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Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
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Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton

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  • 1. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |1 Species diversity and distribution of freshwater phytoplankton in Lembaga Air Kawasan Utara (LAKU) Bintulu, SarawakNadthikphorn A/P KampholDiploma in fisheriesDepartment of Animal Science and Fishery,Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences,Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus,Nyabau Road, P.O.Box 396,97008 Bintulu,Sarawak, Malaysia.AbstractThe phytoplankton of the lakes or reservoir consists of a diverse assemblage of nearly all majortaxonomic groups. On 30th Jun 2011, we studied the freshwater phytoplankton species diversityand distribution in Lembaga Air Kawasan Utara (LAKU) Bintulu, Sarawak. The population ofphytoplankton in Lembaga Air Kawasan Utara (LAKU) Bintulu, Sarawak can be composed of sixmajor phylum namely chlorophyta, bacillariophyta, myxophyta, euglenophyta, chrysophyta, anddinophyta. In different places, there is different dominant group of phytoplankton were present.This is due to the parameter of the water in the location. The algal communities have theirhabitat or ecological preferences along the environmental gradients that are vertically stratified.The phytoplankton distribution also affected by the chemical and parameter of water such astemperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), turbidity, total dissolve solid (TDS), conductivity, pH,chlorophyll-a, ammonia-N, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate.Keyword: Reservoir; Freshwater; Phytoplankton; Water quality; Sarawak INTRODUCTIONThe plankton occurs in all natural waters approach that share common attributessuch as lake, freshwater, pond, reservoir, (Reynolds, 1997).river and etc. Plankton can divide intophytoplankton and zooplankton. The environmental variables such asPhytoplankton are autotrophs and belonging temperature, pH and phosphate play ato first trophic level. Lake and reservoirs decisive role in altering the phytoplanktoncontain phytoplankton species or groups density. (Maher R.k and Singh Beena, 2009).
  • 2. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |2The control of phytoplankton growth is dissolve oxygen (DO), turbidity, total dissolvemainly related to the availability of light and solid (TDS), conductivity, pH, chlorophyll-a,nutrients (Vanessa et.al, 2010). ammonia-N, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate.According to S.Soyupak et.al (1996), The species abundance at different depthsdifferent sections of the reservoir have varied considerably (Raof et.al, 2010).different trophic status and the upper According to S.Soyupak et.al (1996),portion of the reservoir, in particular, is different sections of the reservoir haveeutrophic. Phytoplankton species have different trophic status and the upperdeveloped morphological and physiological portion of the reservoir, in particular, isadaptive strategies for surviving in eutrophic. The population of phytoplanktonenvironments (Margalef, 1978; Reynolds, can be composed of ten major group namely1998). Reynolds (1997) defined several chlorophyta, bacillariphyta, myxophyta,phytoplankton functional groups that may euglenophyta, xanthophyta, chrysophyta,potentially dominate or co-dominate in a cryptophyta, dinophyta, rhodophyta andgiven environment. phaeophyta.The phytoplanktons of the lakes or reservoir From this study, students are able to identifyconsist of a diverse assemblage of nearly all various populations and communities of themajor taxonomic groups. The phytoplanktons freshwater phytoplankton. Students also ablewhich are more intense are reservoir, lake to classification the freshwaterthan in rivers. Many of these forms have phytoplankton into group based on similardifferent physiological requirements and vary cell morphology and characteristic. Besidein response to physical and chemical that, students also able ot analyze theparameters such as light, temperature, pH, physical, chemical and biological in aquaticturbidity and nutrient regimen. The physical ecosystems relating to the species diversityand chemical variables were temperature, and abundance of freshwater phytoplankton. MATERIAL AND METHODSDescription of the Reservoir and Sampling SitesLembaga Air Kawasan Utara (LAKU) Bintulu This reservoir was created to supply theSarawak is located in latitudes 3°12’37”N water to all Bintulu residents.and 113°6’27”E in the state of Sarawak,Malaysia.
  • 3. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |3 Water samples Water samples were collected in 250ml bottles. In the field, water chemistry data, such as pH, dissolved oxygen and secchi transparency were collected. Temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolve solid, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity were measure by using multiparameter. The depth of water was measure by using depth reader. For the water chemical such as nitrate,Figure 1: the map of Lembaga Air Kawasan phosphate, nitrite, phosphorus wereUtara (LAKU) Bintulu, Sarawak. measured in the laboratory by using(http://www.lakumanagement.com.my) spectrophotometer hatch kit.Sampling procedure Identification and counting of algaeSampling site is divided into 4 different The phytoplankton were routinely examinedstations. The phytoplankton was taken by and counted with a compound microscopeusing the size 80 µm of plankton net in depth using 100x, 400x and 1000x magnifications7-10m. All the samples were preserved in 10% with oil immersion field objective lenses.formalin solution for taxonomical study. The Books and website from internet were usedabundance of phytoplankton was calculated for the identification.under the microscope. RESULTS Water QualityThe water quality data is listed in the Table 1. turbidity which is 23.3667 NTU. TheIn all 4 stations, the pH water is in between temperature is around 30°C in all stations.range 6.7 to 7.6. Station 4 is the highest
  • 4. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |4Table 1: The water quality data collected in the sampling site. Station 1 2 3 4 Time 9.38 a.m. 10.20 a.m. 11.10 a.m. 12.00 p.m. pH 7.28 7.13 6.76667 7.6 Cond.(ms/m) 2.83333 2.86667 2.86667 2.96667 Turb.(NTU) 14.5333 7.46667 5.33333 23.3667 Temp.(oC) 30.0333 30 30.1333 29.9 depth meter (m) 9.9 15.9 13.7 17.6 secchi disc (cm) 136 148 140 120According to the figure 2, the content of DO reading and Temperature readingdissolve oxygen and temperature of water isinversely proportional to the depth of water.The deeper the water, the lower thetemperature, the lower the dissolve oxygencontain in the water.The water is getting colder if increase thedepth of water. The temperature of water Depth (m)can affect the content of dissolve oxygen inwater. Temperature influences the solubilityof oxygen and the percentage of un-ionizedammonia in water.This may affect the distribution ofphytoplankton. There is a lot ofphytoplankton at the surface of watercompare to the middle area of water level.Diatoms grows best at temperature of 15-25°C, green algae at 25-35°C and blue algaeat 30-40°C. Figure 2: The graph of dissolve oxygen (DO) and temperature based on the depth of water
  • 5. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |5 Phytoplankton Species DiversityIn the reservoir of Lembaga Air Kawasan However, according to table 2, the phylum ofUtara (LAKU) Bintulu, Sarawak, the species dinophyta and bacillariophyta are the mostcan be found are in phylum bacillariopyta, type of phytoplankton which is present in allchlorophyta, euglenophyta, chrysophyta, stations of sampling site.myxophyta and dinophyta. In each station,there is different of phytoplankton present.Table 2: The types of species phytoplankton appear in each station.Phylum/Division Species DescriptionChlorophyta Pediastrum sp. This chlorophyta is the green algae. Botryccoccus sp. These species appear in station 2, station 3 Volvox sp. and station 4. They are an extremely large and morphologically diverse group of algae that is almost totally freshwater in distribution.Euglenophyta Euglena acus The Euglena acus species is only found in station 4. This euglenopytes is taken by using the patalas in depth 1m of water. It contains the green pigment chlorophyll and single-celled organisms found in the freshwater.Chrysophyta Dinobryon spp. Found in station 2, station 3 and station 4. Dinobryon spp. can cause taste and odor problems.Bacillariophyta Pelogloea bacillifera Pelogloea bacillifera was found in all stations. It was appear more than hundred numbers in 1ml of water sample. Many minute bacilliform cells crowded in mucilageMysophyta Spirulina salsa Spirulina salsa is belong to group mysophyta were only found in station 4. It is spirally coiled unicells. Spirulina salsa may become very long and
  • 6. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |6 appear as filaments.Dinophyta Peridinium pusillum Cell body covered with theca; cingulum (horizontal groove) and sulcus (vertical groove) consipicuous. Body round to polygonal; cingulum median.Figure 3: The species appear in sampling site. a. Pediastrum sp. b. Botryoccoccus sp. c.Volvox sp.d.Euglena acus e.Dinobryon spp. f.Pelogloea bacillifera g. Spirulina salsa h.Peridinium pusillum
  • 7. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |7 Species Distribution of PhytoplanktonThe population of phytoplankton can be From the table 3, the species ofcomposed of ten major phylum namely phytoplankton were present in all stations ischlorophyta, bacillariophyta, myxophyta, belong to phylum dinophyta, which iseuglenophyta, xanthophyta, chrysophyta, Peridinium pusillum and phylumcryptophyta, dinophyta, rhodophyta and bacillariophyta, which is Pelogloea bacillifera.phaeophyta. However, in Lembaga Air In station 4, there is 6 phylum ofKawasan Utara (LAKU) Bintulu, Sarawak, phytoplankton present which is chlorophyta,there are six phylum present. There are bacillariophyta, myxophyta, euglenophyta,chlorophyta, euglenophyta, chrysophyta, chrysophyta and dinophyta.bacillariophyta, mysophyta and dinophyta. Indifferent places, there is different dominantspecies of phytoplankton were present.Table 3: Species of phytoplankton was present. Station 1 2 3 4 Phylum/Division Species Chlorophyta Pediastrum sp. + - + + Botryccoccus sp. - - - + Volvox sp. - ++ ++ + Euglenophyta Euglena acus - - - + Chrysophyta Dinobryon spp. - ++ ++ ++ Bacillariophyta Pelogloea bacillifera ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ Mysophyta Spirulina salsa - - - + Dinophyta Peridinium pusillum +++ +++ +++ +++ Total species of phytoplankton was present in each station 3 4 5 8- not present, + less than 50, ++ more than 50, +++ more than 10,000, ++++ more than 100,000
  • 8. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |8 DISCUSSION (Othman et.al, 2007). The DO in the lake water was correlated with pH and also withThe species are varies in different location of chlorophyll a and negative correlated withsampling site. In station 1, there is only NH3-N and the rainfall (Othman et.al, 2007).phylum dinophyta and bacillariophyta of The main contributing factors for DO arephytoplankton found. In station 2 and station photosynthesis activities (chlorophyll a),3, there is 4 phylum group of phytoplankton seasonal variable (wet or dry) andfound, which are chlorophyta, chrysophyta, decomposition rate of organic matterbacillariophyta and dinophyta. However, (temperature and pH) (Othman et.al, 2007).station 4 has the most varies type ofphytoplankton found such as chlorophyta, Phytoplankton also can be affected by the pHeuglenophyta, chrysophyta, bacillariophyta, value of freshwater. The alkalinity of watermyxophyta and dinophyta. is seasonally variable. Alan et.al (1985) believed that during the heavy rainfall pHThere is varies species found in different has not significantly altered the bioticlocation. This is due to the parameter of the community.water in the location such as the content ofdissolve oxygen (DO) of water and the Fine particles increase the turbidity of thetemperature of water. The algal communities water and reduce light transmission and thushave their habitat or ecological preferences extinction depth sharply affecting bothalong the environmental gradients that are phytoplankton and periphyton (Alan et.al,vertically stratified. 1985). High turbidity of lake water can cause unfavorable conditions for the growth ofThe Peridinium pusillum which is belong to phytoplankton, decrease of attached algaephylum dinoflagellata found in all location in and lower radiation levels (Dokulil, 1993;sampling site. This Peridinium pusillum its Ikusima et.al, 1982).body round to polygonal; cingulum median. Itis commonly found in freshwater. Its cell CONCLUSIONbody covered with theca; cingulum(horizontal groove) and sulcus (vertical In this study, there is varies species found ingroove) consipicuous. different location. This is due to thePelogloea bacillifera also is one of dominant parameter of the water in the location. Thephytoplankton in the sampling site. It is many algal communities have their habitat orminute bacilliform cells crowded in mucilage. ecological preferences along theThere is infinity of number found in the 1 ml environmental gradients that are verticallyof water sample. stratified.Availability light and temperature affects the The population of phytoplankton in Lembagarate of photosynthesis and algal growth Air Kawasan Utara (LAKU) Bintulu, Sarawak
  • 9. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 Page |9can be composed of six major group namely Phytoplankton. Water quality and protection:chlorophyta, bacillariophyta, myxophyta, environmental aspects.Vol 31, No 6: 679-688.euglenophyta, chrysophycta, and dinophyta. LAKU Management Sdn.Bhd. 2009. Access at : http://www.lakumanagement.com.my/waterThe phytoplankton distribution also affected _supply_area.php. Access date: 18by the chemical and parameter of water such September 2011. Access time: 12.05 p.m.as temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO),turbidity, total dissolve solid (TDS), Maher R.k. Singh Beena. 2009. Diversity &conductivity, pH, chlorophyll-a, ammonia-N, seasonal fluctuation of phytoplankton innitrate, phosphate and sulphate. fresh water reservoir Ighra Gwalior (M.P.). International Research Journal. Vol 1, Issue REFERENCES 10: 51-52.Alan Austin, John Deniseger and Malcolm J.R. Margalef, R., 1978. Life-forms ofClark. 1985. Lake algal populations and phytoplankton as survival alternatives in anphysico-chemical changes after 14 years unstable environment. Acta Oceanol. 1, 493-input of metallic mining wastes. Water Res. 509.Vol 19, No 3: 299-398. Michigan Tech. 2007. Great LakeDodge. 1989. Identifying Harmful Environment Research Lab, Sea Grant LakeDinoflagellates. Access at: Network. Access at:http://botany.si.edu/references/dinoflag/Ta http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/xa/Lpolyedrum.htm. Access date: 18 Algae/Cyanophyta/Cards/Pelogloea.html.September 2011. Access time: 16.46p.m. Access date: 18 September 2011. Access time: 12.21p.m.Dokulil, M.T. (1993). Long-term nutrient Mohammad Shuhaimi-Othman, Eng. C. Lim,loading and biological response in a flood- Idris Mushrifah. 2007. Water Quality Changeswater reservoir (NEUE DONAU) in Vienna, in Chini Lake, Pahang, West Malaysia. EnvironAustria. Water Science Technology. 28. 55-63. Monit Assess. 131: 279-292.Ehrenberg. 1832. Peridinium. Access at: Ohio University. 2006. Great Lakehttp://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/pdb/images/Mas Environment Research Lab, Sea Grant Laketigophora/Peridinium/index.html. Access Network. Access at:date: 18 september 2011. Access time: 17.05 http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/p.m. Algae/Cyanophyta/Cards/Spirulina.html.I.S.Trifonova and O.A.Pavlova. 2003. Access date: 18 September 2011. Access time:Assesssment of the Trophic State of Lake 12.20p.m.Ladoga Tributaries and the Neva River by
  • 10. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANGRAPHY FMM2312 P a g e | 10Reynolds, C.S., 1997. Vegetation process in Access date: 18 September 2011. Access time:the pelagic; a model for ecosystem theory. In: 16.46 p.m.Kinne, O. (Ed.), Excellence in Ecology. ECI,Oldendorf.Reynolds, C.S., 1998. What factorsinfluencethe species composition ofphytoplankton in lakes of different trophicstatus? Hydrobiologia 369/370, 11-26.Rouf A.J.M.Abdur, Phang Siew-Moi andAmbak M.Azmi. 2010. Depth distribution andecological preferences of periphytic algae inKenyir Lake, the largerst tropical reservoir ofMalaysia. Chinese Journal of Oceanology andLimnology. Vol 28, No 4: 856-867.S.Soyupak, L.Mukhallalati , D.Yemisen ,A.Bayar and C.Yurteri ,. 1997. Evaluation ofeutrophication control strategies for theKeban Dam reservoir. Ecological Modelling.97: 99-110.Vanessa Becker, Luciono Caputo, JaimeOrdonez, Rafael Marce, Joan Armengol,Luciane O. Crossetti and Vera L.M. Huszar.2010. Driving factors of the phytoplanktonfunctional groups in a deep Mediterraneanreservoir. Water Research. 44: 3345-3354.Xinhao Wang and Zhi-Yong Yin. 1997. UsingGIS to asses the relationship between landuse and water quality at a watershed level.Environment International. Vol 23, No 1: 103-114.Y.Tsukii. 2005. Chrysophyceae:Ochromonadales: Dinobryaceae. Access at:http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/pdb/images/Heterokontophyta/Dinobryon/sp_01.html.

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