬﺭ ﺃﺒﺭﻴل )ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ( 2102 ، ﻭﺇﻴﻤﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺒﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺒﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﺒﺌﺘﻪ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻗﺒل ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ، ﺒﺸﻜل ﻴﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻻﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻜل ﺍﺘﺤﺎﺩ ، ﻭﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺯﺍﻭﻟﻬﺎ ، ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺴﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺘﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ، ﺤﻘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻌﺩﻩ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺱ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﻗﺒل ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺸﻬﺭ ﺃﺒﺭﻴل )ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ( 2102 .‬ ‫*******‬ ‫65‬
    • Revue périodique publiée par le Secrétariat Général de l’Union Arabe des Chemins de Fer SOMMAIRE Page• Editorial ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3• The Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF 1999) By: Dr. Gerfried Mutz, Intergovernmental Organization for International Carriage by Rail , OTIF ( Berne ) ……………………………………….… 5 Toutes les correspondances doivent être adressées à : UNION ARABE DES CHEMINS DE FER Secrétariat Général B.P. 6599 - ALEP - SYRIE Fax : ( 963-21 ) 2686000 - Tél. : ( 963-21 ) 2667270 – 2665611 E-MAIL : uacf@scs-net.org Numéro 108 – Février 2012
    • ARAB UNION OF RAILWAYS PRESIDENT : Eng. GEORGE MOUKABARI GENERAL DIRECTOR OF SYRIAN RAILWAYS VICE PRESIDENT : Eng. MOHAMED NEJIB FITOURI CHAIRMAN, DIRECTOR GENERAL OF TUNISIAN RAILWAYS SECRETARY GEN. : Eng. MOURHAF SABOUNI MEMBERS OF THE UNION • AQABA RAILWAY CORPORATION JORDAN• HIDJAZ JORDAN RAILWAY JORDAN• SOCIETE NATIONALE DES CHEMINS DE FER TUNISIENS TUNISIE• SOCIETE NATIONALE DES TRANSPORTS FERROVIAIRES ALGERIE• SUDAN RAILWAYS CORPORATION SUDAN• GENERAL ESTABLISHMENT OF SYRIAN RAILWAYS SYRIA• SYRIAN HIDJAZ RAILWAY SYRIA• GENERAL ESTABLISHMENT OF IRAQI RAILWAYS IRAQ• PALESTINE PALESTINE• LEBANESE RAILWAYS AND COMMON TRANSPORT OFFICE LEBANON• OFFICE FOR THE EXECUTION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE RAILROADS LIBYA PROJECT• EGYPTIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS EGYPT• OFFICE NATIONAL DES CHEMINS DE FER MAROC• RAILWAY MATERIALS FACTORY ( SEMAF ) EGYPT• GENERAL COMPANY FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAYS SYRIA• GENERAL COMPANY FOR THE ROADS AND THE BRIDGES SYRIA• ENTREPRISE PUBLIQUE ECONOMIQUE DE CONSTRUCTION DE MATERIELS ET ALGERIE D’EQUIPEMENTS FERROVIAIRES• ENTREPRISE PUBLIQUE ECONOMIQUE DE REALISATION ALGERIE D’INFRASTRUCTURES FERROVIAIRES (INFRAFER)• ENGINE FACTORY – ARAB ORGANIZATION FOR THE INDUSTRIALIZATION EGYPT• KADER FACTORY FOR THE DEVELOPED INDUSTRIES - ARAB ORGANIZATION FOR EGYPT THE INDUSTRIALIZATION• UNITED TRANS COMPANY (QITARAT) EMIRATES
    • Par : Ing. MOURHAF SABOUNI Secrétaire GénéralChaque fois que nous achevons limpression dun nouveau numéro de notrerevue (Les Chemins de Fer Arabes) je minquiète avant sa distribution auxmembres de la fédération, ou aux intéressés au secteur du transportferroviaire dans le monde arabe. Mon inquiétude est due à deux raisons : lapremière est liée au format général du numéro au point de vue technique(impression, coloration, ornements … autrement dit la forme et lélégance),et la deuxième concerne le contenu et les sujets prévus à y publier.Il est évident que nous tenons, depuis la fondation de la fédération, àpublier continuellement cette revue, et nous remercions le bon Dieu denous avoir aidés à leffectuer sans arrêt. Et pour cela, nous avons sansdoute compté sur nos propres capacités, sans le besoin de destiner unesomme du budget de la fédération pour payer les frais dimpression et depublication. Voici pourquoi nous ne donnions pas importance à la mise enpage, mais notre attention a été consacrée au contenu et à lintérêt queporterait et transmettrait cette revue à son public, à propos du développementdu secteur des transports ferroviaires et laboutissement aux plus hautsniveaux de ses services.Notre intérêt portait évidemment sur lessence plutôt que sur la forme,même si ce premier ne satisfaisait pas tous les goûts et les parties recevantpériodiquement notre revue . Cest pour ça que je mangoissais toujoursentre la fin de limpression dun nouveau numéro et sa distribution, commejignore ce que pensent les lecteurs de cette production et son importance .Est ce que la forme serait plus importante que le catenu, ou les sujetsabordés seraient plus utiles, plus intéressants et influents pour les membresde notre fédération composant notre famille ferroviaire arabe ? Est ce queconsidéraient quil faudrait sintéresser aux ingrédients de la revue plutôt 3
    • que la mise en page ? Pour cela, jattendais toujours lévaluation donnée parceux qui en prenaient connaissance, pour tenter den estimer le bénéfice .Cette confusion a exigé lexploration pendant longtemps le point de vuedes autres jusquau passé récent, quand elle a eu fin le jour où jai participéà la réunion du comité technique des transports terrestres, se déroulant ausein du Secrétariat Général de la Ligue des Etats Arabes, pour aborder lessujets concernant le secteur des transports terrestres, afin de donner sonopinion avant quils soient exposés au conseil des ministres arabes destransports . Certains amis et connaissances ont alors exprimé - pour lapremière fois - leur opinion sur la revue périodique . Ce qui ma surpris,cest que pendant cette même réunion, jai eu les mêmes échos de la part deplusieurs participants; ils me remerciaient davoir reçu le dernier numéro dela revue des Chemins de Fer Arabes . Considérant que ces remerciementsétaient des compliments normaux, suite à une nouvelle distribution denotre revue, jy ai réciproquement répondu . Or, ces amis-là ont insisté surla valeur de cette revue et lintérêt quelle porte pour notre secteur . Ils onttous certifié quelle contenait des sujets que chaque concerné pourrait enprendre connaissance et profiter . Jai été donc surpris cette fois-ci, non àcause des remerciements routiniers se faisant à la réception de lun desnuméros, mais parce que cétait une confirmation des bénéfices de cenuméro-là et des importantes matières quil traité et qui lont distingué denos éditions précédentes.Je ne cache pas ma joie extrême dentendre ces opinions-là, cela même maencore incité à être plus attentif aux éléments essentiels de la revue quà saforme et son esthétique . En la publiant, jaccomplis donc deux missions :lune est liée à ses modestes frais de publication, comme on compte sur sespropres compétences pour cela . Lautre en concerne le contenu et les sujetsbien choisis quelle porte, pour apporter le bénéfice maximal aux lecteurs .Cest lobjectif de cette publication, et cest bien ce que je cherchais et àatteindre, car je tenais à la continuité de ce périodique . Cest bien ce quejattendais comme profit touchant ceux qui sy intéressent et à notre secteurferroviaire que nous espérons développer dans notre monde arabe, et enarriver aux meilleurs niveaux de progrès et dépanouissement . Que Dieunous y aide et soit le but. ********* 4
    • The Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail ( COTIF 1999 ) By : Dr. Gerfried Mutz Intergovernmental Organization for International Carriage by Rail OTIF ( Berne )I. Preliminary remark The authors of the first international Convention concerning the Carriage of Goodsby Rail of 14 October 1890 had already recognized that the Convention would have tobe adapted to changing economic, legal and technical conditions at regular intervals.Up to now, at eight ordinary and several extraordinary revision conferences, theMember States have succeeded not only in adapting international rail transport law toongoing developments at regular intervals, but also to maintain the unity of this law. The Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF) that iscurrently in force, and its Appendices CIV and CIM, were adopted by the 8th RevisionConference (Berne, 30.4 – 9.5.1980) and entered into force on 1 May 1985. ThisConvention underwent slight revision in 1989/1990. In the years between May 1980 and the conclusion of OTIFs 5th General Assemblyat the beginning of June 1999, the world of the railways in the majority of the OTIFMember States underwent a fundamental change. European Directive 91/440, whichentered into force on 1 January 1993, led to the "integrated" railways splitting up into railtransport undertakings and "rail infrastructure operators", and gave rise to the possibilityof rail transport undertakings also being able to use "foreign" networks. The 1990 versionof COTIF 1980 is also still structured around the principle of the monopoly of networkand traction and the identity of the railway (undertakings) and the line. From 1995 to 1997, the Central Office for international Carriage by Rail, whichhas always considered itself to be the engine of developments and unification ininternational law in the rail sector, drafted text for a modified COTIF 1980, includingthe Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of the Organisation, and for aModification Protocol, as well as for the existing CIV and CIM Uniform Rules andRID. The Central Office also produced draft text for new Appendices to COTIF.These were the Uniform Rules concerning Contracts of Use of Vehicles inInternational Rail Traffic (CUV – Appendix D to the Convention), the Uniform Rulesconcerning the Contract of Use of Infrastructure in International Rail Traffic (CUI –Appendix E to the Convention), the Uniform Rules concerning the Validation ofTechnical Standards and the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions applicableto Railway Material intended to be used in International Traffic (APTU – Appendix Fto the Convention) and the Uniform Rules concerning the Technical Admission of 5
    • Railway Material used in International Traffic (ATMF – Appendix G to theConvention). A complete and self-contained legal system was thus presented. The RevisionCommittee debated these drafts in 21 meetings - a total of about 90 days of negotiation –and amended a whole range of points they contained. The result of the RevisionCommittees work, the basic elements of which were unchanged, was adopted by theOrganisations 5th General Assembly which, by virtue of Article 6 of COTIF 1980, metin Vilnius from 26 May to 3 June 1999 at the invitation of the Government of Lithuania.II. Legal bases and aim of the revision Not only did the General Assembly adopt the 1999 Protocol for the Modificationof COTIF of 9 May 1980, but it also made use of its right of higher authority inaccordance with Article 19 of COTIF 1980 and adopted the entire new version of theConvention, together with all the Appendices. Amendment was effected with thepreservation of legal continuity in accordance with Article 20 of COTIF 1980 and withthe preservation of the legal continuity of OTIF as an intergovernmental organisation.III. Principal points of the revision of COTIF itself (basic Convention) COTIF itself (the basic Convention) now has the following structure: COTIF 1999 and its Appendices Vilnius Protocol 1999 COTIF Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of OTIF Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G CIV UR CIM UR RID CUV UR CUI UR APTU UR ATMF UR Uniform Rules Uniform Rules Uniform Rules Uniform Rules Regulation Uniform Rules Uniform Rules concerning the concerning the concerning the concerning the concerning the concerning concerning the Validation of Technical Technical Contract of Contract of International Contracts of Use Contract of Use Standards and the Admission of Adoption of Carriage of International Carriage of of Vehicles in of Infrastructure Railway Material Uniform Technical Prescriptions used in Passengers by Carriage of Dangerous Goods International Rail in International applicable to International Rail Goods by Rail by Rail Traffic Rail Traffic Railway Material to Traffic be used in International TrafficOther rules in connection with COTIF :(a) OTIF – Swiss Federal Council Headquarters Agreement(b) OTIF "secondary rules" 6
    • Rules of Procedure of the - General Assembly - Administrative Committee - Revision Committee - RID Committee of Experts - Rail Facilitation Committee - Committee of Technical Experts Finance and Accounts Rules Staff Regulations1. Protocol for the Modification of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF) of 9 May 1980 (1999 Protocol) First of all, the 1999 Protocol contains the preamble with the considerations thatled to the in-depth revision of COTIF. It is explicitly stated that "in the interest ofinternational carriage by rail, it is important to bring up to date the internationalmultilateral conventions and agreements which exist in the railway field and tointegrate them, where appropriate, into the Convention". The 1999 Protocol also contains provisions of international public law which arenecessary to achieve the transition from COTIF 1980 to the amended version of theConvention. This concerns matters such as the question as to when the GeneralAssembly and Committee of Technical Experts are to be convened for the first timeafter COTIF 1999 enters into force, the question of when the period of office of theAdministrative Committee, which was appointed in accordance with COTIF 1980,will end, and when the period of office of the Director General who will be in office atthe time the amended Convention comes into force will end. In addition, transitionalprovisions have been made concerning the Member States financial contributions tothe Organisation and the application of CIM UR 1980, CUV UR and CUI UR tocontracts concluded before the 1999 Protocol entered into force. OTIF will assume the role of depositary in place of the current depositary, theSwiss Government, from the moment the 1999 Protocol is signed.2. Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF basic Convention) The Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail (OTIF), whichhas legal personality under international public law and under private law, still has itsheadquarters in Berne. However, the General Assembly may decide by qualified majorityto transfer the headquarters to a different location in one of the Member States. The working languages of the Organisation include English in addition to Frenchand German. The General Assembly may introduce other working languages. The listof languages in which, up to now, there have been official translations, will bereplaced by a provision whereby the Organisation will publish translations inlanguages which are the official languages in the territory of at least two Member 7
    • States at the request of one of the States concerned. The aim of the Organisation will be broadened considerably. In addition to thepresent task of establishing uniform rules concerning the contract of internationalcarriage of passengers and goods in international through traffic by rail, Article 2 ofCOTIF 1999 refers explicitly to the creation of uniform rules for the contract of use ofwagons as means of transport in international rail traffic, for the contract of use ofinfrastructure and for the carriage of dangerous goods in international rail traffic. Infuture, the Organisation is also to contribute to the removal of obstacles to the crossingof frontiers in international rail traffic, to the extent that the causes of these obstacles arewithin the responsibility of States. It will also contribute to interoperability and technicalharmonization in the railway field by the validation of technical standards and theadoption of uniform technical provisions. Lastly, the Organisation may constitute aframework within which the Member States can elaborate other internationalconventions aiming to promote, improve and facilitate international rail traffic. The Member States will undertake to concentrate their international cooperation inthe railway field, in principle, within OTIF. To attain this objective, the Member Stateswill adopt all necessary and useful measures in order that the international multilateralconventions and agreements in force in the railway field are adapted. Following the example of the 1944 Chicago Convention founding ICAO, theMember States agree to adopt all appropriate measures to facilitate and accelerateinternational rail traffic. In order to do this, the Member States also agree to lend theirsupport to attain the highest possible degree of uniformity in the regulations,standards, procedures and methods of organisation relating to railway vehicles,railway personnel, railway infrastructure and auxiliary services. They also agree topromote the conclusion of agreements between infrastructure operators to optimizeinternational rail traffic. However, developments in this sphere cannot yet be perceivedclearly, as there are areas of overlap with the activities of the EC. In future, the General Assembly, which is composed of all Member States, willconvene once every three years (instead of every five as at present). This change is aconsequence of the period of office of the Administrative Committee, which it isplanned to reduce to three years. The General Assembly decides the composition ofthe Administrative Committee. The Administrative Committee composed of a third of the Member States, insteadof twelve, and designated for three years in order to achieve greater rotation ofmembership and thus more intensive participation by as many Member States aspossible. If a vacancy occurs, the Administrative Committees competence to designateanother Member State for the period of office will be replaced by the rule whereby forevery member of the Committee, the General Assembly also designates a deputymember. Also, the Member State which is to provide the chairmanship will not infuture be elected by the Administrative Committee itself, but by the GeneralAssembly. The work programme, budget and accounts will in future cover a period of twoyears. A management report may of course be published every year or more often. 8
    • In addition to the existing Administrative Committee, Revision Committee andCommittee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (RID Committee ofExperts), there will be two further committees, the "Rail Facilitation Committee" andthe "Committee of Technical Experts". The Rail Facilitation Committee will deal with all questions aimed at facilitatingfrontier crossing in international rail traffic and recommend standards, methods,procedures and practices relating to the facilitation of international rail traffic. The Committee of Technical Experts will take decisions about the validation oftechnical standards relating to railway material intended to be used in internationaltraffic and about the adoption of uniform technical provisions relating to construction,operation and maintenance or relating to a procedure concerning railway material. TheCommittee of Technical Experts may either validate technical standards or adopt orreject uniform technical provisions; it may not under any circumstances modify them. The functions of the Central Office as the Secretariat of OTIF will in future beassumed by a Secretary General as an organ of OTIF. The Secretary General will infuture be elected by the General Assembly. A list of lines as the basis for the application of CIV and CIM UR will in principleno longer be established. Lists of lines for carriage by sea or inland waterways will bean exception. Doing away with the current system of the list of lines means that the basis for thefunding rules also lapses. The newly created funding system is based as to three fifthson the total length of the Member States railway infrastructure (as well as on themaritime and inland waterway services included) and as to two fifths on the UnitedNations system of apportioning contributions, which also takes Member Stateseconomic capacity into account. The procedure for modifying the Convention and its Appendices will be furtheraccelerated. However, it was not possible to achieve the aim of subjecting all theAppendices in their entirety to the simplified modification procedure. The decisions ofthe General Assembly will enter into force for all Member States twelve months aftertheir approval by two-thirds of the Member States with the exception of those which,before the entry into force, have made a declaration in terms that they do not approvesuch modifications. In future, accession to the Organisation will be open not just to every State onwhose territory railway infrastructure is operated, but also to regional economicintegration organisations which have competence to adopt their own legislationbinding on their Member States (i.e. the European Economic Community). Such aregional organisation may exercise the rights enjoyed by its members by virtue of theConvention to the extent that they cover matters for which the regional organisation iscompetent. For the purposes of exercising the right to vote and the right to object, theregional organisation will enjoy the number of votes equal to those of its memberswhich are also Member States of the Organisation. 9
    • The European Commission has already decided that the EC will accede to COTIF.According to Article 38 of COTIF 1999, the conditions of this accession are to bedefined in an agreement concluded between OTIF and the EC. This agreement hasbeen prepared and is ready for signature; for OTIF, it must still be approved by theGeneral Assembly. This should take place at the first General Assembly held after theentry into force of COTIF 1999, probably during 2005, following which the EC couldbecome an active member of this General Assembly once the necessary amendmentsto the General Assemblys Rules of Procedure have been approved. The status of "Associate Member" has been newly created. An AssociateMember may not be designated as a member of the Administrative Committee andmay participate in the work of the other organs of OTIF (only in an advisory capacity). Another new provision is that of suspension of membership when international railtraffic is no longer carried out on the territory of a Member State for reasons notattributable to that Member State. The Administrative Committee will take decisionsconcerning requests for suspension of membership. One consequence of thesuspension of membership is that the Member State is relieved of its obligation tocontribute to the funding of the Organisation. However, the Member States right tovote in the organs of the Organisation and its right to object are suspended. Lastly, the new version of the Convention contains a provision for the dissolutionof the Organisation and the possible assumption of attributions from or the possibletransfer of its attributions to another intergovernmental organisation.3. Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of OTIF Editorial amendments were made to the text and it was rearranged, with headingsgiven to the Articles to make it easier to find things. The only substantive amendment concerns the list of cases exempt ex lege fromimmunity: as well as civil action brought by a third party for damages resulting froman accident caused by motor vehicles belonging to or operated on behalf of theOrganisation being exempt, any civil action brought by a third party will be exempt. Incertain circumstances, e.g. cases brought concerning the responsibility of an officialfor the legality of his actions, this could have very detrimental consequences for OTIF.4. Uniform Rules concerning the Contract of International Carriage of Passengers by Rail (CIV – Appendix A to the Convention) In future, the scope of application of the CIV UR will not depend on a system ofregistered lines. The only exception will be international carriage which is the subjectof a single contract of carriage including carriage by sea or transfrontier carriage byinland waterway as a supplement to carriage by rail. In the international carriage of passengers by rail, there will in future be noobligation to carry or tariff obligation. However, two or more Member States may setbetween themselves conditions under which carriers are subject to the obligation tocarry passengers, luggage, animals and vehicles in traffic between those States. Thismakes it clear that the CIV UR have not been contravened if an obligation to carry isagreed between States and the rail carriers operating on the territory of the Statesconcerned are subject to this obligation. 10
    • In principle, the CIV UR still contain mandatory law, unless it is evident from theactual wording of a provision that it relates to permissive law. In any case, the carriermay, in the interest of customers, extend his liability and obligations. The future international contract of carriage by rail has been conceived as aconsensual contract (currently, a contract of form), as is the case in maritime transportin accordance with the Athens Convention of 1974 and in air transport in accordancewith the Warsaw Convention of 1929 and the Montreal Convention of 1999. Issuing aCIV ticket will no longer be a formal requirement, but the contract of carriage must beconfirmed by one or more tickets issued to the passenger. However, the absence,irregularity or loss of the ticket will not affect the existence or validity of the contract,which will remain subject to the Uniform Rules. The system of liability in case of death of, or injury to passengers and for thecarriage of hand luggage, animals, luggage and vehicles has largely been retained.Most of the maximum liability amounts and the minimum sums in case of death of, orinjury to passengers have been increased. However, the maximum amount has notbeen increased for loss of, or damage to vehicles being carried, although even at thetime of the Revision Conference in Vilnius, this amount was in many cases consideredto be insufficient in view of the potential for damage. In addition to a transport community of successive carriers, the legal position ofthe "substitute carrier" is also regulated along the lines of the model of the 1974Athens Convention: if the carrier has entrusted the performance of the carriage to asubstitute carrier in whole or in part, the contractual carrier is still nevertheless liablein respect of the entire carriage. In contrast, the substitute carrier is only liable for thecarriage he performs. The rights of recourse of the carrier and substitute carrier whichmay exist between them are not prejudiced. A special agreement under which thecarrier assumes obligations not imposed by CIV UR or under which the carrier waivesrights conferred by CIV UR will be of no effect in respect of the substitute carrierunless he has accepted it expressly and in writing. The managers of the railway infrastructure on which carriage is performed areconsidered as persons whose services the carrier makes use of for the performance ofthe carriage. This means the carrier is also liable to the customer in respect of damageswhich have their origins in the area of responsibility of the manager of the railwayinfrastructure. Liability in case of cancellation, late running of trains and missed connections isnewly regulated in CIV UR, at least partly: the carrier is liable to the passenger for lossor damage resulting from the fact that, by reason of cancellation, the late running of atrain or a missed connection, his journey cannot be continued the same day, or that acontinuation of the journey the same day could not reasonably be required because ofgiven circumstances. However, the damages only comprise the reasonable costs ofaccommodation as well as the reasonable costs occasioned by having to notify personsexpecting a passenger. This type of liability constitutes strict liability without fault ofthe carrier, with few grounds for exoneration. 11
    • 5. Uniform Rules concerning the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM – Appendix B to the Convention) The objective, which was partly accomplished, was to achieve harmonization withthe transport law applicable to other modes of transport, particularly with theConvention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR) of1956. The CIM UR will be obligatorily applicable to every contract of carriage of goodsby rail for reward when the place of taking over the goods for transport and the placedesignated for delivery are located in two different Member States, and this will inprinciple be independent of a system of registered lines. Although the mandatory legalnature of CIM UR has never been contested, an appropriate new provision wasincluded in Article 5 of the 1999 CIM UR equivalent to Article 41 of the CMR. CIM UR will also apply if international carriage performed on the basis of a singlecontract includes, as a supplement to carriage by rail, - carriage by sea or trans-frontier carriage by inland waterways, provided carriage by sea or by inland waterways is performed on registered lines, - carriage by road or inland waterway in internal traffic. It is possible to extend the scope contractually if either the place of taking over thegoods or the place designated for delivery is located in a Member State. Such anagreement can be concluded using the CIM consignment note; the use of the CIMconsignment note is a sufficient, but not a necessary, condition. This solution will alsoenable contracts for through carriage to be concluded on the basis of CIM UR forcarriage from and to States in which the SMGS Convention of 1951, set up by thesocialist countries, is applied. Following the example of the Hamburg Rules for maritime transport and theMontreal Convention for air transport, the new text allows the carrier to extend hisliability or his obligations in favour of the customers. The possibility for extension ofliability is not limited to maximum amounts, but can even concern the basis ofliability. The contract of carriage will be a consensual contract (up to now it has been a realcontract and a contract of form). The carriers main obligation to carry the goods forreward to the place of destination and to deliver them there to the consignee is setdown specifically in the text of Article 6 § 1 of the 1999 CIM UR. In future, theconsignment note will only serve as a document of proof, along the lines of CMR. Theabsence, irregularity or loss of the consignment note will not affect the existence orvalidity of the contract, which will remain subject to CIM UR. However, in the case of carriage which enters the customs territory of the EC orthe territory on which the common transit procedure is applied, each consignmentmust be accompanied by the consignment note. The consignment note provides refutable proof of - the conclusion and content of the contract of carriage, - the taking over of the goods by the carrier, 12
    • - the apparent good condition of the goods and their packaging. The obligation to carry and the obligation to establish tariffs which have existedup to now will no longer be imposed. The parties to the contract of carriage will alsobe given greater freedom in other areas when establishing a contract, e.g. with regardto specifying the itinerary, transit periods and payment conditions. The system of liability in accordance with the current CIM UR will in principle beretained. The carrier will still be subject to strict liability without fault in the case oftotal or partial loss of, or damage to, the goods between the time of taking over of thegoods and the time of delivery and for loss or damage resulting from the transit periodbeing exceeded. The rule concerning the community of liability among successivecontractual carriers has also been retained. The legal position of the "substitute carrier" will however be regulated in both theCIV UR (see above) and in the CIM UR. The solution chosen corresponds to the 1978Hamburg Rules: where the carrier has entrusted the performance of the carriage, inwhole or in part, to a substitute carrier, the carrier nevertheless remains liable inrespect of the entire carriage. In addition, the substitute carrier will be liable to thecontract partner of the contractual carrier, but only in respect of the carriage performedby him (partial route). This is an exception from the principle that contracts may onlyestablish rights and obligations inter partes. This legal "contractual liability" existsdespite the fact that the substitute carrier has not concluded a contract with thecontractual carriers customer. A special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations not imposedupon him by the CIM UR or waives rights conferred by them will be of no effect inrespect of the substitute carrier who has not accepted it expressly. The rights ofrecourse which may exist between the carrier and the substitute carrier will not inprinciple be prejudiced by the CIM UR. The managers of the railway infrastructure on which carriage is performed are alsoconsidered as persons whose services the carrier makes use of for the performance ofthe carriage, in the same way as in the CIV UR. This means the carrier is also liable tothe customer in respect of damages which have their origins in the area ofresponsibility of the manager of the railway infrastructure. Following the example of CMR, in the so-called grounds of privilegedexoneration from liability, - the ground for privileged exoneration in case of loading carried out by the consignor and - completion of the customs or other official administrative provisions by the consignor, the consignee or an agent has been deleted. The ground for exoneration from liability of carriage in open wagons will notapply to consignments in combined transport carried in intermodal transport units or inclosed road vehicles. For the carriage of railway vehicles running on their own wheels carried as goods,special provisions were created both with regard to the ground for liability (liability for 13
    • presumption of fault) and with regard to compensation (usual value). These specialprovisions also apply to the transport of multimodal transport units. In addition, therules contained up to now in the Regulations concerning the International Haulage ofPrivate Owners’ Wagons by Rail (RIP) have been newly formulated in CUV UR forall types of wagons. The maximum amount of liability of 17 Special Drawing Rights in CIM UR hasbeen retained. Compensation for exceeding the transit period has also been retained atfour times the carriage charge. As already mentioned though, in future the carrier mayextend his liability and other obligations. The list of additional grounds for exoneration from liability in rail-sea transport hasbeen reduced and aligned with the 1978 Hamburg Rules. In future, it will include, apartfrom the ground of "loading of goods on the deck", only the grounds of "fire" and "savingor attempting to save life or property at sea" as well as "perils, dangers and accidents ofthe sea". "Nautical fault" has not been reincluded as a reason for exoneration. The provision of Article 50 § 2 of CIM 1980 favouring the rail carrier was deleted.According to this provision, the carrier is not liable for its servants even if they are atfault when, at the request of an interested party, they make out consignment notes,make translations or "render other services which the railway itself is under noobligation to render".6. Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID – Appendix C to the Convention) RID will become a standalone Appendix to COTIF. This means theapplication of RID will no longer depend upon the existence of a CIM contract ofcarriage. Subject to the international provisions applicable to carriage by othertransport modes, RID will also apply to carriage complementing carriage by rail. Forcomplementary carriage on maritime routes, special provisions can therefore beincluded in the Annex to RID if the IMDG Code were not to prescribe rules for suchcomplementary carriage, e.g. tank wagons on the maritime routes between the UnitedKingdom and the Continent or Ireland or on the Baltic Sea. One of the main issues in the legal restructuring of RID, the drafting of definitionsand establishing the obligations for the participants in the carriage of dangerous goods,was to create greater legal clarity. In order to ensure the uniformity of these provisionsin RID and ADR, the RID/ADR Joint Meeting (January 1997) decided to establish therelevant provisions in a general part (Part 1) of the so-called Technical Annex, whichdoes not require ratification. This also meant that it would be possible for theseprovisions to be carried over into the Annexes to the European Unions RIDFramework Directive. The RID Annex referred to above includes also provisions on administrativeassistance, dangerous goods safety advisors and for a reporting system in respect ofaccidents or incidents. The new RID furthermore provides that dangerous goods provisions for thecarriage of hand luggage, luggage or carriage in so-called accompanied motor vehicles 14
    • could be included in the Annex. The Annex to RID was – partly in connection with the revision work, partlyindependently of it – arranged in a considerably more user-friendly way than it hasbeen up to now. In future, the Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods willhave competence both for amendments to Appendix C itself and for amendments to itsso-called Technical Annex.7. Uniform Rules concerning Contracts of Use of Vehicles in International Rail Traffic (CUV – Appendix D to the Convention) These Uniform Rules will apply to bilateral or multilateral contracts concerningthe use of railway vehicles as means of transport for carriage in international traffic. The future regime distinguishes clearly between the technical approval of railwayvehicles and the contract of use of vehicles. To the greatest possible extent, the CUV UR contain permissive law and inprinciple treat all types of wagons (current so-called network wagons, P wagons andother wagons which are not registered with a railway, e.g. those to cover peakrequirements) and all forms of contracts of use equally. The current categorization("registration contract") will no longer be used. As the parties are given as much flexibility as possible in drawing up the contract,multilateral contracts of use will still be possible, such as at present the Regulation onthe Reciprocal Use of Wagons in International Traffic (RIV) or the Regulation for theReciprocal Use of Carriages and Brake Vans in International Traffic (RIC). Liability in case of loss or damage to a vehicle is conceived of as liability forpresumed fault, leaving the possibility of contrary proof and is based on the system ofliability that is applicable in the case of loss of, or damage to a P wagon remitted fortransport (Article 12 § 1 RIP). Compensation is limited to the usual value of the vehicle or its accessories at theplace and at the time of the loss, provided the parties to the contract have not agreed adifferent rule by means of a contract. In future, a uniform period of three months is provided upon expiry of which avehicle can be considered as lost, while at the moment, three months are counted for Pwagons in accordance with Article 13 of RIP, twelve months for network carriages inaccordance with Article 19 of RIC and 18 months for network wagons in accordancewith Article 18 of RIV. However, the new rule is concessionary in nature, thuspermitting retention of the current rules. Liability for damage caused by a wagon is conceived of as normal fault liability,without limitation of liability. This rule is also of a permissive nature, so that currentpractice could be continued in accordance with the so-called guarantee agreementwhen this is agreed by the parties to the contract of use. It is important to point out thatthe CUV UR only regulate liability between the parties to the contract of use of thevehicle and that liability to external third parties to whom damage is caused by such a 15
    • vehicle is of course based on the applicable national law. The possibility of subrogation, which is expressly made available, i.e. in a legalrelationship, one person is substituted for another for the purpose of enabling the firstperson to exercise, wholly or partly, the rights of the second person, will continue toallow the "channelling" of rights, which is currently guaranteed by Article 12 § 6 of RIP. The provision that actions in respect of liability on whatever grounds against therail transport undertaking to which the wagon was provided for use as a means oftransport will only be brought under the conditions and limitations laid down in theCUV UR and the contract of use is intended to avoid circumvention of the limitationsby the validation of (higher) actions in tort and the associated difficulties. The courts or tribunals designated by agreement between the parties to the contractwill constitute the forum. Otherwise, the competent courts or tribunals will be those ofthe Member State where the defendant has his place of business. If the defendant hasno place of business in a Member State, the competent courts or tribunals will be thoseof the Member State where the loss or damage occurred. The period of limitation for claims for damages in the case of loss of, or damage toa wagon or in the case of damage caused by a wagon will be three years.8. Uniform Rules concerning the Contract of Use of Infrastructure in International Rail Traffic (CUI – Appendix E to the Convention) These Uniform Rules apply to every contract of use of railway infrastructure forthe purpose of performing international carriage by rail within the meaning of the CIVUniform Rules and the CIM Uniform Rules. They apply regardless of the place ofbusiness and nationality of the contracting parties. These Uniform Rules also applywhen the railway infrastructure is managed or used by States or by governmentalinstitutions or organisations. The CUI UR are concerned only with regulating the contractual relationships,particularly liability, between the rail infrastructure manager and the carrier. They alsoregulate actions brought by the servants of the infrastructure manager or of the carrieragainst the other party, in each case, to the contract of use, even though these servantshave no contractual relationships with the other party to the contract of use. Incontrast, the CUI UR do not apply to other legal relations, such as, in particular,liability of the carrier or the manager to their servants and other persons whoseservices they make use of to accomplish their tasks. Neither do they apply to theliability to each other of the carrier or the manager on the one hand or to third partieson the other. Any State may, at any time, declare that it will not apply to victims of accidentsoccurring in its territory the whole of the provisions concerning liability in case ofbodily loss or damage when the victims are nationals of, or have their usual place ofresidence in, that State. The manager is liable for bodily loss or damage (death, injury or other physical ormental harm) and for loss of, or damage to property (destruction of, or damage tomovable or immovable property) and for pecuniary loss resulting from damages 16
    • payable by the carrier under the CIV UR or the CIM UR. This is a matter of strictcausal liability: it is sufficient that the carrier or his servants suffered the damageduring use of the infrastructure and the damage was caused by the infrastructure. Thisstrict causal liability is relieved by grounds for exoneration which, in case of bodilyloss or damage, are modelled on the grounds for exoneration of the CIV UR and incase of damage to property, are modelled on those of the CIM UR, but withoutprivileged grounds for exoneration. The carrier is also liable for bodily loss or damage (death, injury or any otherphysical or mental harm) and for loss of, or damage to property (destruction of, ordamage to movable or immovable property), but he is not liable for purely pecuniaryloss. This liability is also strict (causal) liability, for which it is sufficient that thedamage is caused by the carrier, by the means of transport used by him, by personscarried by him or by goods carried during use of the infrastructure. Strict causalliability is also subject to grounds for exoneration here, in accordance with the CIVUR or CIM UR system. The infrastructure manager and the carrier are liable for their auxiliaries, i.e. forservants and other persons they use to carry out the contract, provided these servantsand other persons are "acting in the performance of their tasks". The form (compensation in the form of a lump sum or an annuity) and the amountof damages to be awarded in case of death and personal injury to passengers aredetermined in accordance with national law. However, for the purpose of applying theCUI UR, a minimum upper limit per person of 175,000 units of account has been set,where national law provides for a lower upper limit. The rule on the three year period of limitation is mandatory; it runs from the daywhen the loss or damage occurred. In case of death of persons the period runs from theday the death occurred, but does not exceed five years from the day after the day of theaccident, and this is strict. Actions may be brought before the courts or tribunals of the Member Statesdesignated by agreement between the parties to the contract. Otherwise, the competentcourts or tribunals will be those of the Member State where the infrastructure managerhas his place of business. Agreements to settle are permitted: the contracting parties may agree theconditions under which they will enforce their claims for compensation against theother contracting party or will waive their right to enforce them. They may concludeagreements on contractual compensatory damages or the sharing of damages. This canbe a means of avoiding long and costly investigations into the causes of damage whichwould disrupt operations and of avoiding difficult, long and expensive litigation.9. Uniform Rules concerning the Validation of Technical Standards and the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions applicable to Railway Material intended to be used in International Traffic (APTU – Appendix F to the Convention) Appendices F (APTU) and G (ATMF, see item 10) together form the COTIFRules for Approval, in which the APTU Annexes constitute a "receptacle" for the 17
    • requisite set of technical specifications and provisions, which are mandatory for theuniform official technical approval procedure in accordance with ATMF. The APTU UR distinguish between, on the one hand, the drafting of uniformtechnical provisions and technical standards and, on the other, validation. The draftingof technical standards (standardization) must not and cannot come within the remit ofOTIF. They must continue to be drafted in the existing standardization bodies (CEN,CENELEC, ETSI, etc.). The principle purpose of the APTU UR is to regulate how the technical standards andother uniform technical provisions drafted by the standardization bodies can be validatedfor the Member States of OTIF and incorporated into the Annexes to the APTU UR. Thetechnical standards and uniform technical provisions incorporated into the Annexes formthe material basis for the construction and operation or use of railway material and theapproval procedure in accordance with the ATMF UR. The APTU UR should therebycreate the conditions necessary for the uniform regulation of the procedure for thetechnical approval of vehicles and other railway material (see section 10). The aim is to facilitate the flexible use of railway equipment in internationaltransport between the Member States of OTIF and to support interoperability of thetechnical systems and components necessary for international rail transport. Validatedtechnical standards and uniform technical provisions should also contribute toensuring safety, reliability and availability in international transport and to takeaccount of environmental and public health interests. Any Contracting State, a regional economic integration organisation which hascompetence to legislate in the field of technical standards and technical provisionsrelating to railway material (i.e. the European Community) and any representativeinternational association (e.g. UIC) may make a proposal for validation. National orinternational standardization bodies may also make proposals for the validation of atechnical standard. The APTU UR create for the rail sector a similar basis as the Geneva Agreement of1958 concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles,equipment and parts and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals. On the one hand, validated technical standards and adopted uniform technicalprovisions are to replace the International Convention on the Technical Unity ofRailways of 1882/1938, and on the other, they are to replace various technicalprovisions of the RIV and RIC and UICs technical leaflets. On 6 October 1999, the EU Council requested the European Commission topropose a strategy to improve the interoperability of rail transport. Directive2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning theinteroperability of the conventional trans-European rail system was adopted on 19March 2001. It entered into force on the day it was published in the EC OfficialJournal on 20 April 2001. In this field, there are therefore areas of overlap with theAPTU UR and the ATMF UR. The Secretariat of OTIF has been in discussions with the European Commission 18
    • for a considerable period - and still is - to ensure a harmonized approach and to avoidcontradictions and duplication between the systems. In principle, the European"Technical Specifications for Interoperability" (TSI) and provisions relevant to safetyshould be incorporated into the Annexes to the APTU UR. However, as the TSI set a very high technical standard, it is necessary in validatingthe APTU Annexes to develop differentiations, particularly with a view to thecrossover points beyond the EC area and the COTIF area, where the specialagreements used in RID can serve as an example. COTIF 1999 makes available instruments suitable for avoiding conflictingstandards between the COTIF and Community law. In addition, the ECs accession toCOTIF will secure for the EC appropriate opportunities for working together in OTIFsstandard setting process.10. Uniform Rules concerning the Technical Admission of Railway Material used in International Traffic (ATMF – Appendix G to the Convention) The technical approval of rail vehicles and other railway material, the aim ofwhich is primarily to ensure traffic safety – and not just within the Member States ofOTIF – is predominantly a sovereign task (state or at least public) which is partiallyentrusted to private companies (e.g. manufacturers). Technical approval is documentedin official certificates. Frequently, the authorities responsible for approval also act astechnical supervision authorities, who either themselves conduct the periodicinspections of the safety of vehicles required by law, or else supervise them. This taskmay in part be entrusted to private agencies (e.g. technical inspection centres). Forhistorical reasons, the technical approval of rail vehicles was and still partly isperformed by the railways themselves. For reasons of European competition lawalone, this special legal situation in the rail sector cannot be maintained indefinitely, atleast not for a large number of the Member States of OTIF. OTIFs 5th General Assembly in Vilnius 1999 therefore decided to regulate atinternational level, uniformly and bindingly, the basis for a new system for thetechnical approval of rail vehicles to operate in international transport and the basis forthe system of technical provisions for construction and operation which form the basisfor approval. Accordingly, the ATMF UR contain the principles, objectives andprocedures of the technical approval of rail vehicles mutually recognised between the42 Member States of OTIF. The uniform technical provisions concerning the construction and operation ofvehicles and of infrastructure contained in the Annexes to the APTU UR willconstitute the basis of technical approval. Compliance with these provisions isnecessary to render possible competitive international rail traffic without beingcompelled to change traction vehicles, change gauge or axles, carry out transhipmentor change trains at changeover points from one network to another. The ATMF UR set out the procedure for approving rail vehicles and other railwaymaterial for use in international transport. According to ATMF, all rail vehicles are tobe issued with an international, mutually recognized approval if they satisfy thestandards and provisions contained in APTU. However, for existing vehicles which 19
    • are already internationally approved, e.g. RIV or RIC marked vehicles, a simplifiedCOTIF approval procedure should be provided, also possibly with no new approvalprocedure for those States/lines where they are already approved. Technical approval is the task of the national (or in future, if necessary, theinternational) authorities competent in the matter in accordance with the laws andprovisions in force in each Contracting State. These authorities may also transfer thetask of technical approval to suitable bodies, including undertakings, on condition thatthe authorities supervise them. The creation of monopolies amongst competingundertakings is prohibited. Technical approval may be carried out either by granting an "admission tooperation" to a given individual rail vehicle, or in two stages, by granting an"admission of a type of construction" for a given design type, followed by an"admission to operation" for individual vehicles corresponding to this type ofconstruction, i.e. by means of a simplified procedure. Technical approval by the competent authority or by a body of a Contracting Statemust be recognized by the authorities, rail transport undertakings and infrastructuremanagers in the other Contracting States without the need for another inspection andtechnical approval. Technical approval must be demonstrated by certificates complying with auniform model which must contain all the technical characteristics necessary toidentify the vehicle type or the vehicle. Technical approval, whether in the form of the"admission of a type of construction" or in the form of the "admission to operation",constitutes "ad rem" approval, i.e. the approval relates to a specific vehicle (or vehicleconstruction) and not, for example, to a specific vehicle keeper. An authority, rail transport undertaking or infrastructure manager of another Statemay only immobilize or reject vehicles if the ATMF UR, APTU UR or theconstruction and operation provisions contained in the Annex to RID have not beencomplied with. A data bank concerning rail vehicles approved for international transport will beset up under the responsibility of OTIF. What was said concerning the APTU UR also applies to the ATMF UR, as the ECand hence the European Commission has exclusive competence in this field as well. TheSecretariat of OTIF is in discussions with the European Commission to ensure aharmonized approach and to avoid contradictions and duplication between the systems.IV. Concluding remark In conclusion, it can be said that the 1999 Vilnius Protocol will broaden the tasksand activities of OTIF such that this Organisation will, in the long term, be able todevelop in accordance with the example of the International Maritime Organisation(IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) to become anintergovernmental organisation for the rail mode which will be competent at Statelevel for all matters concerning this mode of transport. @@@ @@@ @@@ 20