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Presentation given by Dr. Robert Root-Bernstein - Keynote Address @ AENJ Fall Conference 2011 The Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, NJ

Presentation given by Dr. Robert Root-Bernstein - Keynote Address @ AENJ Fall Conference 2011 The Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, NJ
October 4, 2011
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    The art of_science_aenj_redacted The art of_science_aenj_redacted Presentation Transcript

    • The Art of Science Robert Root-Bernstein Department of Physiology Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48823 USA [email_address]
    • Assumptions:
      • Art education is valuable
      • Art education is grossly undervalued
      • Art education is terribly underutilized
      • Something has to change!
    • So Start At the Beginning: You Are All Art Teachers, So Let’s Begin by Looking at Some Children’s Art
    • A 6-Year Old Did a Portrait of His Father
    • This 13-Year Old Liked to Sing!
    • A 13-Year Old Drew A Self-portrait
    • While An 18-Year Old Was on His Way to Becoming a Surrealist Painter
    • Who Are (or Were) These Young People?
      • When you see unusual artistic talent among young people, what do you think?
      • Such talent should be developed because:
      • … the student should become an artist?
      • … art enriches everyone’s cultural life?
      • … art is a communication skill everyone should master?
    • The Dogma: Art for Art’s Sake
      • E.g., this policy statement from the National Association for Gifted Children on “Fine Arts Education”:
      • “ Arts education generally provides learning experiences through the art forms of music, visual art, theater, and dance. These experiences develop within students understandings of key arts principles of
        • history-with abilities to inquire into the contributions artists and art make to society and culture,
        • criticism-with abilities to make judgments about qualities and properties found in art forms,
        • aesthetics-with abilities to make personal and sound decisions about works of art, and
        • production-with abilities to participate in the arts and to produce personal works of art with skill and creativity.
      • The goal of arts education is to equip students with the knowledge and skills needed to understand and communicate clearly within their personal, community, and cultural environments. “
      • http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=388
    • None of These Child Artists Used Their Art for Any of the Purposes Just Described
      • The arts have uses that go beyond art for art’s sake
      • Arts can prepare the mind and body for success in any discipline
      • So let’s look at who these child artists became…
    • The 6 year old is me, which explains why I’m here with you today
    • The 13-Year Old Who Liked to Sing Was Barbara McClintock, Nobel Prize Winner for Genetics http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/Collection/CID/LL
    • The 13-Year Old Drew A Self-portrait Is Harold Kroto, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry http://www.kroto.info/Graphics/index.html
    • The 18-Year Old Surrealist Painter Is Desmond Morris, Professor of Zoology at Oxford University
    • Problem!
        • NOT
        • history -with abilities to inquire into the contributions artists and art make to society and culture,
        • criticism -with abilities to make judgments about qualities and properties found in art forms,
        • aesthetics -with abilities to make personal and sound decisions about works of art, and
        • production -with abilities to participate in the arts and to produce personal works of art with skill and creativity
    • Utility of Art
      • Any of these scientists could have been professional artists or designers
      • Some were!
      • More importantly, each used their artistic skills and knowledge to be a better scientist
      • The SKILLS and PROCESSES of art were relevant to these individuals throughout their professional lives
      • The ARTS were (and are) USEFUL to them!
    • Compare Arts With Language and Math
      • Language arts and mathematics dominate education for two reasons:
        • 1) They are necessary for learning other subjects
          • We do not teach English to produce more poets
          • We do not teach math to produce more mathematicians
        • 2) They are what we test for
          • Math and language skills correlate with success in all disciplines
      • The Arts must similarly justify themselves if they wish to compete in the curriculum
      • In part an aesthetic argument:
        • Art that makes no connections to other art….
        • Disciplines that make no connections to other disciplines…
    • A Solution
      • Demonstrate that the Arts are also necessary for learning other subjects
      • Demonstrate that the Arts teach special skills and knowledge not available from math and languages
      • Demonstrate that the Arts foster creativity
      • Demonstrate that these outcomes are measurable and testable
    • Arts Improve SAT Scores (2008) More Than Science or Computer Classes! See also: James Catterall: Involvement in the Arts and Success in Secondary School. Washington D. C.: Americans for the Arts. Monograph Series V. 1, No. 9, January 1998. READING MATH WRITING TOTALS TOT DIFFS averages 503 519 497 1519 ART 4 YEARS 540 543 533 1616 +97 ART 3 YEARS 511 516 504 1531 +12 ART 2 YEARS 506 517 499 1522 3 ART 1 YEAR 498 515 491 1504 -15 NO ART 474 496 466 1436 -93 computer programming 509 534 500 1543 24 no computer class 511 521 507 1539 20 geology/earthsci 497 505 487 1489 -30 biology 507 519 500 1526 5 SCIENCE 4 YEARS 527 540 519 1586 +67
    • Visual Thinking Training Improves Science and Engineering Ability
      • T. R. Lord, J. Res. Sci. Teach. 22, 395 (1985).
      • J. A. Deno, Eng. Design Graphics J., 5 (autumn, 1995).
      • S. A. Sorby, B. G. Baartmans, Eng. Design Graphics J. 60, 13 (1996).
      • M. Alias, T. R. Black, D. E. Grey, Inter. Ed. J. 3, 1 (2002).
      • S. Sorby, Cogn. Proc. 10 (suppl. 2), S312,
      • 10.1007/s10339-009-0310-y (2009 ).
      • S. Ainsworth, V Prain, R. Tytler. Drawing to learn in science. Science 333, 1096-1097 (2011)
    • Adult Avocations Correlate with Scientific Success
      •  
      • Compared with typical scientist, Nobel laureates are:
      • 2X photographers
      • 4X musicians
      • 17X artists
      • 15X craftsmen
      • 25X writers
      • 22X performers
      • Root-Bernstein RS, et al., Arts Foster Success: Comparison of Nobel Prizewinners, Royal Society, National Academy, and Sigma Xi Members. Journal of the Psychology of Science and Technology 2008; 1(2):51-63.
    • Robert R. Wilson, Physicist
      • Wilson (NAS) designed and invented cyclotrons:
      • “ In designing an accelerator I proceed very much as I do in making a sculpture. I felt that just as a theory is beautiful, so, too, is a scientific instrument --or that it should be. The lines should be graceful, the volumes balanced. I hoped that the chain of accelerators, the experiments, too, and the utilities would all be strongly but simply expressed as objects of intrinsic beauty” (Wilson, 1992, p. [website, not paginated]).
      • “ One thing is clear: it is that there is much in common between what the creative artist does and what the scientist does” (Wilson, 1978, p. [website, not paginated).
      • Images and essays from which quotes are drawn at http://history.fnal.gov/
      • See in particular “Starting Fermilab” and “Golden Books”
    • Eric Heller, Harvard Physicist/Chemist Heller has made several scientific breakthroughs through his visual art: “ Through art one can sometimes get straight to the essence of the matter and almost get an intuitive comprehension that might otherwise take years of study.” (Dreifus, 2002, 2)
    • Continuous Arts Participation Correlates with STEM Innovation Data from Root-Bernstein, et al, ongoing research. Additional data in   Lamore, et al., ArtSmarts and Innovators in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): http://www.ced.msu.edu/techresearchreports2010.html
    • Does your avocation or hobby – or the skills, knowledge, esthetic, social contacts, creative practices, or just plain perseverance that you have gained from it – play any role in your current vocation?
      • 36 Respondents:
      • Yes/Certainly: 21 (58.3%) Maybe: 5 (13.9%) No: 10 (27.8%)
      • “ Certainly. These hobbies have assisted with problem solving when resources are scarce or different. In cooking for example we often encounter the need to improvise when ingredients are scarce or unavailable.”
      • “ Quilting is a great way to use creativity and analytical thinking to solve problems and create something that is aesthetically appealing. It helps me lower my stress level, and likely improves my creativity in my current vocation.”
      • “ I use some of my skills from drawing for creating stimuli for experiments. Experience with visual composition helps to create good diagrams and presentations.”
      • Lamore, et al., ArtSmarts and Innovators in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): http://www.ced.msu.edu/techresearchreports2010.html
    • Would you recommend arts and crafts education as a useful or even essential background for a scientific or engineering innovator?
      • 36 Respondents:
      • Yes/Absolutely: 29 (80.6%) Maybe: 5 (13.9%) No: 2 (5.6%)
      • “ Yes, expands horizons and helps to think outside the box.”
      • “ Yes, allows you to explore materials in a different way, figure out how to put things together, try to do things differently.”
      • “ Yes. Not necessarily a ‘curriculum’, but the chance to dabble and see how things work together. After these many years in the classroom, I see those that have music and arts background seem to do very well in physics and often times head to engineering careers.”
      • Lamore, et al., ArtSmarts and Innovators in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): http://www.ced.msu.edu/techresearchreports2010.html
    • Root-Bernstein Blog
      • For additional studies and examples (as well as some images, see our website:
      • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/imagine
      Imagine That! Annals of Ordinary and Extraordinary Genius by Michele and Robert Root-Bernstein
    • In Sum, Successful Scientists Have More Skills Associated With Making And Communicating
      • Musical scientists duet (and do it) better
      • Artistic scientists have more image to their imagination
      • Crafty scientists are more handy
      • Literary scientists have the making of pundits
      • And performing scientists perform better
    • Adding ARTS to STEM to Give them STE A M! Harvey White, Qualcomm Founder RISD President John Maeda
    • STEAM Not New: Robert Fulton: Painter-Inventor
      • Cut-away diagram of steam boat
      • Fulton Self-Portrait
    • Samuel Morse: Painter-Inventor
    • George Washington Carver
    • HOW Are Arts Useful to Scientists and Engineers?
    •  
    • Pasteur Made First Discovery as Undergraduate Studying Tartaric Acid Crystals
    • Portraitists Are Taught to Look for Facial Asymmetries
    • Pasteur Discovered Crystals Came in Mirror Image Forms!
    •  
    • MITCHELL FEIGENBAUM: Inventor of Mathematics of Chaos Theory
      • “ It’s abundantly obvious that one doesn’t know the world around us in detail. What artists have accomplished is realizing that there’s only a small amount of stuff that’s important and then seeing what it was. So they can do some of my research for me.”
      • Gleick, James. 1984. “Solving the mathematical riddle of chaos”, NY Times Magazine , 10 June 1984, p. 71
    •  
    • Harold Kroto and Buckminsterfullerene http://www.kroto.info/ImageBank/HWKphotos/ESussex/index.html
    •  
    • Desmond Morris’ “The Entomologist” (courtesy of Desmond Morris) (Becoming a bug to understand it!)
    • McClintock spoke of “A Feeling for the Organism” & “Becoming their Friend”
      • Synosia: Pulling All the Tools Together Into a Single Toolkit
    • Synosia: The Aim of All Education
      • Synosia = synaesthesia (combining the senses) + gnosis (knowledge)
      • i.e., a combination of subjective and objective understanding
      • One feels what one knows and one knows what one feels
      • Therefore, aesthetics is a unique way of knowing!
    • Fauvism as an Aesthetic
      • Made Possible False-Colored Satellite Images
    • SEURAT and the Pointillistes Made Possible the Pixels in a CRT Screen; Complementary-Colored Dots in Color Blindness Tests
    • Made Possible the Pixels in a CRT Screen; Complementary-Colored Dots in Color Blindness Tests
    • And Synosia Makes The Chip Possible: This Is Art As Everything!
      • Logic embodied as PATTERNS
      • Thinking reified in 2-DIMENSIONS
      • Fabricated using ARTISTIC METHODS:
      • Silk Screening and Etching
      • If you can’t FEEL the flow of electrons and logical operations,
      • If you can’t TRANSLATE them into IMAGES,
      • You can’t participate in the electronic revolution!
    • TRANSFER: Requires a Common Transdisciplinary Languages and Processes: e.g. Root-Bernstein and Root-Bernstein, SPARKS OF GENIUS , 1999 .
    • Use of “Tools for Thinking” By Scientists and In High School Science Textbooks Root-Bernstein, et al., ongoing research at Michigan State University
    • Why We Are Losing the Innovation Race
      • Our scientists are teaching students to try to create and innovate with logic
      • Logic can prove but never invent
      • Thus, our scientists are producing students illiterate in the language and skills of creativity
      • The arts are the key!
    • It Comes Down To the Question of What Is “Knowledge”?
      • Not All Knowledge is Quantitative
      • Some Is Qualitative:
        • Skills
        • Techniques and Methods
        • Problem Generation and Definition
        • Processes
        • Connectivity
        • Structures
        • Analogies
        • Abstractions
        • Models
      • Artists Have This Kind of Knowledge!
      • What Artists Have to Offer Scientists: Root-Bernstein, et al., ongoing research at Michigan State University
    • The “Tools for Thinking” Taught By Scientists Are INSUFFICIENT!
    • Science In The Making Is More Like Art In the Making Than It Is the So-Called “Scientific Method” This was argument of my book Discovering (Harvard Univ. Press, 1989) So scientists have to meet you artists half way by recognizing common skills and ways of thinking!!! Best scientists recognize this explicitly:
    • MITCHELL FEIGENBAUM: Inventor of Mathematics of Chaos Theory
      • “ It’s abundantly obvious that one doesn’t know the world around us in detail. What artists have accomplished is realizing that there’s only a small amount of stuff that’s important and then seeing what it was. So they can do some of my research for me.”
      • Gleick, James. 1984. “Solving the mathematical riddle of chaos”, NY Times Magazine , 10 June 1984, p. 71
    • Remember Robert R. Wilson, Physicist Who Sculpts Accelerators?
      • Wilson (NAS) designed and invented cyclotrons:
      • “ In designing an accelerator I proceed very much as I do in making a sculpture. I felt that just as a theory is beautiful, so, too, is a scientific instrument --or that it should be. The lines should be graceful, the volumes balanced. I hoped that the chain of accelerators, the experiments, too, and the utilities would all be strongly but simply expressed as objects of intrinsic beauty” (Wilson, 1992, p. [website, not paginated]).
      • “ One thing is clear: it is that there is much in common between what the creative artist does and what the scientist does” (Wilson, 1978, p. [website, not paginated).
    • Eric Heller, Harvard Physicist/Chemist Who Discovers through Art? Heller has made several scientific breakthroughs through his visual art: “ Through art one can sometimes get straight to the essence of the matter and almost get an intuitive comprehension that might otherwise take years of study.” (Dreifus, 2002, 2)
      • "The greatest scientists are artists as well” … "If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music...."
      • Albert Einstein , Nobel Prize, Physics, 1921
      • Violinist and Pianist
      • In: The Expanded Quotable Einstein , 2000, pp. 155, 245.
    • “ The creative scientist needs… an artistic imagination” Max Planck , Nobel Prize, Physics, 1919 Pianist In: Autobiography ,1949, p. 14
    • Sir Lawrence Bragg, Nobel Prize, Physics,1915: Painter and Modeler
      • “ The training of our physicists is literally too academic.” He went on to argue for the value of arts and sciences in making scientific training practical
      • (Bragg WL. 1942. Physicists after the war. Nature 150, 75-79)
      • “ Over the years that I was active in science, I saw a great commonality in the creative impulse – in the artist’s impulse and the scientist’s….”
      • Wally Gilbert, Nobel Prize, Chemistry, 1958 Photographer
      • in Rick Mullin, “Wally Gilbert. A biotechnology pioneer takes on the big picture,” Chemical and Engineering News, 2 Oct 2006, p. 36.
      Wally Gilbert photographs at http://wallygilbert.artspan.com /
      • Mae Jamison
      • Astronaut, physician, Chem E. major, dancer, choreographer, and art collector.
      • “ Science and the arts … are [not] different sides of the same coin, or even different parts of the same continuum, but rather they are different manifestations of the same thing.” (TED Talk)
    • Back to the NECESSITY of Adding ARTS to STEM to Give them STE A M! Harvey White, Qualcomm Founder RISD President John Maeda
    • N.B.: Same Argument for Utility of Arts for Writing
    • Arts are the 4 th “R” !
    • 8 Classroom Strategies for an Arts-Focused, Trans-Disciplinary Education
      • Teach the creative process
      • Teach imaginative tools for thinking
      • Place arts on a par with sciences
      • Use common, cross-disciplinary language
      • Emphasize trans-disciplinary skills & transfer
      • Teach using exemplary people
      • DOESN’T CHANGE WHAT YOU TEACH, BUT HOW!
    • In Conclusion: A Story about the importance of the individual as an inspirer
    • T H A N K Y O U !